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THE PORTFOLIO. or quiver, containing a bow and three or paddle was double, made of fir, and the four arrows, with a set of which they ends of the blades tipped with bone, to willingly parted, on being presented prevent splitting: with a knife in exchange. They at first "The fire-place in the tent consisted of received us with a mixture of stupidity three rough stones, carelessly placed on and apprehension ; but both wore off in end on one side, and they had several a few minutes, on our making them un pots of lapis ollaris for culinary purderstand that we wished to go to their poses. These people seemed to us altohabitations. With this request they gether more cleanly than any: Esquicomplied without hesitation, tripping maux we had before seen, both in their along before us for above two miles over persons and in the interior of their tents, very rough ground, and crossing one or in neither of which we could discover two considerable streams running from a much of that rancid and pungent smell, lake into the sea. This they performed which is in general so offensive to Eurowith so much quickness that we could peans. with difficulty“ keep up with them, “ One instance of their cleanliness, though they good-naturedly stopped which now occurred, deserves, perhaps, now and then till we overtook them. to be noticed, both because this is justly We were met on our way by two wo considered rather a rare quality among, men, from twenty to twenty-five years the Esquimaux, as well as to shew in of age, having each a child at her back; what way they do sometimes exercise it. they, too, accompanied us to their tent, When leaving their tent to return to our which was situated on a high part of the boats, I desired one of the seamen to coast overlooking the sea. It consisted tie the articles we had purchased into a of a rude circular wall of loose stones, single bundle for the convenience of from six to eight feet in diameter and carrying them, but the elder of the two three in height, in the centre of which male Esquimaux, who watched the stood an upright pole made of several man thus employed, would not permit it pieces of fir-wood, lashed together by to be done without excluding a pot, thongs, and serving as a support to the which, as he explained by wiping the deer skins that formed the top covering. lamp-black off with one of his fingers,

“Soon after our arrival, we were join would soil a clean seal-skin jacket that ed by a good-looking and modest girl of formed part of the bundle. about eight and a boy of five years old. "Among the few domestic utensils we of these nine persons, which were all saw in the tent, was the woman's knife we now saw, only the elder man and of the Greenlanders described by Crantz, two of the children belonged to this tent, and resembling in its semi-circular the habitations of the others, being a shape, that used by shoe-makers in Englittle more inland. The faces of the land. The most interesting article, howwomen were round, plump, tatooed, and ever, was a kind of bowl, exactly sini. in short, completely Esquimaux. Dur lar to that obtained by Captain Lyon ing the cursory examination of these, from the natives of Hudson's Strait, people's dresses, which we had now an being hollowed out of the root of the opportunity of making, I observed musk-ox's horn, As soon as I took the nothing beyond the peculiarities which cup iu my hand, the boy, who was our have been repeatedly described, except first companion, and had since been that the tails of the women's jackets our constant attendant, pronounced the were of unusual length as well as word oomingmuk, thus : affording an breadth. The kuyak, or canoe, belong- additional confirmation to that obtained ing to this establishment was carefully on a former voyage, of the musk-ox laid on the rocks close to the sea-side, being the animal described by the nawith the paddle and the man's mittens in tives of the west coast of Greenland, as readiness beside it. The timbers were having occasionally, thought rarely been entirely of wood, and covered as usual seen in that country. with seal-skin, Its length was pine “As soon as the Esquimaux" became teen feet seven inches, and its extreme - a little more familiar with us, they rebreadth two feet ; it was raised a little peatedly asked for sowik (iron); in anat each end, and the rim or gunwale of swer to which we gave them to underthe circular hole in the middle was high, staid that they must accompany us to and made of whaleboue. A handsome our boats, if they wished to obtain any of seal-skin was smoothly laid within as a this precious article. seat, and the whole was sown and Accordingly the whole group set off put together with great neatness. The with us on our return, the males keeping

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up with us, and the women a short dis- hopes of being able in the following
tance behind. The whole of the chil season, to push along the north eastern
dren carried bundles of the branches of boundary of America.
ground willow, which we had just be As a source of rational amusement to
fore seen them bring in for their own the men during the monotonous dreari-
use, and which they seemed to consider as ness of a Polar Winter, Capt. Parry
an article of barter that might be accept proposed to the officers of both ships to
able to us. As we returned, I noticed a set on foot a series of theatrical enter-
quantity of the ledum pelustre, and hav- tainments. Capt. Lyon was appointed
ing plucked some of it, gave it to a boy manager, and some preparation for this
to carry; after which, though he very purpose having been made previously to
much disliked its smell, he gathered leaving England, every thing was soon
every root of it that we came to, and arranged for performing a play once a
deposited it at our tents. This lad was fortnight on board the Fury.
lincommonly quick and clever in com Rivals, The Poor Gentleman,
prehending our meaning, and seemed " Raising the Wind," "A Roland for
to possess a degree of good kumour and dr Oliver, * “ The Mayor of Garratt,
docility, which on our short acquain" and "The Mock Doctor," were among
tance, made himn & grønt fúvourite the pleces performed. Just before the
émong Us

