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is double penetrability, and to the was noted

Under-Seoretary of State for the faot that our troops had the Colonies, as being “to a 300-mile front to defend, keep order in the West, and from the Makhir coast to to provent the further advance Galadi, & very considerable of the Mullab in the East." measure of SUOOOBS was

Immediately after the action achieved. Very seldom were at Dalmadoba the Mallab gent Dervish raiding parties alsome of his Yemeni Arab lowed to gain their objective, masons to ereot forts at and on several oooasions the Shimber Berris, whence the severest punishment was meted Dervishos could dominate the out to them. To the extreme Ain valley, whiob provides the mobility, enduranoe, and galobief grazing grounds of our lantry of the Somaliland Camel friendly tribes. Six double- Corps this success was due. storied blookhouses were con- In the meantime, the civil strusted with considerable administration was far from skill, and from this strong- idle. From 1914 onwards the hold soveral successful raids interior was gradually reocouwere carried out. Operations pied. The Somali proved against the Shimber Berris himself responsive to an adposition were undertaken by ministration which was 80 the looal troops, and despite clearly bent on furthering his & stubborn resistance by the interests, and his confidence Dervish garrison, all the forts was gained to a degree which were oaptured and demolished. had never previously been The Dervishes were completely thought possible. Often dedriven out of the Ain valley, soribed as the “Irish of the and retired to their main East,” the Somali is notori. positions at Talo (the Mullah's ously difficult to handle, and headquarters) and Jidali. the evaoution of 1910 certainly

Oar precooupations else- did not decrease his truculent where daring the war pre- tendencies. Moreover, there oladed the necessary reinforce- was the Turko-German propaments and auxiliary services ganda from the neighbouring being made available for a Abyssinian province of Harrar further active offensive against to counteraot — propaganda the Darvishes, to drive them which was well oaloulated to back or to effeot their final estrange a somewhat fanatioal overthrow, and for nearly five Mohammedan people from years the local troops were on their Christian rulers. The the defensive, the objeot being various departments of governto confine the Dervishes to a ment were reorganised to deal limited area and to proteot the with ever-expanding activities; grazing grounds of the friend the local revende was quad. lies from Dorvish inoursions. rupled, and the highest effioiThe initiative thus remained enoy possible with the very with the enemy; but, despite small funds 1 available was achieved. There was a spirit Mullah of their viotory in the of enthusiasm abroad among war, and to pay their respeots the dozen oivil and politioal to him. Others, with the Oriofficers stationed in Somali-ental's native penchant for land which could not but spell flattery, suggested that they 800008s in their arduous and were the chariots of Allah diffioult task.

1 Some £50,000 annually for all civil services-i.e., staff, pensions, district administration, medical, police, prisons, customs, public works, post offices, telegraphs, education, &c.

oome to take the Mullah ap Suoh briefly was the political to heaven. However that may and military situation in Som- be, the flight failed to looate the aliland when in the autumn of haroun, the paramountnecessity 1919 His Majesty's Govern- for secreoy having prevented ment sanotioned offensive oper- any serial reconnaissanoes, ations for the following Janu. and the Mullah sat watohary, with a view to the final ing them with his Dervishes overthrow of the Dervish around him in a cirole. When power. The foroes at the dis- the machines had passed by, posal of the Proteotorate Gov- he returned to his house; but ernment for this purpose oon- no sooner had he entered than sisted of one flight of aero. news was brought that one planes (D.H. 9), Royal Air machine had returnod and was Foroe, known as “Zanit, flying very close to the haroun. the Somaliland Camel Corps, Thinking that this speedy re(700 rifles), a King's African turn indicated that the poouRifles Contingent (700 rifles), pants of the machine wished to 1st/101st Grenadiers, Indian speak with him, he left his Army (400 rifles), and his house, leaning on the arm of Majesty's ships Odin, Clio, and his unole and Prime Minister, Ark Royal.

