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Recent Discoveries in Africa, common 385 | Meg Dods' Cookery goo...www.carono 468 Nancy Grieve,mmmm.

Lion Hunting-roomamarowarno.com 471 The Hill of the Minstrels ; an Ana cient Legend of Auvergne and

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. Provencegaanacommunandanarannánocomomone 402 The Life and Adventures, and Se. Works preparing for Publication.goon 473

rious Remonstrances, of a Guinea Monthly List of New Publications, 474

Woman's Smile,arman


MONTHLY REGISTER. The Guillotine ; or, the Execution

of Charlotte Corday,www..como 429 Foreign Intelligencegamomc 478 The Omen nosonomanomena

Proceedings in Parliament,moramo 487 No; I'll not stay ganunaroronarssomosomore 445

British Chroniclegumanam.mmm. 496 Notices of the System of Education Appointments, Promotions, &c.io. 500 Pursued in the University of Markets,

mana commodo consuma 504 Edinburgh, with various hints for Meteorological Table, morom.comw.cana 505

its Improvementgrammatismen 446 Agricultural Reportgaumeinimadonan ib. Morning gameswarantowane


Course of Exchangemwamawantorini 606 The Art of Visiting,

morenasonaroronoara 462 Prices of Edinburgh StockSgaminamondo ib. Madame de Genlis' Estimate of the Bankruptsarvoisundaran

anonimimmer 507 Intellect of Womengmomanom 465 Births, Martiages, Deaths....comer 509

warsoronowona 433


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* The Correspondents of the EDINBURGH MAGAZINE and LITERARY MISCELLANY are respectfully requested to transmit their Communications for the Editor to ARCHIBALD ConsTABLE & COMPANY, Edinburgh, or to Hurst, ROBINSON, & COMPANY, London ; to whom also orders for the Work should be addressed.

Printed by J. Ruthven & Son.





APRIL 1826.

RECENT DISCOVERIES IN AFRICA*. The geography of great part of the the wide and dreary desert, is al. extensive continent of Africa, it must most inconceivable; they die by hunbe confessed, after all the labour and dreds, and the road is in many places danger which have been encountered whitened with their bones. to clear it up, still remains envelop- But our knowledge of the interior ed in doubts and obscurity. Large of Central Africa is in a state of tracts of the coasts of this the most much greater imperfection than our miserable region of the earth have knowledge of its coasts. Many trabeen but partially and hastily sure vellers, who have attempted to peneveyed. Africa has few attractions to trate far into the interior, have not draw European traders to her shores; survived to communicate their disshe is so little advanced in civilizaa coveries; while of those who have, tion and the arts, that she has no- like the authors of the present volume, thing to offer to the merchant except returned to tell their tales of wonder, a few raw materials. And well it the tract of country surveyed by them would have been for her, and well has been, comparatively speaking, would it have been for the fame and limited. The obstructions of every honour of Earopean nations, if they kind, both physical, from the nature had confined their intercourse with of the climate and country, and moral, Africa to this paltry traffic. But their arising from the savage manners of visitations have been a curse and a the people, and their governments, scourge to her: they have been greatly have been so many and so great, that the cause of perpetuating, and rendere much yet remains to be done before ing still more intolerable, the savage we can fill up the immense chasm þarbarities of her ruthless tribes. We that remains in the map of Central have repeated proofs in the volume Africa. There is not a journey unbefore us that the slave-trade is one dertaken that does not entirely alter great means of keeping alive perpe- all the former maps, either by distual feuds and predatory wars among placing kingdoms and towns from the the different nations of Africa. They situation which we have been accusgo to war for the purpose of getting tomed to assign to them, or by slaves to sell to the Moors, or to the adding others not known before-or agents of European merchants on the by displacing lakes and rivers whose coasts ; and the misery and suffer- existence rested on fabulous or misining inflicted on the unfortunate terpreted information-or by adding victims, while they are driven over features of nature unknown before.

