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them, “I chuse that your work should be manifested to-morrow at the hour of daybreak.” Then the miners set fire to their mines the next inorning as the prince had commanded, and overthrew a great pane of the wall, which filled the moat where it had fallen. The English saw all this very willingly, and they were there all armed and ready to enter into the town; those who were on foot could enter at their ease, and they entered and ran to the gate and beat it to the earth and all the barriers also; for there was no defence, and all this was done so sud. denly that the people of the town were not upon their guard. And then you might have seen the Prince, the Duke of Lancaster, the Count of Canterbury, the Count of Pembroke, Messire Guischart Dangle and all the other chiefs and their people who entered in, and ruffians on foot who were prepared to do mischief, and to run through the town, and to kill men and women and children, and so they had been commanded to do. There was a very pitiful sight, for men and women and children cast themselves on their knees before the prince and cried “mercy!" but he was so enflamed with so great rage that he heard them not, neither man nor woman was heard, but they were all put to the sword wherever they were found, and these people had not been guilty. I know not how they could have no pity upon poor people, who had never been powerful enough to do any treason. There was no heart so hard in the city of Lymoges which had the remembrance of God, that did not lament the great mischief that was there; for more than three thousand men and women and children had their throats cut that day, God has their souls, for indeed they were martyred. In entering the town a party of the English went to the palace of the bishop and found him there and took him and led him before the prince, who looked at him with a murderous look (felonneusement), and the best word what he could say to him was that his head should be cut off, and then he made him be taken from his presence.-I. 235.

The crime which the people of Limoges had committed was that of surrendering when they had been besieged by the Duke of Berry and in consequence turning French. And this crime was thus punished at a period when no versatility of conduct was thought dishonourable. The phrases tourner Anglois-tourner Francois-retourner Anglois, occur repeatedly in Froissart. I should add that of all the heroes of this period the Black Prince was the most generous and the most humane.

NOTE 4, PAGE 11. Holinshed says, speaking of the siege of Roanne, “If I should rehearse how deerelie dogs, rats, mise, and cats were sold within the towne, and how greedilie they were by the poore people eaten and devoured, and how the people dailie died for fault of food, and young infants laie sucking in the streets on their inothers' breasts, being dead starved for hunger, the reader might lament their extreme miseries.-P. 566.

NOTE 5, PAGE 13. În the Journal of Paris in the reigns of Charles VI. and VII., it is as. serted that the Maid of Orleans, in answer to an interrogatory of the Doctors, whether she had ever assisted at the assemblies held at the Fountain of the Fairies near Domprein, round which the evil spirits dance, confessed that she had often repaired to a beautiful fountain in the country of Lorraine, which she named the good Fountain of the Fairies of our Lord.

NOTE 6, PAGE 13. Being asked chether she had ever seen any fairies, she answered no; but that one of her godmothers pretended to have seen some at the Fairy tree, near the village of Dompre.-Rapin.

NOTE 7, PAGE 17. According to Holinshed the English army consisted of only 15,000 men, harassed with a tedious march of a month, in very bad weather, through an enemy's country, and for the most part sick of a flux. He states the number of the French at 60,000, of whom 10,000 were slain and 1500 of the higher ɔrder taken prisoners. Some historians make the disproportion in numbers still greater. Goodwin says, that among the slain there were one archbishop, three dukes, six earls, ninety barons, fifteen hundred knights, and seven thousand esquires or gentlemen.

NOTE 8, PAGE 17. This was the usual method of marshalling the bowmen. At Crecy, " the archers stood in manner of an herse, about two hundred in front and but forty in depth, which is undoubtedly the best way of embatelling archers, especially when the enemy is very numerous, as at this time: for by the breadth of the front the extension of the enemy's front is matched; and by reason of the thinness in flank, the arrows do certain execution, being more likely to reach home.”—Barnes.

The victory at Poictiers is chiefly attributed to the herse of archers. After mentioning the conduct and courage of the English leaders in that battle, Barnes says “but all this courage had been thrown away to no purpose, had it not been seconded by the extraordinary gallantry of the English archers, who behaved themselves that day with wonderful constancy, alacrity, and resolution. So that by their means in a manner all the French battails received their first foil, being by the barbed arrows so galled and terrified, that they were easily opened to the men of arms."

