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He never more henceforth will dare set foot
In Paradise to tempt; his snares are broke:
For, though that seat of earthly bliss be fail'd, A fairer Paradise is founded now For Adam and his chosen sons, whom thou, A Saviour, art come down to re-install, Where they shall dwell secure, when time shall be, Of Tempter and Temptation without fear. But thou, infernal Serpent! shalt not long Rule in the clouds; like an autumnal star,
Or lightning, thou shalt fall from Heaven, trod down Under his feet: for proof, ere this thou feel'st Thy wound (yet not thy last and deadliest wound), By this repulse receiv'd, and hold'st in Hell No triumph: in her gates Abaddon1 rues Thy bold attempt. Hereafter learn with awe To dread the Son of God: He, all unarm'd, Shall chase thee, with the terrour of his voice, From thy demoniack holds, possession foul, Thee and thy legions; yelling they shall fly, And beg to hide them in a herd of swine,
Lest he command them down into the deep, Bound, and to torment sent before their time.— Hail, Son of the Most High, heir of both worlds, Queller of Satan! On thy glorious work Now enter; and begin to save mankind.
Thus they the Son of God, our Saviour meek, Sung victor, and, from heavenly feast refresh'd, Brought on his way with joy; he, unobserv'd, Home to his mother's house private return'd.
1 'Abaddon :' the bottomless pit.
Tragoedia est imitatio actionts serise, &c. per mlsericordlam et metum perflciens talium affectuum lustrationera.
OF THAT SORT OF DRAMATIC POEM WHICH IS CALLED
Tragedy, as it was anciently composed, hath been ever held the gravest, moralest, and most profitable of all other poems: therefore said by Aristotle to be of power, by raising pity and fear, or terror, to purge the mind of those and such like passions; that is, to temper and reduce them to just measure with a kind of delight, stirred up by reading or seeing those passions well imitated. Nor is Nature wanting in her own effects to make good his assertion: for so, in physic, things of melancholic hue and quality are used against melancholy, sour against sour, salt to remove salt humours. Hence philosophers and other gravest writers, as Cicero, Plutarch, and others, frequently cite out of tragic poets both to adorn and illustrate their discourse. The Apostle Paul himself thought it not unworthy to insert a verse of Euripides into the text of Holy Scripture, 1 Cor. xv. 33; and Parceus, commenting on the Revelation, divides the whole book, as a tragedy, into acts, distinguished each by a chorus of heavenly harpings and song between. Heretofore men in highest dignity have laboured not a little to be thought able to compose a tragedy. Of that honour Dionysius the elder was no less ambitious, than before of his attaining to the tyranny. Augustus Csesar also had begun his Ajax, but, unable to please his own judgment with what he had begun, left it unfinished. Seneca, the philosopher, is by some thought the author of those tragedies (at least the best of them) that go under that name. Gregory Nazianzen, a Father of the Church, thought it not unbeseeming the sanctity of his person to write a tragedy, which is entitled Christ Suffering. This is mentioned to vindicate tragedy from the small esteem, or rather infamy, which in the account of many it undergoes at this day with other common interludes; happening through the poet's error of intermixing comic stuff with tragic sadness and gravity; or introducing trivial and vulgar persons, which by all judicious hath been counted absurd; and brought in without discretion, corruptly to gratify the people. And though Ancient Tragedy use no prologue, yet using sometimes, in case of self-defence, or explanation, that which Martial calls an epistle; in behalf of this tragedy coming forth after the ancient manner, much different from what among us passes for best, thus much before-hand may be epistled; that Chorus is here introduced after the Greek manner, not anciently only but modern, and still in use among the Italians. In the modelling therefore of this poem, with good reason, the Ancients and Italians are rather followed, as of much more authority and fame. The measure of verse used in the Chorus is of all sorts, called by the Greeks Monostrophic, or rather Apolelymenon,1 without regard had to Strophe, Antistrophe, or Epode, which were a kind of stanzas framed only for the music, then used with the Chorus that sung; not essential to the poem, and therefore not material; or, being divided into stanzas or pauses, they may be called Allseostropha. Division into act and scene, referring chiefly to the stage (to which this work never was intended), is here omitted.
It suffices if the whole drama be found not produced beyond the fifth act. Of the style and uniformity, and that commonly called the plot, whether intricate or explicit, which is nothing indeed but such oaconomy or disposition of the fable as may stand best with verisimilitude and decorum; they only will best judge who are not unacquainted with Jischylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, the three tragic poets unequalled yet by any, and the best rule to all who endeavour to write tragedy. The circumscription of time, wherein the whole drama begins and ends, is, according to ancient rule, and best example, within the space of twenty-four hours.
1' Apolelymenon:' i. e., free from all metrical restraint.
Manoah, the Father of
Harapha, of Gath.
The Scene before the Prison in Gaza.
Samson, made captive, blind, and now in the prison at Gaza, there to labour as in a common workhouse, on a festival day, in the general cessation from labour, comes forth into the open air, to a place nigh, somewhat retired, there to sit awhile and bemoan his condition. Where he happens at length to be visited by certain friends and equals of his tribe, which make the Chorus, who seek to comfort him what they can; then by his old father Manoah, who endeavours the like, and withal tells him his purpose to procure his liberty by ransom; lastly, that this feast was proclaimed by the Philistines as a day of thanksgiving for their deliverance from the hands of Samson, which yet more troubles him. Manoah then departs to prosecute his endeavour with the Philistine lords for Samson's redemption; who in the mean while is visited by other persons; and lastly by a public officer to require his coming to the feast before the lords and people, to play or show his strength in their presence; he at first refuses, dismissing the public officer with absolute denial to come; at length, persuaded inwardly that this was from God, he yields to go along with him, who came now the second time with great threatenings to fetch him: The Chorus yet remaining on the place, Manoah returns full of joyful hope to procure ere long his son's deliverance: in the midst of which discourse an Hebrew comes in haste, confused at first, and afterward more distinctly, relating the catastrophe, what Samson had done to the Philistines, and by accident to himself; wherewith the tragedy ends.
Samson, Attendant leaving him.
A Little onward lend thy guiding hand
1 'Agonistes:' i. e., the Athlete.
For yonder bank hath choice of sun or shade:
There I am wont to sit, when any chance Relieves me from my task of servile toil, Daily in the common prison else enjoin'd me, Where I, a prisoner chain'd, scarce freely draw The air imprison'd also, close and damp, Unwholesome draught: but here I feel amends, The breath of Heaven fresh blowing, pure and sweet,
With day-spring born; here leave me to respire.— This day a solemn feast the people hold To Dagon,1 their sea-idol, and forbid Laborious works; unwillingly this rest Their superstition yields me; hence with leave Retiring from the popular noise, I seek This unfrequented place to find some ease, Ease to the body some, none to the mind From restless thoughts, that, like a deadly swarm Of hornets arm'd, no sooner found alone,
But rush upon me thronging, and present Times past, what once I was, and what am now.
O, wherefore was my birth from Heaven foretold Twice by an Angel, who at last in sight Of both my parents all in flames ascended From off the altar, where an offering burn'd
As in a fiery column charioting His God-like presence, and from some great act Or benefit reveal'd to Abraham's race 1
Why was my breeding order'd and prescrib'd
As of a person separate to God, Design'd for great exploits; if I must die Betray'd, captiv'd, and both my eyes put out, Made of my enemies the scorn and gaze; To grind in brazen fetters under task
1 'Dagon:' the idol of the Philistines, half a man and half a fish.