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wilt for him or his ship to main chat the scored on to the

wished to take with him, and The next day, the fouroarefully destroying all oonfi- teenth out from Arkhangel, dential documents which might the weather was olear; and be of value if by chance they though there was still a good should happen to fall into the deal of wind and an anpleasenemy's hands later on. ant amount of movement in

It was a terrible responsi- the ice, the abandonment bility for him, and he felt the was decided upon. All final abandonment of his ship as preparations were completed, only & seaman could. He and as soon as it was perhaps alone realised the risks light the accommodation-ladthey were running, and fore- der was lowered on to the saw the difficulties of the pro- ice, and the crew of over posed journey. The crew as a twenty men silently left the whole were cheerful, and wel- ship and started on their long oomed the ohange from inao- trek. The Captain, in accord. tion and anxiety from which anoe with the immemorial they had all been suffering custom of the sea, was the during the past few days. last man to leave the ship,

When the next day dawned and in a long straggling line the wind had shifted more to a course was shaped for the the northward, and dense snow distant steamer. was falling, with very rare If any of my readers have intervals. The other ship was ever seen pack - ioe, either in not in sight at all, and after reality or even on the films, waiting until nearly noon the they will have gleaned some Captain reluotantly deoided to ides of what walking on it postpone starting till next day. means even under favourable This was most unfortunate, conditions. Add to the obas all preparations had been vious difficulties & constantly made ; it was difficult to avoid moving surface due to presfeeling that bad luck was dog. sare, a thick layer of snow ging them, and a gloom was "overall” concealing holes and oast over all the ship's com- oraoks, a temperature of 50° pany.

of frost with a blinding wind, The ice commenoed paeking and remember that the men badly during the evening, were totally unprepared for several large lamps were forced an Arotio trip on the ice and right on to the weather side quite inadequately olad. of the deok, and the ship The outoome of this gallant groaned and moved oonsider. effort at self-preservation was, ably under the pressure. alas! almost a foregone oonEvery one realised that the olusion. It would be almost ship might be overwhelmed irreverent to the memories of by the ice at any time, and these brave men to attempt there was no doubt that aban- to picture this tragedy on the donment was the only possible ioe which ooourred within ten sourse, and the sooner the miles of Cape Danilov on that better.

December day in 1915. Let

ablaned and mand the slide quite

of the habits of the national Captain summoned all hands animal. The Chief Engineer and proceeded to put the was confident that she was a matter before them. He exBritish ship; in fact he was plained that the food supply sure she was a Tyne-built ship, would last little over a week, but he could not explain why and that consequently things she took no notice of any were very serious; on the other signals.

hand, there was nothing to be The whole of the next day gained by getting in a panio. was spent in endeavouring to He pointed out that they attract the stranger's attention, would have to abandon the and the boatswain rigged ap a ship very shortly; it seemed magnificent oanvas ball to use quite feasible to make their as & distant signal, but no way over the ice to the strange reply could be distinguished. ship, and in the event of their Unfortunately there was no finding she was as badly off powerful telescope on board, for food as they were themand the Captain's night glasses selves, they would just have were not sufficiently powerful to go on ashore and try and to make out anything on board make the nearest Lap settlewith any degree of acouraoy, ment. He was of opinion that bat several of the more the next day would be the sanguine among the members best day to choose, as the ships of the orew were prepared to would be as olose to each other swear that & ball had been as they were ever likely to be, hoisted at the foremast-head and delay only aggravated the just before dark.

food problem. He called for One faot, however, was a vote as to whether they patent to all: the stranger should decide to abandon the was not moving at the same ship next day or not. Nearly rate as the Sappho, and if the every one present voted tbat present rate of drift oontinued this was the best thing to do, the two ships would be as olose and the necessary preparaas they were ever likely to be tions were accordingly decided on the following day, and after upon. that they would commence to Everyone was busy until separate. The explanation for well on in the night, and this was not very difficult; the there was little sleep for any strange vessel was olose into one. Large staves of wood the land, out of the main tidal were out for each man to use stream, and not nearly 80 ex. 88 sort of alpenstooks, the posed to the drift oaused by whole of the available food the wind, which was still blow. supplies were collected and ing freshly, and the sailing divided into equal portions, directions and oharts gave the and all the available blankets, rate of the tidal stream in the canvas, &o., was made into offing as anything ap to four improvised arotio clothing. knots.

The Captain was busy colleot. After dark that evening the ing a few valuable papers he



It is said that there was a few years later and became once a Professor of History at the founders of the colony of Oxford who, when reminded Massachusetts, and there is so that the Pilgrim Fathers had much in common to the two “ landed on Plymouth Rook,” parties that we may feel justi. expressed & wish that Ply- fied in including both under mouth Rook had “landed" on the title of the “ Pilgrim them. Far be it from us to Fathers.” defend the petulance of the To begin, then, with the professor, yet it may have emigrants of the Mayflower, been in part exousable. An our great authority is the excessive and indiscriminating History of the Plymouth hero-worship—the beatification Settlers,' written by William in sermons and speeches of the Bradford, who was for many Pilgrim Fathers as persecuted years the Governor of the colony. saints and champions of re- Bradford's book is one of deep ligious freedom-may have pro- interest. We have in him a voked the outburst which we man of sincere and fervent have recorded ; and as, during piety, with a profound sense the present year, it is by no of providential guidanoe, filled means improbable that similar with unfailing faith and couroauses may lead to similar out- age. At the same time he is barsts, it may not be out of equally conspiouous for narrow place to attempt & brief and and violent prejudices. To him impartial estimate of the men the Puritans, or more especially who played such an important the "Separatists,” are the true part, though at the time it Churoh of God, and the party seemed but a humble one, in who "endeavoured to apthe history of the world three hold the right worship of God hundred years ago.