Amir. Then the first bomb The operations commenced fell, Amir was killed, and the on the 21st January with an Mallah's garments were singed. aerial attack on the Mullah's Thus the first shot all but haroun 1 at Medishe, near ended the campaign. For the Jidali. It seems that the Der. death of the Mullah would vishes were as unaware of the have led to the immediate distermination of the Great War integration and surrender of as they were of the existence the Dorvish foroes, except, perof aviation. Many were the haps, for a few die-hards. On conjectures as to what the the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th Jan. aeroplanes might portend. A nary Medishe and the neighfew guessed the truth, but bouring fortress of Jidali were feared to oommunicate their bombed twice daily, but the guess to the Mullah, death Mullah found sanctuary in being the recognised punish- & Dave in the hills behind ment for the bearer of evil Modishe. On the 27th Janutidings. A certain Turk sug- ary he heard that the King's gested that they were a Turk- Afrioan Rifles were in possession ish or German invention from of his fort at Baran. Hig Stamboul come to tell the escape eastward into Italian

inte led to the Mallah the

1 I.e., armed encampment,

territory was thus blooked. On gested elsewhere). But on the the same day he learnt that same day, before the troops the Camel Corps had oaptured were in position, he left this his forts at Jidali. The news stronghold with a small folof these two events was the lowing. The Camel Corps first intimation he received of bivouaoked about one mile the proximity of the ground from the main Tale fortress, troops. It was surprising that the whole of which fell into our intentions were concealed the hands of the tribal levy from him so completely, and that night. By dawn, on the that his intelligence depart- next day, the Camel Corps ment failed him so dismally. had pioked up the Dervish On hearing of the fall of Baran traoks, and a hot pursuit enand Jidali, the Mallah decided sued, during whioh all the to move southwards. Two remnants of the Dervish force bandoliers were issued to every were accounted for exoept the Darvish, and instructions were Mullah himself, his eldest son, given for the paoking and a brother, and three trusty transport of the ammunition, followers. Time and again treasure, and machine - gans. small parties of Dervishes were On the 28th January, with caught up and annihilated; about 700 riflemen and all the but the Mullah, seeking safety lares and penates that he in isolation, had struok off with could master, he embarked one or two others on a line of apon his hegira. Two days his own. If & fugitive leader later the Camel Corps received is prepared to abandon his news of his flight and immedi. family, his followers, and all ately started in bot pursuit, his possessions, and seek refuge covering 150 miles in seventy- in the African bush, he becomes two hours. During the pursuit a wellnigh impossible objective and the days that followed no for a military purguit. reliable intelligence as to the The maroh of the Camel whereabouts of the Mallah Corps from Jidali to the could be obtained, although a southern border of the Prolarge number of his leaders tectorate was & magnificent and relatives and followers fell feat of endurance which deinto the hands of the troops served to be rewarded by the or the Somali irregular levy, capture of the Mullah himself. which was most ably organised Men and animals were often and commanded by a political on half rations—and towards officer, assisted by a well-known the end on no rations—for Somali native officer. On the their oamel transport had been 9th February, however, news abandoned early; but the parwas received that the Mullah suit was maintained until there was in Tale, his capital, & was nothing more to pursue. walled oitadel surmounted by Ne plus ultra. thirteen forts (constructed by The Mullah and his four or the Darvishes between 1907 five followers found their way and 1919, and not by the into unoontrolled Abyssinian Egyptians 2000 B.C., as sog. territory. Negotiations for his

fightingent, it is certainis old

The Sound him at Jit

surrender are now in progress; the story of the adventures and, if his surrender does not of a certain German named materialise, there is every rea- Emil Kirsoh (or Casson). A son to hope that he will perish mechanio by trade, he had in the continuous inter-tribal travelled extensively in South fighting in that region. In and East Africa, mending typeany event, it is certain that writers and other machines. he can never resume his old The outbreak of the Great activities in British territory. War found him at Jibouti, the His stook, whioh represents al- capital of French Somaliland. most his sole means of subsist- To avoid internment, he enoe, is ours, as is all the rest hastened to the neighbouring of his property. The whole of and neutral country of Abyshis famlly (bat two) and all sinia, where he remained his followers have deserted until August 1916. In that him, or have been killed or month he was sent to the oaptured.

