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United States. The American Encyclopedia is just completed in thirteen large octavo volumes. It was translated from the “ German Conversations Lexicon,” by Dr. Francis Lieber. It has received considerable enlargements in the department of American biography, history, and politics. Dr. Lieber was assisted by E. Wigglesworth and T. G. Bradford. It is calculated that the publication of this work in Boston, brought into the State of Massachusetts a sum exceeding $20,000. The proprietors live in Philadelphia. The work is one of great value, and inestimable for reference. We should have been better pleased with it if more attention had been paid to missionary and religious biography. No notice is taken of such men as Milne, Buchanan, Isaac and Joseph Milner, and other eminent men.
The plan of republishing foreign literature in periodical numbers, and at a very low rate, is becoming common in this country. The principal British Magazines are in this way in a course of wide diffusion. We rejoice that so much reading is rendered accessible to our communities in so cheap a form, though no reasonable man would wish that a considerable portion of what Bulwer, and Maryatt, and Prof. Wilson write, should find its way across the Atlantic. The principal “ Libraries,” are the Family, and the Boys' and Girls', of the Harpers at New York; Waldie's, Greenbank's, and Key and Biddle's at Philadelphia. The last named, published in semimonthly numbers of forty-eight pages each, at five dollars a year, is preferable in its selection of matter to any which we have seen. It is called the “ Christian Library," and if the conditions of the Prospectus are complied with, it will well earn the public favor. The - Christian Observer” is to be published as an appendix, at one dollar and twenty-five cents. Dr. Gregory's Life of Robert Hall, Smedley's History of the Reformed Religion in France, and Taylor's Life of Cowper, are already published in the Christian Library.
Rev. Dr. Jenks of Boston, assisted by several clergymen, is preparing for the press a comprehensive Commentary of the Bible, in five or six large volumes. Henry's Exposition is to be made the basis. Illustrations and notes are to be selected from all the other principal commentators. We learn that several thousand subscribers for the work are already obtained. An edition for the use of the Baptist denomination is also in a course of preparation.-Several ministers of the Lutheran church are engaged in the preparation of an original commentary on the New Testament, for the use of the Evangelical Lutherans. It will be published in numbers; the gospel of Matthew may be expected in the autumn. It is said that such a work has long been desired by the members of that communion.
The complete works of Robert Hall and of Andrew Fuller are now republished in this country. Two abler men have rarely ever adorned the church of Christ in any age. An edition of the entire works of John Foster is a desideratum. Fuller's works, with a memoir by his son, have been lately published by Lincoln, Edmands & Co. of Boston, in two large octavo volumes, in a very superior style. Considerable portions of one of the volumes are now for the first time in print.
The Protestant, a celebrated work by the late William M'Gavin of Glasgow, which has passed through nine editions in Scotland, has lately becn published in Hartford, Ct., with an appendix by an American editor, containing information of an important character. It is embraced in two large volumes octavo. A second edition will soon be issued. This publication is very opportune, in consequence of the controversies which are now pending in New York and Philadelphia, between several Protestant and Papal clergymen.
The geological survey of the State of Massachusetts is nearly completed. The trigonometrical survey is in progress. The legislature of Maryland have determined to survey that State, after the example of Massachusetts.
Rev. Sereno E. Dwight, formerly of Boston, has entered on his duties as president of Hamilton college.-Professor Dunglison, of the university of Virginia, has been transferred to the university of Maryland, at Baltimore.The Methodists have purchased the buildings belonging to Dickinson college, at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and are about commencing an institution. The following sums, lately obtained by individual subscriptions, have been secured to various literary instutions : $100,000 to Yale; $50,000 to Amherst; $30,000, nearly, to Bangor theological seminary; the college of New Jersey is raising $20,000; Brown university a like amount; Washington, at Hartford, in addition to $70,000 received for its establishment, is now soliciting $40,000 more, for its professorships ; Jacksonville college, in Illinois, within three years, has received $46,000 from the Eastern States; $25,000 have been raised for Kenyon college, Ohio; and a successful effort is now making in behalf of the theological seminary at Columbia, South Carolina.-Dr. DeLancey has resigned his office as president of the university of Pennsylvania.-Alpheus Crosby has been elected professor of languages at Dartmouth college, in place of prof. Stowe, transferred to the Lane seminary, Ohio.-An effort is now making to establish, on a sure foundation, a manual labor school, in connection with Middlebury college.-Several meetings of gentlemen have been held, in various parts of New England, to consult in regard to the expediency of a female seminary, of an higher order than any which now exists.
