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were fortified by these robbers, English, Bourguegnons, and French, every one striving to do his worst: All men of war were well agreed to spoile the countryman and merchant. Even the cattell, accustomed to the larume bell, the signe of the enemy's approach, would run home of themselves without any guide by this accustomed misery. This is the perfect description of those times, taken out of the lamentations of our ancestors, set down in the original, says De Serres. But amidst this horrible calamity, God did comfort both the king and realme, for about the end of the yeere, he gave Charles a goodly sonne by Queen Mary his wife.

NOTE 26, PAGE 51. The forest of Orleans contains even now fourteen thousand acres of various kinds of wood,

NOTE 27, PAGE 53. “To succeed in the siege of Orleans, the English first secured the neighbouring places, which might otherwise have annoyed the besiegers. The months of August and September were spent in this work. During that space they took Mehun, Baugenci, Gergeau, Clery, Sully, Jenville, and some other small towns, and at last appeared before Orleans on the 12th of October."-Rapin.

NOTE 28, PAGE 55. “At the creation of a knight of Rhodes a sword with a cross for the hilt was delivered to him in token that his valour must defend religion. No bastard could be a knight hospitaller, from whose order that of Rhodes was formed, except a bastard to a prince, there being honour in that dishonour, as there is light in the very spots of the moon."-Fuller's History of the Holy Warre.

NOTE 29, PAGE 55. “In the late warres in France between King Henry the Fifth of England and Charles the Seventh of France, the French armie being in distresse, one Captain La Hire, a Frenchman, was sent to declare unto the said French king, the estate and affaires of the warre, and how for want of victuals, money, and other necessaries, the French had lost divers townes and battailes to the English. The French king being disposed to use his captaine familiarly, showed him such thinges as himself was delighted in, as his buildings, his banquets, faire ladies, &c., and then asked the captaine how hee liked them: 'Trust me, sir,' quoth the captaine, speaking his mind freely, 'I did never know any prince more delighted himself with his losses, than you doe with yours.'" -Howes.

NOTE 30, PAGE 55. “They pulled down all the most considerable buildings in the suburbs, and among the rest twelve churches and several monasteries; that the English might not make use of them in carrying on the siege."-Rapin. Monstrellet.

NOTE 31, PAGE 60. The bulwark of the Tournelles being much shaken by the besiegers' cannon, and the besieged thinking it proper to set it on fire, the English

extinguished the flames, and lodged themselves in that post. At the same time they became masters of the tower on the bridge, from whence the whole city could be viewed."- Rapin.

NOTE 32, PAGE 64. Fuller calls this "resolving rather to lose their lives by wholesale on the point of the sword, than to retail them out by famine.”

NOTE 33, PAGE 65. “ It was the belief of the Mexicans, that at the conclusion of one of their centuries the sun and earth would be destroyed. On the last night of every century they extinguished all their fires covered the faces of the women and children, and expected the end of the world. The kindling of the sacred fire on the mountain of Huixachtla was believed an omen of their safety.”

NOTE 34, PAGE 74. The circumstance of the maid's entering Orleans at midnight in a storm of thunder and lightning is historically true.

“ The Englishmen perceiving that thei within could not long continue for faute of vitaile and pouder, kepte not their watche so diligently as thei were accustomed, nor scoured not the countrey environed as thei betore had ordained. Whiche negligence the citezens shut in perceiving, sent worde thereof to the French capitaines, which with Pucelle in the dedde tyme of the nighte, and in a greate rayne and thundre, with all their vitaile and artilery entered into the citie."-Hall.

NOTE 35, PAGE 96. The tortoise was a machine composed of very strong and solid timber work. The height of it to its highest beam, which sustained the roof, was twelve feet.