. Recent discoveries in Africa, made in the years 1822-23-24, by Major Denham, Captain Clapperton, R. N. and the late Dr Oudney; extending across the Great Desert to the tenth degree of northern latitude, and from Kouka in Bornou to Sac. katoo, the capital of the Felatah Empire. London, 1826.


3 C

Thus our travellers have discovered on an attempt to pass from Tripoli to an immense lake, called Lake Tchad, Timbuctoo, pretty nearly by the 200 miles long and 150 broad, on same route as that which Major the very spot where, according to Laing is now pursuing; and it being Arrowsmith's

the swamp or

intended that researches should be morass of Wangara is laid down, made from Bornou, as the fixed which is made to swallow up the far residence of the Consul, to the east rolling waters of the Niger. This and west, Major Denham's name Lake Tchad was surveyed accurately, was added to the expedition, and he but no such river, nor indeed any joined them at Tripoli. river of very considerable magnitude, The volume before us communi. was found to empty itself into it. cates the result of the researches of

The accounts of travellers on whose these enterprising travellers. They exrelations trust can be reposed, and perienced, as is usual with travellers who report what they have witness in these countries, many delays be ed in a quarter of the earth so little fore getting fairly on their journey. known and frequented, cannot fail to Dr Oadney and Captain Clapperton be full of interest. We have, indeed, were kept waiting at Mourzuk, been favoured with several accounts most unhealthy situation, until within the last thirty years, but a Major Denham returned to Tripoli, great part of the tract gone over by to urge the Bashaw to expedition. Major Denham and his companions The journey occupied nearly a year was ground previously untrodden by after leaving Tripoli before they ar. any European foot. Horneman had rived at Kouka, the chief city of gone over part of the journey, but Bornou : it is usually performed in his papers never were transmitted to three months. Kouka was the head this country. The accounts given in quarters of the expedition, and di. this volume of Bornou and of Soua verging from it, various excursions dan, and the surrounding districts, were made into the surrounding kingintroduce us to a country and to a doms. Major Denham accompanied a people of whom before we had no ac- slave-hunting expedition into the counts worthy of the least reliance. kingdom of Begharmi, about 300

On the death of Mr Ritchie at miles to the south. He also performMourzuk, and the return of Cap- ed another journey about 200 miles tain Lyon, our Consul at_Tripoli to the eastward ; and Dr Oudney and having represented to Earl Bathurst Captain Clapperton performed a jourthe expediency of keeping up a good ney from Mourzuk to Ghraut. They understanding with the powers in also set out from Kouka on another the interior of Africa, and that the to Sackatoo, the capital of Soudan, road from Tripoli to Bornou was on which journey Dr Oudney died. as safe and open as the road from The narratives of all these various Edinburgh to London, it was re- journeys is given in this volume, solved to send out a mission to that from which a mass of most interest quarter. The information of the ing and authentic information is to be Consul was found by our travellers gathered, as to the habits and manto be perfectly correct, and it has ners of the tribes inhabiting the difalso been verified by subsequent tra« ferent kingdoms visited. A number yellers. Dr Oudney, a naval sur- of well-executed plates, from drar. geon from this city, was strongly re- ings made on the spot, tend very commended by Dr Jamieson to the much to increase the liveliness of notice of Government as a person our ideas, as to the nature of the well qualified to undertake a journey country and its inhabitants ; though of this nature, and he was appointed they augment, to a most unattainable to proceed, in the capacity of Consul, beight, the cost of the book. An apto Bornou. He was allowed to pendix, containing documents of the take with him, as a friend and com- most curious kind, closes the volume. panion, Lieutenant Clapperton, pro. Some of these documents exhibit a moted to Captain since his return. degree of shrewdness and accuracy Captain Denham (promoted also to a in the management of business that Majority since his return) had about we did not expect to find among this time volunteered his services such a savage race.