“Without all question, the guns which are used now-a-days, are neither so terrible in battle, nor do such execution, nor work such con. fusion as arrows can do: for bullets being not seen only hurt where they hit, but arrows enrage the horse, and break the array, and terrify all that behold them in the bodies of their neighbours. Not to say that every archer can shoot thrice to a gunner's once, and that whole squadrons of bows may let fly at one time, when only one or two files of musqueteers can discharge at once. Also, that whereas guns are useless when your pikes join, because they only do execution point blank, the arrows which will kill at random, may do good service even behind your men of arms. And it is notorious, that at the famous battle of Lepanto, the Turkish bows did more mischief than the Christian artillery. Besides it is not the least observable, that whereas the weakest may use guns as well as the strongest, in those days your lusty and tall yeomen were chosen for the bow, whose hose being fastened with one point, and their jackets long ard easy to shoot in, they had their limbs at full liberty, so that they might easily draw bows of great strength and shoot arrows of a yard long beside the head.”—Joshua Barnes.

NOTE 9, PAGE 17. A company of fugitives, headed by Robert de Bournonville, who had retired by times out of the battle, knowing the English camp was but weakly guarded, pillaged it during the engagement; in consequence of this alarm, Henry ordered the prisoners to be slain except the most eminent.

NOTE 10, PAGE 17. Henry of Monmouth deserves every commendation for his calm and active courage in the fight of Azincour; but after the engagement we no longer discover the rival of the Edwards. The Black Prince may be suspected of ostentation when he waited upon his captive John; but the uncharitable suspicion will cease when we reflect that he must have treated him either as a prisoner or as a guest, and that he conformed to the custom of the age in waiting upon a superior. But of the conduct of Henry to those prisoners who had escaped the massacre at Azincour, only one opinion can be formed. The night after the battle “when the king sate at his refection in the aforesaid village, he was served at his boord of those great lords and princes that were taken in the field.” -Edinond Howes.

NOTE 11, PAGE 18.

Perhaps one consequence of the victory at Azincour is not generally known. Immediately on his return Henry sent his legates to the council of Constance:“at this councell, by the assent of all nations there present, it was authorised and ordained, that England should obtaine the name of a nation, and should be said one of the five nations that owe their devotion to the Church of Rome, which thing untill that time men of other nations, for envy, had delayed and letted."-Edmond Howes. Elmham.

NOTE 12, PAGE 18. Henry judged, that by fomenting the troubles of France, he should procure more certain and lasting advantages, than by means of his arms. The truth is, by pushing the French vigorously, he ran the risk of uniting them all against him; in which case, his advantages, probably, would have been inconsiderable, but by granting them some respite, he gave them opportunity to destroy one another; therefore, contrary to every one's expectation, he laid aside his military affairs for near eighteen months, and betook himself entirely to negotiation, which afforded him the prospect of less doubtful advantages.— Rapin.

NOTE 13, PAGE 19.

“Yet although the armie was strong without, there lacked not within both hardie capteins and manfull soldiers, and as for people, they had more than inough: for as it is written by some that had good cause to know the truth, and no occasion to erre from the same, there were in the citie at the time of the siege 210,000 persons. Dailie were issues made out of the citie at diverse gates, sometime to the losse of the one partie and sometimes of the other, as chances of warre in such adventures happen.”Holinshed, 566.

NOTE 14, PAGE 19. “ The Frenchmen indeed preferring fame before worldlie riches, and despising pleasure (the enemy to warlike prowesse) sware ech to other never to render or deliver the citie, while they might either hold sword in hand or speare in rest."-Holinshed, 566.

NOTE 15, PAGE 19. The king of England, advertised of their hautie courages, determined to conquer them by famine which would not be tamed by weapon. Wherefore he stopped all the passages, both by water and land, that no vittels could be conveied to the citie. He cast trenches round about the walls, and set them full of stakes, and defended them with archers, so that there was left neither waie for them within to issue out, nor for anie that were abroad to enter without his license. The king's coosine germane and alie (the king of Portugale) sent a great navie of wellappointed ships unto the mouth of the river of Seine, to stop that no French vessel should enter the river and passe up the same, to the aid of them within Rouen.