Europe. The present number of students in King's college, London, is 834, of whom 501 are regular students, the remainder occasional. The increase over the preceding year is 170.-The whole number of students at Cambridge, on the books--not all actual residents-is 5,344; at Oxford, 5,303.The queen of Spain has contributed towards the erection of a monument to Sir Walter Scott, and also to the preservation of his grounds at Abbotsford. She has a taste for the fine arts, and has lately executed a painting: The following American books have been lately republished in Great Britain : Abbott's Young Christian, in three editions; Ware's Life of the Saviour, and Formation of Religious Character; Dr. Sprague's Lectures on Revivals of Religion, in two editions; Stuart's Commentary on the Romans; Sparks's Life of Gouverneur Morris ; Payson's Sermons to Families; Pierpont's Reading Books; Bryant's Poems.-The Oriental Translation Fund Society, is prosecuting its labors with commendable activity. Its influence is felt, over the continent. A branch committee has been formed at Rome, for the purpose of investigating the libraries and antiquities in that city. The institution has a very pertinent motto, Ex oriente lur. Its most efficient members are the Ouseleys, Johnston, the Earl of Munster, Wilson, Graves Haughton, Malcolm, &c.-Among the interesting books lately published in London, are Dick on the Improvement of Society, Major Archer's Tour in Upper India, a View of Roman Slavery, several of the Bridgewater Treatises on the connection between natural religion and the various natural sciences, from the pens of Prof. Buckland, Dr. Chalmers, Whewell, &c.
Victor Cousin, in his report on the state of education in Germany, strongly reprobates the practice of excluding clergymen and religious books, from schools. He thinks their influence to be decidedly beneficial.— The late Prof. Kieffer distributed 160,000 copies of the Bible; in nearly every instance, accompanying the donation with a letter written by his own hand. Desgrange is appointed professor of Turkish in place of Kieffer; M. Stanislas Julien professor of Chinese in place of Remusat.-Horace Vernet has been sent to Algiers by the French government for the purpose of painting some of the actions between the French and Arabs.-Cuvier's widow has a pension of 6,000 francs, and the widows of Remusat, Saint Martin, and De Chezy, 3,000 each.–The French Chamber of Deputies have sanctioned the purchase of the library of Cuvier, at 72,500 francs ; and the Egyptian MSS. of Champollion, at 50,000 francs. The MSS. are in the hands of Champollion-Figeac. They will fill 2,000 pages, accompanied with drawings.-An Egyptian grammar of Champollion, in four parts, is in press. Rossellini, of Florence, who went with Champollion to Egypt, is publishing another Egyptian grammar, in violation of good faith, as the friends of Champollion think.-M. Thiébaud de Berneaud, a librarian of the Mazarine library, is preparing a work on the manners, customs, languages, history, and religion of the ancient northern nations of Europe.-A complete edition of the works of Flaxman, is publishing in Paris.-On the 1st of January, 1833, there were 217 newspapers published in Paris, and 243 in 128 provincial towns; an increase of nearly 100 in one year.
Prof. Humbert, of Geneva, has an Arabic Chrestomathy in press.-Siebold's history of Japan will speedily appear. The author was detained several years in that country.-A lexicon Platonicum, by Prof. Ast, is an. nounced.-On the 15th of March last, Sprengel, a distinguished professor of medicine at Halle, died.—The second volume of Dr. Scholz's edition of the Greek Testament is delayed, because of the refusal of the Leipzig publisher VOL. 1.
to proceed with it. The English bishop of Salisbury is endeayoring to raise a sufficient subscription in England, to enable Dr. Scholz to complete it.Goethe's posthumous works amount to fifteen volumes octavo, which, with those already published, will make 55 volumes.
