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him with provisions ; and the instant a claimed by his Grace the Duke of Noré favourable moment arrived for his es thumberland, whose steward follows the cape, his vigilant friend conducted him procession to note if any such omission from his subterraneous abode, and in occurs. The origin of the strange pracstructing him in the safest means to pass tice of travelling through the pond in unmolested. Leaving the tomb, he re the manner we have described is plausigained the country; and soon after by bly explained by a tradition. It is (said joining his wife, her presence and affec that King John was once nearly drowned tions taught him to appreciate still more upon the spot where this pond is situa-. highly the services of his generous be ted, and saved his life by clinging to a nefactress.
hollow tree; and that he determined, in consequence, thenceforth, that before any candidate can obtain the freedom of
Alnwick, he should not only wade CURIOUS CUSTOMS.
through this pond, but plant a holly tree at the door of his house on the same
day, and this custom is still scrupulously A spectacle of an extraordinary des observed.---On the occasion to which cription was presented a few days ago, we have just alluded, no less than 13 inin the neighbourhood of Alnwick. About dividuals went through the necessary four miles from that town there is a formalities. pond known by the name of the Freemen's Well, through which it has been The inhabitants of St. Johanna (an customary for the freemen to pass from
island near Madagascar), among other time immemorial before they can ob customs, have the following :-They tain their freedom.---This is considered
beg an English name of the sailors who so indispensible that no exemption is touch at their island; and, of course, permitted, and without passing this
names of the first eminence are given by dreaded ordeal, the freedom would not
our tars. Thus, when they have come be conferred. It is difficult to convey to visit the ships that touch at the island, an adequate conception of the nature oi
it has happened that the Duke of Richa this exhibition, for the simple wading mond has humbly solicited the washing through a pool, which is both long and
of linen; Lord Eldon requested a predeep, forms perhaps the least remark
ference for his vegetables ; Lord Liverable part of the sight. The pond is pre pool has been detected in stealing a pared by proper recognised officers in
blanket; and the Duke of Bedford been such a manner as to give the greatest known to beg for a tenpenny nail ! possible annoyance to the persons who are to pass through it. With this view, great dykes or mounds are erected in SPECIMENS
PUNSTER's different parts, so that the candidate for his freedom is at one moment seen at the A Tallow-chandler, is defined to be a top of one of them only up to his knees, Grecian; a Pugilist, a striking characand the next instant is precipitated into ter; an Apothecary, a scrupulous or a a gulph below, in which he frequently dramatic character; a Postman, a man plunges completely over head. To add of letters ; a Nightman is called a memto the difficulty, the water is purposely ber of the Privy Council; a Pastrycook, rendered so muddy that it is impossible a man of puffs ; a Liquor-merchant, a to see where these dykes are situated, man of spirit. Punning pervades the or by any precaution to avoid them. In public press. In an account of a Butchorder to give effect to the spectacle, those er's wife being brought to bed, it is adaspiring to the honour of the freedom of ded, “ of a fine chopping boy;" Alnwick are dressed in white stockings, Pugilist's wife is confined with white pantaloons, and white caps. After “thumping boy ;” in an account of a they have
“ reached the point pro- criminal's execution, the editorial wag posed,” they are suffered to put on their observes, “he had a drop too much ;' nsual clothes, and obliged to join in a a Scavenger is made to prefer a sweeping procession and ride for several miles charge against a crusty baker; a Shoefound the boundaries of the freemen's maker's house being burnt down, he is property---a measure which is not a
said to have lost his anl (all); a dealer mere formality for parade, but abso- in gunpowder is said to be gone off to Jutely indispensible, since if they omit America; and it is added that there was Fisiting any part of their property, it is a fine blowup amongst his creditors,