“ Thus was the faire citie of Rouen compassed about with enemies, both by water and land, having neither comfort nor aid of king, dolphin, or duke."—Holinshed.

NOTE 16, PAGE 20. “With the English sixteen hundred Irish Kernes were enrolled from the Prior of Kilmainham; able men, but almost naked; their arms were targets, darts, and swords, their horses little and bare no saddle, yet nevertheless nimble, on which upon every advantage they plaied with the French, in spoiling the country, rifeling the houses, and carry. ing away children with their baggage upon their cowes backs.”

NOTE 17, PAGE 20. “Some writing of this yeelding up of Harflue, doo in like sort make mention of the distresse whereto the people, then expelled out of their habitations were driven : insomuch as parents with their children, yong maids and old folke went out of the towne gates with heavie harts (God wot), as put to their present shifts to seek them a new abode.”— Holinshed, 550.

This act of despotic barbarity was perpetrated by Henry that he might people the town with English inhabitants. There is a way of telling truth so as to convey falsehood. After the capture of Harfleur Edmond Howes says, “all the soldiers and inhabitants, both of the towne and towers, were suffered to goe freely, unharmed whither they would,348. Henry's conduct was the same at Caen : he "commanded all women and children to bee avoyded out of the towne, and so the towne was inhabited of new possessors.”—Howes.

NOTE 18, PAGE 20. Before Henry took possession of Harfleur he went barefooted to the church to give God thanks.-De Serres.

NOTE 19, PAGE 20. Henry, not satisfied with the reduction of Caen, put several of the inhabitants to death, who had signalized their valour in the defence ci their liberty.-H. Clarendon.

NOTE 20, PAGE 21. "A great number of poore sillie creatures were put out of the gates, which were by the Englishmen that kept the trenches, beaten and driven back againe to the same gates, which they found closed and shut against them, and so they laie betweene the wals of the citie and the trenches of the enemies, still crieing for help and releefe, for lack whereof great numbers of them dailie died."

NOTE 21, PAGE 22. Roanne was betrayed by its Burgundian Governo Bouthellier. During this siege fifty thousand men perished through fatigue, want, and the use of unwholesome provisions.

NOTE 22, PAGE 25. A dreadful slaughter of the Armagnacs had taken place when Lisle Adam entered Paris at midnight, May 18, 1418. This, however, was only a prelude to a much greater commotion in the same city some days after. Upon news of what had passed, the exiles being returned to Paris from all quarters, the massacre was renewed June the 12th. The constable Armagnac was taken out of prison, murdered, and shamefully dragged through the streets. The chancellor, several bishops, and other persons, to the number of two thousand, underwent the same barbarous treatment. Women and children died smothered in dungeons. Many of the nobles were forced to leap from high towers upon the points of spears. The massacre being ended, the queen and the Duke of Burgundy entered Paris in triumph.-Mezeray.--Rapin.

NOTE 23, PAGE 26. “ Here in this first race you shall see our kings but once a year, the first day of May, in their chariots deckt with flowres and greene, and drawn by four oxen. Whoso hath occasion to treat with them let him seeke them in their chambers, amidst their delights. Let him talke of any matters of state, he shall be sent to the Maire.”—De Serres.

Fuller calls this race “a chain of idle kings well linked together, who gave themselves over to pleasure privately, never coming abroad, but onely on May-day they shewed themselves to the people, riding in a chariot, adorned with flowers, and drawn with oxen, slow cattel, but good enough for so lazy luggage.-Holy Warre.

NOTE 24, PAGE 23. Long hair was peculiar to the kings in the first ages of the French monarchy. When Fredegonda had murthered Clovis and thrown him into the river, the fishermen who found his body, knew it by the long hair.-Mezeray.

NOTE 25, PAGE 46. “In sooth the estate of France was then most miserable. There appeared nothing but a horrible face, confusion, poverty, desolation, solitarinesse, and feare. The lean and bare labourers in the country did terrifie even theeves themselves, who had nothing left them to spoile but the carkasses of these poore miserable creatures, wandering up and down like głostes drawne out of their graves. The least farmes and hamlets

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