The base was square, and each of its fronts twentyfive feet. It was covered with a kind of quilted mattress made of raw hides, and prepared with different drugs to prevent its being set on fire by combustibles. This heavy machine was supported upon four wheels, or perhaps upon eight. It was called tortoise from its serving as a very strong covering and defence against the enormous weights thrown down on it; those under it being safe in the same manner as a tortoise under his shell. It was used both to fill up the fosse, and for sapping. It may not be improper to add, that it is believed, so enormous a weight could not be moved from place to place on wheels, and that it was pushed forward on rollers. Under these wheels or rollers, the way was laid with strong planks to facilitate its motion, and prevent its sinking into the ground, from whence it would have been very difficult to have removed it. The ancients have observed that the roof had a thicker covering, of hides, hurdles, sea-weed, &c., than the sides, as it was exposed to much greater shocks from the weights thrown upon it by the besieged. It had a door in front, which was drawn up by a chain as far as was necessary, and covered the soldiers at work in filling up the fosse with fascines.- Rollin.

This is the tortoise of the ancients, but that of the middle ages dif. fered from it in nothing material.


NOTE 36, PAGE 96. * The besiegers having carried the bayle, brought up their machines and established themselves in the counterscarp, began under cover of their cats, sows, or tortoises, to drain the ditch, if a wet one, and also to fill it up with hurdles and fascines, and level it for the passage of their moveable towers. Whilst this was doing, the archers, attended by young men carrying shields (pavoises), attempted with their arrows to drive the besieged from the towers and ramparts, being themselves covered by these portable mantelets. The garrison on their part essayed by the discharge of machines, cross and long bows, to keep the enemy at a distance.”—Grose.

NOTE 37, PAGE 93. “ The following extract from the History of Edward III. by Joshua Barnes will convey a full idea of these moving towers. “Now the Earl of Darby had layn before Reule more than nine weeks, in which time he had made two vast belfroys or bastilles of massy timber, with three stages or floors; each of the belfroys running on four huge wheels, bound about with thick hoops of iron; and the sides and other parts that any ways respected the town were covered with raw hides, thick laid, to defend the engines from fire and shot. In every one of these stages were placed an hundred archers, and between the two bastilles there were two hundred men with pickaxes and mattocks. From these six stages six hundred archers shot so fiercely all together, that no man could appear at his defence without a sufficient pnnishment: so that the belfreys being brought upon wheels by the strength of men over a part of the ditch, which was purposely made plain and level by the faggots and earth and stones cast upon them, the two hundred pioneers plyed their work so well under the protection of these engines, that they made a considerable breach through the walls of the town. The archers and cross-bowmen from the upper stories in the moveable towers essayed to drive away the garrison from the parapets, and on a proper opportunity to let fall a bridge, by that means to enter the town. In the bottom story was often a large ram.”—Grose.

NOTE 38, PAGE 99. Against the moveable tower there were many modes of defence. The chief was to break up the ground over which it was to pass, or by undermining it to overthrow it. Attempts were likewise made to set it on fire, to event which it was covered with raw hides, or coated over with alum.-Grose.

NOTE 39, PAGE 107. The Oriflamme was a standard erected to denote that no quarter would be given. It is said to have been of red silk, adorned and beaten with very broad and fair lilies of gold, and bordered about with gold and vermilion. The Oriflamme was originally used only in wars against the infidels, for it was a sacred banner, and believed to have been sent from heaven.

NOTE 40, PAGE 107. At this woman's voice amidst the sound of war, the combat grows very hot.

Our men, greatly encouraged by the virgin, run headlong to the bastion, and force a point thereof; then fire and stones rain o

violently, as the English being amazed, forsake their defences : some are slain upon the place, some throw themselves down headlong, and tly to the tower upon the bridge. In the end this brave Glacidas abandons this quarter, and retires into the base court upon the bridge, and after him a great number of his soldiers. The bridge, greatly shaken with artillery, tried by fire, and overcharged with the weight of this multitude, sinks into the water with a fearful cry, carrying all this multitude with it. -De Serres.

NOTE 41, PAGE 109. The Parliament, when Henry V. demanded supply, entreated him to seize all the ecclesiastical revenues, and convert them to the use of the crown. The clergy were alarmed, and Chichely, Archbishop of Canterbury, endeavoured to divert the blow, by giving occupation to the king, and by persuading him to undertake a war against France.Hume.

