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on fire, when they had then attạined the Mr. Blanehard suggested the use of height of about three quarters of a mile the parachute, ---a machine on the prinfrom the ground. No explosion was ciple of the common umbrella. A dog heard; and the silk which composed the was the first to descend with it; the animal air-balloon continued expanded, and arrived at the ground unhurt; this was seemed to resist the atmosphere for in 1785. Garnerin, the well-known inabout a minute, after which it collapsed, genious French adventurer, ascended and the shattered remains of the appara from the metropolis on the 2d Sept., tus descended with the two unfortunate 1802 ; when suspended at an immense voyagers so rapidly that both were height, he separated his parachute from killed. M. Pilatre seemed to have been the balloon, and at this instant one of dead before he reached the ground; but the stays happening to give way, the apM. Romaine was alive when some per- paratus was so deranged as to threaten sons came up to the place where he lay, the adventurer with instant destruction but expired immediately after.

during the whole of his descent, and on Amongst other voyages that of Mr. striking the ground, the shock was 'số Blanchard and Dr. Jefferies, across the violent, that he was thrown on his face, straits of Dover, is deserving attention. and was considerably injured. On the 7th Jan., 1785, at one o'clock, The sensation of ascending has been the boat was pushed off, containing described as a strong pressure from thë only 30lbs. of ballast. The weather bottom of the car upwards, agaiust the was fine and warm, they rose gentiy, soles of the feet. Among other pecuand made very trifling way on account liarities, a distance which, to an æroof 'there being so little wind. The naut, appeared seven miles from the prospect of the sonih coast of England earth, was proved by a barometer to be they described as most beautiful. After no more than one and a half.-Rivers passing over several vessels, they found are described as assuming a red colour ; that the balloon, at fifty minutes past cities as looking very diminutive, and oue, was rapidiy descending; on which occasionally entirely blue. All appears they threw out a sack-and a half of bal a perfect plain ; the highest buildings of ast. It still, notwithstanding, des points have no apparent height: but recended; and they, therefore, threw ont duced all to the same level the whole all that remained. Even this proving terrestrial prospect appears like a'coe ineffectual, they next threw out a parcel loured map. Common clouds appear of hooks, which, at last, caused the bal sometimes pure white detached pieces, Joon to ascend. At this time they were at others an extended white floor of about midway between France and Eng- cloud. Thunder clouds assume the form land. At a quarter past two they were and appearances of the smoke of pieces again descending, and threw away the of ordnance. The discharge of cannoni remainder of their books. Ten minutes is beard at considerable distance; at 30 after they had an enchanting prospect of yards it, on one occasion, so disturbed the French coast. Still, however, the an aronaut as to oblige him for safety machine descended; and as they had no to lay hold firmly of the balloon. more ballast they were fain to throw Military reconnoisance is, perhaps, away their provisions for eating, the the only purpose for which balloons wings of their boat, and every other

have been used with success. In the moveable they could spare. “We early part of the French revolutionary threw away,” says Dr. Jefferies, war, balloons were distributed by the only bottle, which, in its descent, cast Aerostatic Institute to the different arout a steam like smoke, with a rushing mies. The victory gained over the Ausnoise; and when it struck the water, we trian armies in 1794, by General Jourhearu and felt the shock very percepti- dan, on the plains of Fleurus, may be bly on our car and balloon.' All this attributed to the accurate information proved insufficient to stop the descent of obtained by sending one to the height the balloon, they threw out their an of 1,300 feet over the army of the chors and cords, and at last stripped off enemy. their elothes, fastening themselves to certain slings, and intending to cut away their boat as a last resource. They now, however, rose; passed over the CHARACTER OF LORD BYRON. high lands between Cape Blanc and

BY SIR WALTER SCOTT. Calais, and descended safely amongst Bomb tress in the forest of Guiennes. The following warm-hearted tribute

our

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119 to the memory of Lord Byron, by an in ceeded on disinterested principles. Lord dividual who ranked next him as a poet, Byron was totally free from the curse is a proof how much liberality is allied and degradation of literature ---its jeato true genius:

lousies we mean, and its envy. But his Amidst the general calmness of the wonderful genius was of a nature which political atmosphere, we have been disdained restraint, even when restraint stiinned from another quarter, by one of was most wholesoine. When at school, those death-notes which are pealed at the tasks in which he excelled were intervals, as from an archangel's trum those only which he undertook volunpet, to awaken the soul of a whole peo tarily; and his situation as a young man ple at once. Lord Byron, who has so of rank, witli strong passions, and in long and so amply filled the public eye, the uncontrolled enjoyment of a consi- : has shared the lot of humanity. His derable fortune, added to that impalordship died at Missolonghi on the 19th tience of strictures or coercion which of April. That mighty genias, which was natural to him, As an author, he walked amongst men as soinething su refused to plead at the bar of criticism ;perior to ordinary mortality, and whose as a man, he would vot submit to be powers were beheld with wonder, and morally amenable to the tribunal of pub--something approaching to terror, as iflic opinion. Remoustrances from a we knew not whether they were of good friend, of whose intentions and kindness or, of evil, is laid as soundly to rest as he was 'secure, had often great weight. the poor peasant whose ideas never with him ; but there were few who could went beyond his daily task. The voice venture on a task so difficult. Reproof he of just blame and of malignant censure endured with impatience, and reproach are at once silenced'; and we feel al hardened him in his error,---so that, he most as if the great luminary of lieaven often resembled the 'gallant war-steed, had suddenly disappeared from the sky, who rushes forward on the steel that: at the moment when every telescope was wounds him. In the most painful crisis levelled for the examination of the spots of his private life, he evinced this irriwhich diimed its brightness. It is not tability and impatience of censure in now the question what were Byron's such a degree, as almost to resemble faults, what his mistakes; but how is the' noble victim of the bull-fight, the blank which he has left in British which iş more maddened by the squibs, literature to be filled up? Not, we darts, and petty annoyances of the unfear, in one generation, which, among 'worthy crowds beyond the lists than by many highly gifted persons, has pró the launce of his nobler, and so to speak, duced none who approach Byron in Ori his more legitimate antagonist. In a GINALITY, the first attribute of genius.word, inuch of that in which he erred Only thirty-seven years old :-so much was in bravado and scorn of his ceusors, already done for immortality-so much and was done with the motive of Drytime remaining, as it seems to us short den's despot, “to show his arbitrary sighted mortals to maintain and to ex power.” It is needless to say that his tend his fame, and to atone for errors in was a false and prejudiced view of such conduct and levities in composition: a contest : and if the noble bard gained wlio will not grieve that snch a race has a sort of triumph, by compelling the been shortened, though not always world to read poetry, though mixed keeping the straight path ; such a light with baser matter, because it was his, extinguished, though sometimes flaming he gave, in return, an unworthy triumph to dazzle and to bewilder? One word to the unworthy, besides deep sorrow to on this ungrateful subject ere we quit it those wlrose applause, in his cooler mofor ever.

ments, he most valued. The errors of Lord Byron arose nei It was the same with his politics, ther from depravity of heart,- for na which on several occasions assumed a. ture had not committed the anomaly of tone menacing and contemptuous to the uniting to such extraordinary talents an constitution of his country; while, in imperfect moral sense, ---nor from feel fact, Lord Byrou was in his own heart ings dead to the admiration of virtue. sufficiently sensible, not only of his priNo man had ever a kinder heart for vileges as a Briton, but of the distinc. sympathy, or a more open hand for the tion attending his high birth and rank relief of distress; and no mind was ever and was peculiarly sensitive of those more formed for the enthusiastic admi- shades which oonstitute what is tormed ration of noble actions, - providing he the manners of a gentleman, Indeeds was convinced that the actors bad pro- notwithstanding, his having employed

dence ;

ence

epigrams and all the petty war of wit, and he might be drawn, like Ĝarrick, bes when such would liave been much better tween the weeping and the laughing abstained from, he would have been muse, although his most powerful efforts found, had a collision taken place be have certainly been dedicated to Melpotween the aristocratic parties in the mene. His genius seemed prolific as state, exerting all his enegies in defence various. The most prodigal use did not of that to which he naturally belonged. exhaust his powers, nay, seemed rather His own feeling on these subjects he has to increase their vigour. Neither Childe explained in the very last canto of Don Harold, nor any of the most beautiful of Juan; and they are in entire harmony Byron's earlier tales contain more exwith the opinions which we have seen quisite morsels of poetry than are to be expressed in his correspondence, at a found scattered through the Cantos of moment when matters appeared to, ap Don Juan, amidst verses which the auproach a serious struggle in his native thor appears to have thrown off with an country :--

effort as spoutaneous as that of a tree

resigning its leaves to the wind. But “He was as independent-ay, much more,

that noble tree will never more bear Than those who were not paid for indepen fruit or blossom! It has been cut down

in its strength, and the past is all thiat As common soldiers, or a common Shore, remains to us of Byron. We can scárce Have in their several acts or parts ascende

reconcile ourselves to the idea---scarce

thick that the voice is silent for ever, O'er the irregulars in lust or gore,

which, bursting so often on our ear, was Who do not give professional attendance.

often heard with rapturous admiration, Thús on the mob all statesmen are as eager

sometimes with regret, but always with To prove their pride, as footmen to a beggar."