Mullah's haroun at Tale by Daring the expedition many the Mohammedanised, antievidences of his atrooities were Entente, and subsequently found-at Medishe the corpse dethroned Prince of Abyssinia, of an unfortunate Dervish who Lij Yasu. It appears that he had been obained up and roast- was given to understand that ed over a slow fire, and in & he was on a five months' eonneighbouring ravine the bodies traot to make ammunition of many who, at the tyrant's and to repair the Dervish whim, had been hurled from a machine-guns and rifles, and peak to a terrible death on the that Lij Yasu was personal rooks below. There were also security for his safe return. many evidences of his organis. Whether or not he realised ing ability: orders regarding the foolbardy nature of his the defence of grazing oamps enterprise we shall never and the oare of horses which know; but, if he did not, would have done oredit to & he was very soon to be G.S.O. 1. There were signs, disillusioned. On arrival too, that he was alive to his at Tale he was given oomparative weakness, whiob quarters in the main fort, many years of attrition had where he was virtually & brought about; and it is con- prisoner. However, he imfirmed that he was plotting mediately get to work mend. last December to obtain the ing rifles and manufacturing persons of one or two British ammunition; and he received officers with a view to hold- no actual ill-treatment until ing them to ransom, and so his savage masters demanded obtaining terms which would be that he should perform imposacceptable to himself. It would sibilities - manufacture rifles be of interest to know what without material and plant, those terms would have been. And mend Maxim guns without

No account of the Mullah component parts. Then buffetwould be oomplete without ing and abuse were his let, and subsequently, when he who formed his guard were asked to be allowed to return executed as soon as his esoape to Abyssinia, on the ground was discovered. that his contraot had expired, For twenty-one years Derhis request was received not vishism has spelt economio only with threats of mutila- stagnation for Somaliland, and tion, but with actual manifesta- ruin for many of its inhabittions of the most unspeakable ants. In the Dervish area atrocities. Thus his last few of the Proteotorate and the months at Tale were all bat distriots impinging apon it no intolerable, and frequently he security for life or property oontemplated suicide. Finally, has been possible. Such money he deoided on an attempt to as has been granted from imescape. Day after day, his perial funds—in recent years shoes were filled with sand some £85,000 annually - bas to harden his feet by been expended on the mainhis devoted servant Ahmed, tenance of military forces of & native of Nyasaland, as he a magnitude whioh would have realised that his tracks would been unnecessary but for the soon be pioked up in the Dervish menace; and no money desert by the Dervishes if he has been available for the attempted to escape in Euro- establishment of adequate oompean foot-gear; and then one munications or for other denight in Jane he let himself velopment schemes. As & condown from the fort by means sequenoe, the general impresof & long rope and a grap- sion of British Somaliland is pling - iron, and working by that it is politically an uncompass, he headed for the mitigated nuisance and 600northern coast with the in- nomioally a sterile jungle in. tention of surrendering at the capable of development. If Italian port of Alula. After this false impression is now many days of wandering perpetuated, it oan only mean without food or water his that the country will continue strength gave out, and be indefinitely to be a burden on bade his faithful servant leave the British taxpayer. But if, him and make good his 68- on the other hand, the money oape if he could. Ahmed saved by the reduotion of the staggered on for another military forces, whioh is now three miles, where he found made possible by the removal water, with whioh without of the Dervish scourgo, oan be delay he returned to his made available for the developmaster, only to find him dead ment of the Proteotorate's reunder the bush where he had sources, then there is no reason left him. This story is given why Somaliland should not as related by Ahmed, and take her proper place in the subsequently confirmed by de- near future among our prossertors; and it may be re- porous and self - supporting garded as reliable. Needless Afrioan Proteotorates. to add, the eight Dervishes

D. J. JARDINE.

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