NOTE 42, PAGE 109. While Henry V. lay at the siege of Dreux, an honest hermit unknown to him, came and told him the great evils he brought upon Christendom by his unjust ambition, who usurped the kingdom of France against all manner of right, and contrary to the will of God; wherefore in his holy name he threatened him with a severe and sudden punishment, if he desisted not from his enterprise. Henry took this exhortation either as an idle whimsey, or a suggestion of the Dauphin's, and was but the more confirmed in his design. But the blow soon followed the threatening; for within some few months after, he was smitten in the fundament with a strange and incurable disease.Mezeray.

NOTE 43, PAGE 114. The shield was often worn thus. "Anong the Frenchmen there was a young lusty esquire of Gascoigne, named William Marchant, who came out among the foremost into the field, well mounted, his shield about his neck, and his spear in his hand.”—Barnes.

NOTE 44, PAGE 116. The armet, or chapelle de fer, was an iron hat, occasionally put on by knights when they retired from the heat of the battle to take breath, and at times when they could not with propriety go unarmed.

NOTE 45, PAGE 124. Religious ceremonies seem to have preceded all settled engagements at this period. On the night before the battle of Crecy “King Edward made a supper in his royal pavilion for all his chief barons, lords, and captains: at which he appeared wonderful cheerful and pleasant, to the great encouragement of his people. But when they were all dismissed to their several quarters, the king himself retired into his private oratory, and came before the altar, and there prostrated himself to Almighty God and devoutly prayed, 'that of his infinite goodness he would vouchsafe to look down on the justice of his cause, and remember his unfeigned endeavours for a reconcilement, although they had all been rendered frustrate by his enemies: that if he should be brought to a battle the next day, it would please him of his great mercy to grant him the victory, as his trust was only in him, and in the right which he had given him.' Being thus armed with faith, about midnight he laid himself upon a pallet or mattress to take a little repose ; but he rose again betimes and heard mass, with his son the young prince, and received absolution, and the body and blood of his Redeemer, as did the prince also, and most of the lords and others who were so disposed.”—Barnes.

NOTE 46, PAGE 125. The conduct of the English on the morning of the battle of Crecy is followed in the text. “ All things being thus ordered, every lord and captain under his own banner and pennon, and the ranks duly settled, the valorous young king mounted on a lusty white hobby, and with a white wand in his hand, rode between his two marshalls from rank to rank, and from one battalia unto another, exhorting and encouraging every man that day to defend and maintain his right and honour : and this he did with so chearful a countenance, and with such sweet and obliging words, that even the most faint-hearted of the army were sufficiently assured thereby. By that time the English were thus prepared, it was nine o'clock in the morning, and then the king commanded them all to take their refreshment of meat and drink, which being done, with small disturbance they all repaired to their colours again, and then laid themselves in their order upon the dry and warm grass, with their bows and helmets by their side, to be more fresh and vigorous upon the approach of the enemy.”—Joshua Burnes.

NOTE 47, PAGE 126.
The pennon was long, ending in two points, the banner square.

NOTE 48, PAGE 131. This inscription was upon the sword of Talbot-"Sum Talboti pro vincere inimicos suos." A sword with bad Latin upon it, but good steel within it, says Fuller.

NOTE 49, PAGE 131. In the original letters published by Mr. Fenn, Fastolffe appears in a very unfavourable light. Henry Windsor writes thus of him: “Hit is not unknown that cruelle and vengible he hath byn ever, and for the most part with aute pite and mercy. I can no more, but rade et corripe eum, for truly he cannot bryng about his matiers in this word (world), for the word is not for him. I suppose it wolnot chaunge yett be likelenes, bat i beseeche you sir help not to amend hym onely, but every other man yf ye kno any mo mysse disposed.”

The order of the garter was taken from Fastolffe for his conduct at Patay. He suffered a more material loss in the money he expended in the service of the state. In 1455, 40831. 158, 7d. were due to him for costs and charges during his services in France, “whereof the sayd astolff hath had nouther payement nor assignation.” So he complains.

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