Dxpedition left England a large and
"We had hitherto been much plonged fiandsome phantasmagorie, or maglo
with our acquaintance, who were cere lantiorn, was presented to Capt. P. for
tuinlya gond humoured doesnt sort of peo. the use of the Expedition by a lady who
ple. Wo therefore londed them with pre persisted in kceping her name a secret,
sants, and endeavoured to amuse them by and afforded a fund of amusement fully
showing the manner of rowing our boats, Roswering the expectations of the donor,
which were hauled upon the beach. While A school was established in which the
the men and children were occupied in sailors were improved in reading and
observing this, the women were no less writing, and divine service was regularly
busily einployed near the tents in pil performed by the Chaplain.
fering and conveying into their boots “What witli reading, writing, making
some of our cups, spoons, and other and calculating observations, observing
articles, such as they could conveniently the various natural phenomena, and take
secrete. This they accomplished with ing the exercise necessary to preserve
so much dexterity, that no suspicion our health, nobody I believe ever felt
would have been excited of their dis- any symptoms of ennui during our con-
honesty had not Mr. Sheoch fortunately tinuance in winter quarters. Among the
missed a cup which was required for recreations which afforded the highest
supper. A general search being insti- gratification to several among us, I may
tuted in consequence, and the cargo of mention the musical parties we were
the women's boots brought back to our enabled to muster, which assembled on
tents, I directed all our presents to be stated evenings throughout the winter
likewise taken from the two offenders, alternately, in Capt. Lyon's cabin, and
and dismissing the whole party with my own more skilful amateurs in music;
great appearance of indignation, this put might well have smiled at these our
an end for the present to our communica- humble concerts ; but it will not incline
tion with these people.”

them to think less of the science they Proceeding farther along the coast, admire to be assured that, in these reconsiderable

remains of Esquimaux resi mote and desolate regions of the globe, dence were visible, and they were much it has often furnished us with the most astonished at finding among the stones pleasurable sensations which our situa- : at least a dozen pair of mittens and tion was capable of affording : for insocks. On the 8th of October, the ther- dependently of the mere gratification mometer being about zero, the ice fast afforded to the ear by music, there is closing in upon them, and the darkness perhaps scarcely a person in the world at least twelve hours daily, the crews of really fond of it, in whose mind its sound the vessels were employed in sawing a is not more or less connected with “his canal through the ice, and establishing far distant home." There are always themselves in winter quarters. The some remembrances which render them extent of coast newly discovered, in inseparable, and those associations are the course of the eight weeks preceding, to be desired which, while we are ene mounted to more than two hundred gaged in the performance of our duty, väga and they entertained sanguine can still occasionally transport u info

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THE PORTFOLIO. the social circle of our friends at home, pressed by sigus our wish to accompany in spite of the oceans that roll between them to their huts, with which they us. With our time thus occupied, our willingly complied, and we immediately comforts so abundant, and the prospect set out together. On our way, the seaward şo enlivening, it would indeed Esquimaux were much amused by our have been our own faults had we felt dogs, especially by a large one of the any thing but enjoyment in our present Newfoundland breed, that had been state, and the most lively hopes and ex taught to fetch and carry---a qualifipectations for the future.

cation which seemed to excite unbounded “On the morning of the 1st February, astonishment; and the children could it was reported to me that a number of scarce contain themselves for joy, when strange people were seen to the west- Capt. Lyon gave them a stick to throw ward, coming towards the ships over for the dog to bring back to them. the ice. On directing a glass towards “ A child of five or six years old them, we found them to be Esquimaux, thus amusing itself on such a day and in and also discovered some appearance of such a climate, formed by no means the huts on shore, at the distance of two least characteristic figure of our motley miles from the ships in the same direc group. An old and infirm man suption. I immediately set out, accompa- ported by a stick, which indeed he much nied by Capt. Lyon, an officer from each needed, was soon left behind us, his ship, and two of the men, to meet the companions seeming to take no notice of natives, who to the number of five-and his infirmities, and leaving him without twenty, were drawn up in a line abreast, reluctance or apology, to find his way and still advanced slowly towards us. home at his own pace. When we had As we approached nearer they stood approached the huts within a few hunstill remaining as before, in a compact dred yards, three of the Esquimaux line, from which they did not move for went on before us, having previously some time after we reached them.