the deepest interest :--We are not, however, Byron's apolo

All that's bright must fade,

The brightest still the fleetest.” gists, for now, alas ! he needs none. His excellencies will now be universally ac

With a strong feeling of awful sorrow, knowledged, and his faults (let us hope and believe) not remembered in his epi- creeps upon our most serious as well as

we take leave of the subject. Death taph. It will be recollecied what a art he has sustained in British literature

upon our most idie employments; and it

is a reflection solemn and gratifying, since the first appearance of Childe Ha

that he found our Byron in no moment rold, a space of nearly sixteen years. There has been no reposing under the

of levity, but contributing bis fortune shade of his laurels, no living upon the

and hazarding his life, in behalf of a resource of past reputation; none of people only endeared to him by their that coddling and petty precaution, past glories, and as fellow creatures sufwhich-litile authors call - taking care of fering under the yoke of a heathen optheir fame." Byron let liis fame take

pressor. To have fallen in a crusade

for freedom and humanity, as in olden care of itself. Dis foot was always in

times it would have been an atonement the arena, his shield hung always in the

for the blackest crimes, may in the prelists; and although his own gigantic re

sent be allowed to expiate greater folnown increased the difficulty of ihe struggle, since he could produce nothing, lies than even exaggerated calumny has however great, which exceeded the pub propagated against Byron. lic estimates of his genius, yet he advanced to the honourable contest again and again and again, and came always off with distinction, almost always with

ON THE RAPID INCREASE IN complete triumph. As various in composition as Shakspeare himself (this THE SOURCES OF PUBLIC INwill be admitted by all who are ac FORMATION, quainted with his Don Juan), he has embraced every topic of human life, and sounded every string on the divine . The first newspaper that appeared in harp, from its slightest to its most the present single sheet forni in Engpowerful and heart-astounding ton-s. land, was called “The Public IntelliThere is searce passion or a si

gencer, and was published by Sir juation which · has escaped his pen; Roger L'Estrange, on the 31st of Aug.

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3
9

14

7 11 0

31 56 16

8 32 6

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79

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iai 1681. But there were long before this kingdoms at their 'distinct periods-the period, publications that suited the same earllest only forty-two years ago :purpose, though in a different shape.

1782. 1790). 1821. As far back as 1588, was published Newspapers published in

England ....

135 " The English Mercerie,” in the shape

Scotland. of a pamphlet, the first number of which

Jreland..

27 is still preserved in the British Museum.

Daily in London These sorts of pamphlets became fashl

Twice a week do... ionable in the latter part of Elizabeth's

Weekly do.....

British Islands reigu, but were more rare in the reign of James I. During the wars of Guse'

146 tavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, they A French newspaper, “Journal des were once more revived; for in 1622,

Savans, was first published in 1665* ; we find “The newes of the present but the Parisian press, so far from week,” by Nathaniel Butler ; “ The

equalling that of London, is not, by Mercurius Brittanicus,” in 1626; “The

many degrees, equal to the provincial German Intelligencer," in 1630; and

press of Ireland. t “ The Swedish Intelligencer," in 1631, Another great source of information which was compiled by the learned

to the country, is the increase of circuWilliam Watts, of Caius College. These lating libraries. In the year 1770, there periodicals were produced to gratify

were only four circulating libraries in the interest excited by the fortunes of London: there are at present about one the intrepid Gustavus.

hundred; and about pine hundred more The English rebellion of 16+1, gave scattered throughout the country. Berise to many more of these tracts, sides these, there are from 1,500 to 2,000 which, during the long parliament, were booksellers distributing about the kingchiefly filled with violent appeals to the

dom large masses of information on hispeople, saited to the violence and hypo-. tory, voyages, and every species of crisy of the period, and intended to jus science by which the sum of human tify the proceedings of the legislature krowledge can be increased. towards their constituents, the soldiery We may judge of the immense extent and the multitude. Many of these tracts

of the bookselling trade from the fact, bore the title of “ Diurnal occurrences that the sale of one firm, (that of Longof Parliament.” These, however, were mau and Co.,) amounted to five millions entirely superseiled by the establish of volumes in the year ; that they emment of “The Public Intelligencer”' in

ployed sixty clerks,--paid a sum of 1661. In 1665, “The London Gazette"

£5,500 in advertisements,--and gavo commenced; it was first published at constant employment to 250 printers and Oxford, and called “ The Oxford Ga

bo okbinders. I

M. zette. “ The Orange Intelligencer” was the third newspaper; published in * Encyclopædia Brittanica. 1668. In 1696, there appears to have + " An inquiry into the state of the public heen pine London newspapers published

journals.”