Prof. Planca, of Turin, is preparing for the press a great work on the theory of the moon, in three volumes quarto.-A new edition of Gerle's Description of Bohemia, with improvements, will appear this year.--Afzelius, with a large number of associates, is about commencing a scientific journal at Upsal, in Sweden.-Oehlenschläger, of Copenhagen, is establishing a new periodical, called the · Prometheus.'—The population of the Moravians, in all parts of the world, is 16,000; yet they support 127 missionaries, at an annual expense of $60,000.
A Russian writer estimates the number of known languages and dialects in the world, as follows: 1,264 American, 937 Asiatic, 587 European, and 226 African; in all, 3,014. The languages which are spoken in various islands, do not appear in his estimate. A. Denizoff, hetman of the Don Cossacks, has established a reading room, and a literary institution, at Neutscherkesk, the principal town of the Cossacks. The emperor of Russia has increased his grant to the observatory at Dorpat, from 2,000 roubles annually, to 8,000. By order of the emperor, M. Feodorow, a state counsellor, is about commencing a three years' tour through Siberia, to Peking in China.
Alexis Muston, of Piedmont, is preparing a complete history of the Waldenses. He has made very thorough researches.
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
United States. In 1828, a tariff bill was passed by congress, laying heavy duties on certain kinds of goods imported from abroad; which, with other causes, has been productive of serious consequences. The advocates of the bill attempted to prove that it would afford equal protection to all the great interests of the western, middle, and eastern States; that while the woollen manufacturer of the east was protected by an increase of duty on imported woollens, the farmer was recompensed by the protection to native wool; the iron manufacturer of the middle States was encouraged by the augmentation of duty on imported iron; and the hemp, flax, and grain-growing States found equivalent benefits in the other provisions of the bill. The opponents of the bill contended that it was contrary to the liberal spirit of the age, and to all the received maxims of political economy; that it bore with great severity upon the south, without one compensating principle ; that it would give a monopoly to the northern manufacturer; that it was unconstitutional, &c. It was opposed with great earnestness by nearly all the members from the southern States. It finally passed the senate by 26 ayes, to 21 nays, and the house by 114 ayes, to 67 nays.
The ultra opponents of the bill endeavored to show that the passage of the law was a violation of the federal constitution, and that it was the duty of the southern States, to act upon the subject in their capacity of sovereign and independent States. It was contended that the powers granted by the constitution to congress, were all intended for the general benefit, while the tariff was for the sole benefit of particular portions of the country. The most exciting appeals were made to the passions of the citizens of the southern States on the score of interest. The entire loss of their cotton market was immediately to follow the adoption of the restrictive system. “It was time to calculate the value of the Union.”
Upon the assembling of the State legislatures, previous to the passage of the tariff, committees were appointed in several of the States, to inquire into the constitutional powers of Congress in relation to various subjects. The joint committee of the legislature of North Carolina, simply protested against the passage of the tariff, as oppressive on the local interests of that State, and as violating the spirit of the constitution. The legislature of Georgia, declared that the constitution should be so construed as to deny to congress the power to increase the duties on imports, and that “it would insist upon that construction, and would submit to no other.” The remonstrance of the legislature of Alabama was to the effect, that she would not submit until the constitutional means of resistance were exhausted. The South Carolina committee reported a series of resolutions declaring the tariff laws to be a violation of the spirit of the constitution.
The excitement on this subject subsided in a great degree in most of the States. In South Carolina, however, the opposition to the tariff was constantly inflamed, by appeal to party, to southern interests, to the importance of South Carolina as a member of the Union, and other kindred topics. By a provision of the constitution of that State, a convention of the people could not be called, except by a vote of two thirds of the legislature. The efforts of the nullifiers were therefore directed to this object—to obtain a sufficient vote in the legislature to call a convention. The Unionists, on the other hand, numbering in their ranks men of great ability and worth, maintained a firm resistance to the designs of the nullifiers, though opposed themselves to the tariff laws.