89 NATURAL HISTORY.
bles; yet as harmless as they seem, they will many of them destroy their
fellows. These species, however, The change from caterpillar to but- though freed from such dangers, are exterfly was long esteemed a real change posed to others; the worms or maggots of one animal into another ; but this is of several sorts of flies are frequently not the case. The egg of a butterfly found about them, some preying upon produces a butterfly with all the linea their outside, others lodged within them ments of its parent; only these are not under the skin, but both kinds eating the disclosed at first, but for the greater part creature up alive. of the animal's life are covered with a Nothing is more surprising in insects sort of case, in which are legs for walk than their industry; and in this the catering, these only suit it in this state ; but pillars yield to no kind, not to mention its mouth takes in nourishment, which is their silk, the spinning of which is one conveyed to the included animal ; and great proof of it. The cases which after a proper time this covering is some of these insects build for passing thrown off
, and the butterfly appears in their transformations under, are by some its proper form. Before it passes into made with their own hair, mixed with this state, there requires a state of rest pieces of bark, leaves, and other parts of for the wings to harden, and the several trees, with paper, and other materials, other parts to acquire their proper firm 'There is one which builds in wood, and ness: this is done when the animal lies its case is harder than the wood itself, in what is called the nymph or chrysalis This is the horned caterpillar of the state, in appearance only a lump of in- willow, which is one of those that eat animate matter. There is a determined their exuviæ. This creature has sharp time for each of these changes ; but in teeth, with which it cuts the wood into the several kinds, the periods are dif small fragments; and these it unites into ferent.
a case, by means of a viscous juice, There is no sign of sex in the animal which hardens as it dries, and is a strong while in the caterpillar state : the pro cement. The butterfly, as pagation of the species is the business of hatched, discharges a liquor which softthe creature in its ultimate perfection; ens the viscous matter of the case; and and till that, these parts are never ex so the fragments falling to pieces it finds posed: one female butterfly, will pro- its way out. duce 300 or 400 eggs, or more. The Another curious artifice is that by females are always larger than the which some species of caterpillars, when males; and more slow in their motions ; approaching to the chrysalis state make some of them have no wings, or at the themselves lodgments in the leaves of most only very small ones.
trees ; by rolling them up into a sort of The care of all the butterfly tribe to hollow cylindric case, proportioned to lodge their eggs in sasety is surprising the thickness of the body, and carefully Those whose eggs are to be hatched in secured. Besides these caterpillars, a few weeks, and who are to live in the there are other species which only bend caterpillar state during part of the re the leaves once, and others, which by maining summer, always lay them on means of thin threads, connect many the leaves of such plants as will afford a leaves together to make a case. proper nourisbment; but on the con Caterpillars are very destructive to trary, those whose eggs are to remain gardens, particularly that which afterughatched till the following spring, al wards becomes the common white butways lay them on the branches of trees terfly. This is of a yellowish-white and shrubs, and usually are careful to colour, spotted with black, and ivfests select such places as are least exposed the leaves of cabbages, cauliflowers, to the rigour of the ensuing season, and and the Indian cress, of which it eats all frequently cover them from it in an art the tender parts, leaving only the fibres ful manner. Some make a general coat entire. It is called by the gardeners a of a hairy matter over them, others hide grub. themselves in hollow places in trees, and other cells, where they live in a kind of torpid state during the winter, that they Hatching Chickens by Steam is no may deposit their
eggs in the succeeding joke. It has been done, and it is doing spring.