From a speech by Lord J. Russel. weekly, although the last mentioned seems to have been the only daily one. In Queen Ann's reign in 1709, their number was increased from nine to eigh

GAMING FOR MONEY. teen, but still there was only one daily In the reign of Richard the First, an one, the “ London Courant.” In the edict was issued concerning gaming, by reign of George I. the number was in which no person in the army was pera · creased to three daily, six weekly, and mitted to play at any sort of game for ten three times a week.*- In 1782, there money, except knights and also clergy.. were nine' weekly papers published in men, who in one whole day and night London; in 1821, sixteen.

should not each lose more than twenty Newspapers were first stamped in shillings, on pain of forfeiting one hun- ; 1713; and in 1821, the number of copies dred shillings to the archbishop of the circulated was 16, 254, 53+; for the army. The two kings might play for stamp duty upon which was paid the what they pleased; but their attendants sum of £270,908 18s. The following not for more than twenty, shillings, table shews the increase of the pumber otherwise they were to be whipped naked of newspapers published in the united through the army for three days,

Literary Gazette,

me,

OURIKA ; OR THE BLACK NUN. haps I fancied these ties more endearing (From the French of the Duchess de

than they really were ; and because they Duras.)

were out of my reach, I foolishly neg

lected those that were not. But I had (Continued from page 109.)

no friend ; no confidant. My feeling for

Madame de B. was that of worship ra“It was not until long after, that I ther than of affection ; but I believe that understood the possibility of being re I felt the utmost love of a sister for conciled to such a fate. Madame de B. Charles. was no devotee. She had had me in “ His studies were nearly finished, structed in the duties of my religion by and he was setting out on his travels a respectable priest, from whom I im- with his eldest brother and their goverbibed my only notions on the subject. nor. They were to be two years absent, They were as sincere as iny own charac- and were to visit Italy, Germany, and ter ; but I was not aware that piety is of England. Charles was delighted to no succour, . unless mingled with the travel ; and I was too well accustomed daily actions of life. I had devoted a toʻrejoice at what gave him pleasure, to few moments of each day to its practice, feel any grief, until the moment of our but left it a stranger to the rest. My parting. confessor was an indulgent unsuspicious " I never told him the distress that? old man, whom I saw twice or thrice a preyed upon me. We did not see each year; but as I did not imagine my grief Other alone, and it would have taken to be a fault, I never mentioned it to him: me some time to explain my grief to meanwhile it continued to undermine him. He would theii have understord my health, though, strange to say, it I am sure. His manners were mild perfected my understanding. What and grave, but he had a propensity to doth the 'man know who hath not suf- ridicule that intiinidated me; not that he fered ?? says an Eastern Sage ; and I ever gratified it, but at the expense of soou perceived how true this was. What affectation. Sincerity completely disI had taken for ideas were impressions. armed him. However, I kept my secret. I did not judge-I liked. I was either Besides, the chagrin of our parting was pleased or displeased with the words or a relief to my mind, to which any grief actions of the persous I lived with; but was more welcome than its accustomed stopped not to consider why. Since I one. had found out that the world would re “A short time after Charles's deparject me, I began to examine and criticise. ture, the Revolution began to assume a almost every thing that had hitherto en serious turn: the great moral and politichanted me.

cal interests that were agitated by it to : "Such a tendency could not escape their very source were daily discussed Madame de B.'s penetration, though I in Madame de B.'s drawing-room. never knew she guessed the cause. Pos- These were debates that superior minds sibly was afraid of letting ine con delighted ; creasing it, but she was even kinder to

an arena, where men were struggling me than usual. She intrusted all her against opinions long since received, thonghts to me, and tried to dissipate and investigating every subject, examimy own troubles by busying me with ning the origin of every institution, mher's. She judged my heart rightly, for fortunately to destroy and shake them nothing could attach me to life but the from their very foundation. idea of being necessary or useful to my * Will yon believe that, young as I benefactress. To be alorie ; to die, and was, without any share in the interests leave no regret in the soul of any being, of society, and nourishing my own was the dread that haunted me. But wound in secret, the Revolution brought this was unjust towards her, 'for she some change in my ideas, created a glimsiucerely loved me'; still she had other mering ray of hope in them, and for a and superior interests to mine. I did while suspended their bitterness. It ap not envy her tenderness for her grand- peared to me that, in the general confuchildren; but; oh! how I longed, like siơn, my situation might change; and them to call her mother !

that when all ranks were levelled, for* Family ties, above all, brought dis tunes upset, and prejndices done away tressing recollections over me-I who with, I might find myself less isolated was doomed-never to be the sister, wife, in this new order of things; and that if or mother, of any buman being!. Per- I did possess avy hidden qualities or su:

fide my

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