explained that they were going to conNothing could exceed their quiet and fine their dogs, lest being frightened at orderly behaviour on this occasion, our coining, they should run away. which presented a very striking con “ When it is remembered that these trast with the noisy deineanour of the habitations were fully within sight of Natives of Hudson's Straits. They ap- the ships, and how many eyes were conpeared at a distance to have arms in tinually on the look-out ainong us, for their hands, but what we had taken for any thing that could afford variety or bows and spears proved to be only a few interest in our present situation, our blades of whalebope, which they had surprise may in some degree be imabrought either as a peace-offering or for gined at finding an establishment of five barter, and which we immediately pur- huts, with canoes, sledges, dogs, and chased for a few nails and beads. Some above sixty men, women, and children, of the women, of whom there were as regularly and to all appearance as three or four, as well as two children permanently fixed as if they had occuin this party, having handsome clothes pied the same spot for the whole winter on, which attracted our attention ; they " If the first view of the exterior of began, to our ntter astonishment and this little village was such as to create consternation, to s.rip, though the the- astonishment, that feeling was in no rometer stood at 239 below zero. We small degree heightened on accepting soon found, however, that there was the invitation soon given us to enter nothing so dreadful in this as we at first these extraordinary houses, in the conimagined, every individual among them struction of which we observed not a having on a complete double suit. The single material was used but snow and whole were of deer skin, and looked ice. After creeping through two low both clean and comfortable.

passages, each having its arched door.“ However quietly the Esquimaux had way, we came to a small circular apartawaited our approach, and still conti- ment, of which the roof was a perfect nued to conduct themselves, there was arched dome. From this three dooras little apprehension or distrust visible ways also arched, and of larger dimenin their countenances or manner as it sions, than the others, led us into as many was possible for one strange set of per- inhabited apartments, one on each side, sons to evince on meeting another. As and the other facing us as we entered. soon therefore as we had bought all The interior of the hut presented a scene that they had to sell, and made them a no less novel:, than interesting. The Dumber of valuable presents. We ex women were seated on the beds at the

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sides of the huts, each having her little very valuable consideration of a handfire-place or lamp, with all her domestic some butcher's knife. His father appaarticles about her; the children crept rently understanding our meaning, joy, ; behiņd their mothers, and the dogs, ex- fully accepted the knife, and the boy cept the female ones, which were in ran into the hut to fetch his mittene, dulged with a part, slunk out past us in which seemed to be all that he cared for dismay.

in leaving his home. He then set off The construction of this inhabited with us in high spirits, and at first as. part of the huts was similar to that of sisted in drawing a sledge we had purthe outer apartment, being a dome chased to carry our things, but as he formed by separate blocks of snow began by our additional signs more laid with great regularity, and no small clearly to understand our true meaning, art, each being cut into the shape requi- he gradually relaxed in bis zeal to acsite to form a sabstantial arch from seven company our party, and being afterto eight feet high in the centre, and wards overtaken by a number of his having no support whatever, but what companions, he took an opportunity to this principle of building supplied. · I slink off among some hummocks of ice, shall not here further describe the pecu so that when we arrived on board Tooliarities of these curious edifices, re looak was missing. marking only that a cheerful and suffi On our reaching the ships, these peocient light was admitted to them by a ple expressed much less surprise and, cireular window of ice, neatly fitted into curiosity than might naturally have been the roof of each apartment.

expected on their first visit, wbich may ** We found our 'new acquaintance as perhaps in some measure be attributed desirous of pleasing us, as we were to their being in reality a less noisy kind ready to be pleased, so that we were of people than most of the Esquimaux soon on good terms with them all. to whom we had before been accus

While we were engaged in examin tomed. Quiet and orderly however as ing every part of their huts, their whole they were disposed to be, this first visit behaviour was in the highest degree shewed them to be as fond, of merriorderly, respectful, and good-humoured. ment as their countrymen are usually They eagerly received the various ar- considered, for on Captain Lyon's orticles that were given them either in dering his fiddler up on the Hecla's exchange for their own commodities, or deck, they danced with the men for an as presents, but on no occasion impor. hour, and then returned in high glee and tuned us for any thing, nor did the well good humour to their tents.' known sound of “pilletay” once escape A very friendly intercourse, was soon from them. We had also great reason established between the ships and the to believe that these people possessed natives, and a female named Higliuk; in no ordinary degree the quality of by far the most intelligent of these Es. honesty---a quality the inore desirable quimaux, became a very great favourite to us, as we had on shore besides the with the ships' companies. house and observatory, all our boats peared to have a great taste for music, and other articles, which had they been and was invited on board the Fury, disposed to pilfer it would have required to give the officers a specimen of the all our vigilance to guard. If we music of her country. In return she dropped a glove or a handkerchief with. was treated with some English music, out knowing it, they would immediately and it was feared she would have gone direct our attention to it by pointing, and into fits with joy, at recognizing her if the owner had left the hut before they own name introduced into some of the discovered it, would run after him to sougs for the sake of pleasing her. return it. Numberless instances of a Their mode of subsistence is very similar kind occurred in the course of precarious, being entirely dependent on, our subsequent communication with the seals, &c. that they may take,« for them, some of which I shall hereafter food; and having little or no care to lay have an opportunity of relating. by stock for time of need. In fact, it