in a room over Mr. Bullock's Mexican The common food of these creatures Exhibition. There are hundreds of is the leaves and verdure of vegeta- eggs, not only of hens, ducks, and other
domestic poultry, but of emus* and cription which you lately gave of the other strange birds, in the common mode in which witnesses and Jurymen course of incubation. The apparatus is are bothered by Counsel, refreshed in yery simple. The eggs are deposited my memory a grievance of this kind, in trays on straw, and kept at a tem
of which I was myself a witness and perature of about 101, the natural tem
participator-quorum pars magna fui
--and as Virgil says perature being about 104. In three weeks, the usual period for hens, the
Opened all my wounds again. chickens burst the shell, and seen as “I have the misfortune, Sir, to be healthy and lively as when produced by what the world calls a modest man; the common proces. Other birds and and it is owing to my modesty tbat fowls follow the same rule as to time. I have lacked promotion. Whether in But the most extraordinary part of this love, friendship, or ambition, I have exhibition is an invention to show or generally failed in my attempts, bedemonstrate the whole progress of hatch
cause I was modest. But I shall not ing from day to day, from the first depo- the general misadventures which have
detain you and your readers now with sition of the egg to the final develope- resulted to me from this serious ment and ejection of the animal. This
affliction, and incurable malady of consists of a series of twenty-one illu
the mind, although they might furnish minated vessels, each of which an inatter for a very edifying essay; but egg is exposed, upened, from the first to
to proceed at once to the object of the twenty-first day, and viewed through the present letter. a glass. Thus the entire operation and I was lately, Sir, an evidence in a secret of nature is rendered palpable to cause of house-breaking at the Sesthe sense. You see the yolk thicken ;
sions House, in the old Bailey. It by the third day it displays whitish an was a most flagrant and self-evident nular rings; by the fifth there is a red case; but the prisoner was acquitspeck and a curious formation of slight ted, entirely owing to my MODESTY, red fibres-the future heart and blood
assisted by the IMPUDENCE of his
Counsel. I shall never forget the vessels of the bird; by the eighth or ninth these assume more perfect forms, amidst the grins of the young nurse
questions put to me on that occasion, and a black speck indicates the eye, lings of Justice, the junior Counwhich, in a few days more, is placed in sellors and the good-humoured gig. the head above the beak; all these, and gle of the Jury. Indeed, I suspected, all the other parts, feathers, &c. gra as I timidly glanced towards the Bench dually form, till at last, about the nine for protection, that the Judge's wig teenth day, the remainder of the yolk is was a little awry with his efforts to drawn into the body by the navel, and preserve a dignified composure. Tbis, the perfect animal subsists thereon till however, may be a delusion proceed. it is enabled to burst its shell. This ing from a too susceptible fancy. Tako it effects very ingeniously. This strik
the questions as they occurred; at the ing exhibition throws a wonderful light yourself with a face as red with blushes
same time you must picture me to upon one 'of the least understood mat
as the Red Lion of Brentford is with ters in the whole circle of natural science.
red ochre and vermillion, and with The first indication of vital function the 'big round drops of perspiratakes place, as nearly as possible, about tion coursing one another down my the seventy-second hour, when a quiv- innocent cheeks, 'in piteous chase.' ering, like an electric spark, is observ Counsellor-Pray, where do you able. This is almost too minute for hu- chance to live, Mr. Modesty? man sense, and vanishes momentarily ; Evidence-i live, Sir, at No. 4, yet it seems to be the beginning of life, Court, Cannon-street. the incipient of the nervous system.”
Counsellor-Oh ! a retired spot, doubtless. You love retirement. Please
to come forward, Sir. THE DISADVANTAGES OF MO
Counsellor-And so you lire (m2DESTY IN A WITNESS AND THE ADVANTAGES OF IMPU- micking) at No. 4, Court, Can
non-street. Are you sure you live DENCE IN A COUNSEL.
there? (in a bass voice.)
am sure I live To the EDITOR of the PORTFOLIO.
there; and have lived there these “ Mr. EDITOR,—The caustic des- lwenty years.
Counsellor-I thought so. (In a * These require seven weeks and six squeaking treble voice.) A Cockney days incubation.
Zimmerman, enjoying the seclusion of
91 a Cul de Sat. Do you know the pri- possibly be administered to man-you soner at the bar?
call your Maker to witness. RememEvidence-No; I do not know the ber this is a serious thing, prisoner at the bar.