We shall, by copious extracts, en- Nor is that the worst that sometimes bedeavour to convey to our readers falls the traveller. The overpowering efsome idea of the contents of this vo- fects of a sudden sand.wind, when nearly hume. If they wish to have a pic- at the close of the desert, often destroys a ture of the state of manners, and whole kafila, already weakened by fae customs, and civilization prevailing tigue; and the spot was pointed out to over an immense tract of Africa, us, strewed with bones and dried carthey must have recourse to the book

casses, where, the year before, fifty sheep, itself. It is well worthy of their thirst and fatigue, when within eight:

two camels, and two men, perished from perusal.

hours' march of the well which we were At Tripoli, so profound is the re- anxiously looking out for. i. spect of the Bashaw for the British

Indeed, the sand-storm we had the name, and such is its influence on

misfortune to encounter in crossing the the minds of his subjects, that Major desert gave us a pretty correct idea of the Denham tells us,

“ the roof of the dreaded effects of these hurricanes. The English Consul always affords a wind raised the fine sand, with which sanctuary to the perpetrator of any the extensive desert was covered, so as crime, not even excepting murder; to fill the atmosphere, and render the im. and scarcely a day passes in which mense space before us impenetrable to some persecuted Jew, or unhappy the eye, beyond a few yards. The sun slave, does not rush into the court

and clouds were entirely obscured, and a yard of the Consulate, to escape

the suffocating and oppressive weight accombastinado.” One day our travellers panied the fakes and masses of sand,

which I had almost said we had to met with a poor wretch whom they were dragging along to the place of penetrate at every step. At times we punishment, when a child and ser- though only a few yards before us.. The

completely lost sight of the camels, vant of Dr Dickson were passing; horses hung their tongues out of their the criminal, slipping from his mouths, and refused to face the torrents guards, snatched up the child in his of sand. A sheep that accompanied the arms, and halted boldly before his kafila, the last of our stock, lay down on pursuers. The talisman was suffie the road, and we were obliged to kill ciently powerful ; the emblem of in- him, and throw the carcass on a camel. nocence befriended the guilty ; and A parching thirst, oppressed us, which the culprit walked on

uninterrupted, nothing alleviated. We had made but triumphing in the protection of the little way by three o'clock in the after

noon, when the wind got round to the The path of our travellers, dus eastward, and refreshed us something, ring the whole route from Tripoli with which change we moved on until to Kouka, lay over the Sahara, or

about five, when we halted, protected a Great Desert, which stretches across

little by three several ranges of irregular the whole North of Africa, from the hills, some conical, and some table-top

ped. As we had but little wood, our fare Nile to the Atlantic. It is about

was confined to tea, and we hoped to find 1400 miles in breadth, and consists relief from our fatigues by a sound sleep. partly of bills of naked rock, partly That was, however, denied us; the tent of interminable plains, covered with had been imprudently pitched, and was loose sand or with gravel. The sand is exposed to the east wind, which blev a sometimes, by the action of the wind, hurricane during the night. The tent blown up into hills of 400 or 600 was blown down, and the whole detach feet bigh, in which the camel sinks ment were employed a full hour in get up to the knees at every step. The ting it up again ; and our bedding, and following extracts will convey some

every thing that was within it, was, du. idea of the perils and fatigues which ring that time, completely buried, by the

I was befall the traveller over this wide constant driving of the sand. and dreary region.

obliged three times, during the night, to

get up, for the purpose of strengthening The remaining half of our journey to the pegs; and when in the morning I Mourzuk was over pretty nearly the awoke, two hillocks of sand were formed same kind of surface as we had passed on each side of my head, some inches before ; in some places worse. Some high. times two, and once three days, we were Our road lay over loose hills of fine without finding a supply of water, which sand, in which the camels sunk nearly was generally muddy, bitter, or brackish, knee deep. In passing these desert wilds,

British flag.

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