and the discipline of Christ in In the first place, however, the Church according to the it may be necessary to say a simplicity of the Gospel, and word on the term “ Pilgrim without the mixture of men's Fathers." To whom is this inventions; while the other title applied ? That it is ap- party, the episcopal, endear. plied in the first place to oured to maintain the episthose who made the famous copal dignity after the voyage in the Mayflower will popish manner, and tried not be denied, and by some it with lordly and tyrannio is oonfined to them. But there power to persecute the poor are those who would include servants of God." This is the other emigrants who went out description of the reformers at

impartiayed such a the time in who he righ

main Puritans desin Puritans. termined by Pare

Frankfort during the reign of there is one, Sorooby, where the Mary. But Bradford's book, Archbishops of York once had in spite of his prejudices, re- & country seat. At the bemains an impressive and digni- ginning of the seventeenth fied reoord of the adventures century this house was ooouand sufferings of the first pied by William Brewster, pilgrims.

formerly Secretary to DaviThe original home of these son, a Secretary of State in pilgrims is to be found in Elizabeth's reign, but now oertain villages of Lincoln- postmaster of the village. He shire, Yorkshire, and Notts was a stern Puritan, and was Here, in the reign of Eliza- in the habit of "sitting ander" beth, there had gathered Richard Clifton, rector of several “Separatist" congre- Babrook, hard by Sorooby, gations. It is necessary, of when, after the Hampton course, to distinguish between Court Conference, it was dethe “Separatists” and the termined by James and his great mass of the Puritans. advisers to enforoe "conThe Puritans desired to re- formity” far more strictly main in the National Churoh, than before. Clifton resigned but to reform it after their his living, and in 1606 became own liking: to purge it of the pastor of a little flook that superstitious ceremonies, &c.; gathered together in Brewster's but the Separatists regarded house at Sorooby. To them the Church as so completely was soon added another mintainted by the inclusion of evil ister, John Robinson, once of men in its fold, or those whom Norwich, a man of high inthey considered evil, that they telleotual and spiritual gifts, decided to "separate" them- who was destined to play no selves altogether from its small part in the proceedings of communion and to form them. the “Pilgrim Fathers." selves into select bodies of There was, however, no saints which they regarded as peace for the Sorooby oopgrethe true Church of God. Both gation, and before long they Elizabeth and James looked had determined to seek in a upon these sooieties with great foreign country the liberty suspicion and tried to suppress which they could not find at them. That they were per home. Their eyes naturally soouted sometimes with great turned towards Holland, and severity is undoubtedly true; to Holland they resolved to but it is equally true that go. But even this was not persecution was the fashion of easy, for it was illegal to leave the age, and that had the the country without & royal Separatists been in power licence, and it was only after they would have persecuted some thrilling adventures that their opponents with no less they at length found themrelentless severity.

selves in Amsterdam. There Among the Notts villages was already in Amsterdam a

tubeth and lies with greater which the heir eyes land, and i

ohuroh of Separatists whioh, America. There were two thanks to the quarrelsome companies, the Virginian and nature of Mr John Smith, who the Plymouth, concerned in had emigrated thither from American colonisation, and Gainsborough, was rent by with one of these it would be divisions, some of them of an necessary to enter into negotiunedifying character, Fearing ations. Eventually it was the to be involved in these dis- Virginian company from whom putes, Mr Robinson wisely they obtained in 1619 a patent determined to move to Leyden, which authorised them to a and in this "fair and beautiful settlement near the mouth of city of a sweet situation, made the Hudson, & patent which famous by its university," he eventually turned out to be and his friends and disciples useless. So, too, it was lived for about eleven years. necessary to win the assent Daring this period they of the King. James referred endured many privations and the case to the Arehbishop of sufferings, which they bore Canterbury and the Bishop of with courage and patience. London, and eventually the But as time went on it became permission was given. The more and more olear that Pilgrims' request for liberty the community would never of conscience in America was flourish in its present condi- not indeed formally granted, but tion. Some of their friends they were given to understand in England shrapk from join- that if they behaved well they ing a sooiety in which life was need not fear interference. The 80 difficult. As their children consent of the bishops was pergrew up also many of them haps the more readily obtained preferred to seek their fortunes as the Separatists had already elsewhere, while the "tempta- sent from Leyden “Seven tions of the city” seduced Articles," one of which disothers from the straight path. tinotly acknowledged the auThere were many complaints thority of the bishops. Their too of “Sabbath - breaking,” true attitude to the bishops which probably only meant is perhaps better revealed in that the Dutch kept Sunday a note which Bradford apin & more Christian and pended in 1646 to his History sensible fashion than the of the Plymouth Settlers':Separatists. It became clear that they must seek a new "Little did I think that country where, free from the the downfall of the Bishops perils and pollutions, they with their courts, canons, might found a new community and ceremonies had been so to the glory of God.

near when first I began these Whither, then, should they soribbled writings, this was go? The question was long about the year 1630, or that and anxiously debated. At I should have lived to see length they determined on and hear it. But it is the

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