Evidence-l am a Gentleman, Sir. Counsellor-(In a bass voice) - Counsellor-I thougbt 50~(QuizHey?, what do you mean by saying zing with his brother Counsel) -Every you do not know the prisoner at the body is a Gentleman, pow-a-days; it bar?
is a convenient travelling name, like Evidence-I mean that I never was Captain. The witness, Gentlemen, acquainted with him, and never saw iş facetious. But come, Sir, no evahim till the night the robbery was sion, if you please. Remember you committed.
are on your oath; an oath is not to be Counsellor-Heyday! Mark that, trifled with. How might you chance Gentlemen of the Jury! Why you to be a Gentleman ? said just now that he broke open
Evidence--I have an estate in the the house! Now house-breaking and country, on the profit of which I live robbery are two different things. The in town. Court, i hope, will attend to this cir Counsellor-Is your estate copyhold cumstance.
or freehold, or is it only a farm some Evidence-Sir, I say he was detected dozen roods square, where you employ. in forcing open the window-shutters horses and ploughs for a country of the lower parlour.
'Squire ? Counsellor-(Leuning forward fa Evidence-Really, Sir, your question miliarly with his arms a-kimbo, and seems so odd, that I do not know what his tongue thrust out in his cheek.) answer to make. You don't happen to remember, Mr. Counsellor-(Sbaking his horse hair Accuracy, how many panes of glass mane in triumph.) - Gentlemen, you there are in the lower parlour?
find that this witness does not know Evidence-No: I do not exactly re what answer to make; and this is a cit. member.
cumstance I wish you particularly to Counsellor-(In a squeaking voice.) attend to. -Good! so absorbed in secluded con In this manner was I and the other templation ; a perfect Penruddock in witnesses bothered, the Jury mystified, Cannon-street; above pancs as well and the prisoner, who is one of the inost as pleasures-(In a pass voice.)-Will notorious house-breakers in the kingyou swear that there were not ten dom, escaped the hands of Justice, panes ?
amidst the amusement and merriment Evidence-No! I do not exactly of the whole Court. That this legal sysremember. There were either six or tem is very funny, no one can be more eight; but I do not remember wbich. ready to admit than myself; that it is in
Counsellor-Pray, Gentlemen, ob- genious as well as generous cannot be serve: he does not know how many disputed, since a guinea will engage panes there were in the window of the such wit and talent indifferently on the lower parlour. Wbat part of the house white or black side of any given quesdo you inhabit ?
tion. Besides, the exhibition which it Evidence- The second story: two makes of our happy Constitution as by rooms, a dining-room and a bed-room. law established, which is our proudest
Counsellor-What do you call a bed- boast, it teaches a lesson of humiliaroom?
tion to bumility, and of Cbristian paEvidence-The room in which I tience to honesty, which is, in point sleep.
of practical philosophy, invaluable. In Counsellor-(In a squeaking voice) my own particular case also, it has -Do you always sleep in a bed-room, been highly beneficial in convincing Mr. Shy-face.
me of a great truth :-namely, that Evidence-Ye-ye-yes, Sir. modesty is a great incumbrance; or,
Counsellor-(Winking) – You ob to use the slang of fashion, that moserve this witness's manner, Gentle dest persons are un-bear-able bores. men of the Jury. Pray does the house In all my subsequent experience I chance to be your's ?
have constantly found that impuEvidence-No; I'm only a lodger. dence (particularly if it be inordi. Counsellor-Oh! now it comes out. nately shallow) succeeds best; and I “Only a lodger” (mimicking) like the particularly recommend it to your Irishman at the time of the fire. What Readers as the best friend they can profession are you?
employ in all worldly transactions, Evidence-I am
more especially in Courts of Law. Counsellor-(In a ferocious bass
I am, Sir, your's. &c. &c. voice)-Remember you are upon your
RALPH MODEST. oath the most solemn oath that can Rose-bud Hall.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE PORTFOLIO. old Parliament had some ugly Memi.
bers, I had an affection for the body, “MY DEAR MR. EDITOR.–There is a and am grieved to find that it has been mighty pleasant book, published crery tucked under a marble counterpanenow and then by Mr. Debrett, who is no matter how costly. dead, called the Peerage of Great Bri.