After remaining with them a couple frequently happened that they were in of hours, and proposing to spend the fol- such dreadful want, as to make it an act of lowing day amongst them, we set out charity for the ships to distribute their on our return to the ships. Being de- bread-dust among them to prevent absosirous of trying their disposition to part lutę starvation. The youth named Toox, with their children, I proposed to buy looąk displayed a very great desire to a fine lady named Toplogek, for the become acquainted with all that coulde i

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THE PORTFOLIO. be-sħewnhim; and Capt. P.p

· put the ques- round the head of the bay, and arrived tion to himn whether he would go with on the side of a small hill a little after him to Europe, but he gave a decisive eleven. The extreme severity of the negative to the proposal, eagerly re weather determined me on pitching our peating the word Na-o (No) half a dozen tent, and waiting until better weather, times:

when we could from the rising ground It was now decided that a party com command a view of our future route. manded by Captaiu Lyou should ex “When our tent had been pitched an plore the coast on foot, and they endea- hour, and our party were all smoking voared to tempt a native to accompany to promote warınth, the température at them as a guide but in vain, and the our feet was lo below Zero, and over head expedition set out upon such informa- amongst the smoke 700 above; in the tion as could be collected from them, outer air it was 50 below, which, albut, unhappily a few hours after their though of itself sufficiently cold, was sfarting, a strong wind, and deep snow rendered doubly piercing by the strength drift set in, which had nearlysproved fatal of the wind. John Lee was soon seized to the whole party.

by a fit of shivering and severe pains They set off under the impression in the loins, to check which we put him that fine open weather might be de into his blanket, and covered hiin with pended upon, but from the very hour of clothes, which could ill be spared. A CaptainLyon's departure, the thermome- deep hole being dug in the snow, a fire tér fell rapidly, and the wind increased was made with the greatest difficulty, so much, that upon the whole Captain and we were made comfortable for a Parry says it proved one of the most time by a warm mess of soup. I afterinclement nights for people to be ex wards found that it would be possible, posed to, that they had, as yet, expe- by extending our excavation to make a rienced." It is, (says Capt. P.) scarcely

in which we might pass the less difficult to imagine than to describe night for it would have been next to the contrast between exposure to all the impossible to continue in the tent. horrors of such tremendous inelemency, “ Some of the men were, therefore, set and the fireside comforts we on board to work, and had thus a good opportunity were enjoying.'

of warming themselves, and our only It would be impossible to give our shovel was lent from one to the other as a readers any just idea of the perilous particular favour. At 2, P.M., the outer situation in which Capt. Lyon and liis air was 150 below, and Zero was the party were so quickly exposed after temperature of the tent, when Arnold's their separation from the ships than by pocket chronometer stopped from the his own narrative, which we insert:--- effects of the cold, By 4, P.M. the ca

• At seven A.M. on the 15th, we pro vern was finished, and of sufficient size ceeded towards the hills to the north to contain us all in a sitting posture.ward of our winter quarters. A strong After taking some hot soup, Lee was wind arose soon after our starting; and removed to the warmest place we coựld blew directly in our faces, bringing thick select, and making a fire, we managed clouds of drift show with it. On ascend- by its smoke which had no vent to raise ing the sloping ground, we found the the temperature to 20°, while outside sledge too much for us, and it was with it had fallen to 250 below. We now great difficulty dragged through the soft cleaned our clothes as well as possible snuw, in which we waded knee deep. from the thick coating of snow-drift, and

* The wind now increased to a heavy closing the entrance of the cave with gale, our utmost view was bounded to blocks of snow, we crept into twenty yards, and every time of rest blanket bags and huddled close together ing to take breath we all received se to endeavour to procure a little sleep. vere frust bites. The sun having risen Our small dwelling had a very close above the thickest part of the drift snow, feel, which was, perhaps, not a little enabled us to steer a direct northerly augmented by the reflection that a spade course, for we expected in that direc- alone could liberate us after a night's tion to arrive at a small bay' which had drift of snow, and our roof being two been observed by Capt. Parry and myself feet thick, and not of the most secure on our first arrival.

description, there was no small probabi“At tenwe were confirined in our con lity of its breaking down on us, in which jecture, by descending suddenly and ar case, confined as we were in our bags, riving at a quantity of grounded ice, di- : and lying almost upon each otheut we rected by which, we made our way should have but little chance of extri

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