PROPHETIC POWERS OF GEORGE I. tain and Ireland. That his being dead should hinder him from continuing
“ P. 10:35. Arthur Annesley, the first
Earl of Mountnorris, was created his work, I am sure is quite unne
Earl, December 10, 1723, but defercessary, for his own pages afford us
red being born until August 7, 1744, numerous instances of people going on with all the operations of vitality think, reflects great credit on the fore !
nineteen years afterwards. This, Í long after they have ceased to exist, or before they were born. It is indeed, displayed by our ministers “a
hundred a pleasant book and full of excellent anecdotes and startling facts in all years ago." branches of knowledge, far beyond wbat you tiod in common works, and
“ P. 1101. Matthew Barnewell, Vis.' perhaps you could find me a corner,
count Kingsland, was married secondly to give your readers a few ccimens to Miss Mary Anne Bradshaw, in Deof the wonderful things therein con
cember, 1819: and thirdly, to Miss tained.
Julia Willis, on the 2d of January,
1820, which, in my opinion, is not bad AN OLD TAILOR.
going. It is not every one of us who “ P. 268, we are informed that Sir
would have the luck to get a wife, gét Wm. Fitzwilliam, Knt. was married in
rid of her, and get another in less than 1506, and died in 1734. Now allowing
a month. him to have been thirty years old on
A PRECOCIOUS YOUTH. his wedding day, he must have de
“P. 1295. Nathaniel William, second ceased at the good age of 358, which to
Ld. Clarina, was born May 29, 1796– be sure is not quite so old as Enoch,
had a daughter in 1797, and five other the junior of the Patriarchs, but is no children in due course was a Liente. bad age in these postdiluvian times for
nant General in the army-and died a tailor, as this ancestor of the illus
Governor of Barbadoes, January 26, trious house of Fitzwilliam happens 1810, aged fourteen years, wanting. to have been.
three months and three days. A smart SINGULAR COMPUTATION.
Lad by mine honour. - P. 730. John, 4th Earl of Strathmore, we are told, was succeeded by “ Such are my gleanings for this his son John, the 5th Earl
wcek-in due course you shall get bis brotber Charles, the 6th Earl more authentic facts from, dear Mr. he by his brother James, the 7th Earl Editor, your Servant at command, --and he by his brother Thomas, the
THOMAS PIPES. 8th Earl—5 exbibiting in his person Sloan-street." the uncommon instance of six bro. thers successively succeeding” (a good phrase)“ each other in the Earldom.” Now, common people, counting it on their fingers, would find tbat John,
ANECDOTES OF LORD BYRON, Charles, James, and Thomas were but four-but the ingenious calculators for
A young lady of considerable talents, Mr. Debrett, find them to be six !
but who had never been able to succeed: DEFUNCT STATE OF PARLIAMENT. in turning them to any profitable ac“ P. 1009. We read of an officer who count, was reduced to great pecuniary was killed at New Orleans. Time was
hardships through the misfortunes of her when this was enough to put an end family. The only persons from whom to any man-but we find here, that
she could have hoped for relief were «in remuneration of his gallant ser
abroad; and so, urged on, more by the vices, he received the unanimous thanks of "both Houses of Parliament
sufferings of those whom she held dear --which, no doubt, under the circum
than by her owu, she summoned up restances must have been amazingly flat
solution to wait upon Lord Byron, at his tering. But still greater news comes
apartments in the Albany, and ask his behind-"of both Houses of Parlia subscription to a volume of poems. She ment, to whose memory a monument had no previous knowledge of him, but is erected in the Cathedral of St.Paul.” from his works; those works which I am sorry to hear this
though poor have induced so many others, equally