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practical in an eminent degree. For they respect all our thoughts and feelings, and all our expression of those thoughts and feelings; all our own improvement, and all our influence over other minds. Of what other truths can as much be said ? A truth in mechanics we may find occasion for, perhaps, once in our lives; a truth in mental science may benefit every hour of our lives. But to reap the full advantage of these truths, it is essential, that, by repeated application, they should become laws ;-laws of the mind, as the principles of euphony are made laws of the voice, and those of grace, laws of the limbs. Till a principle has become a law, it requires, for any good effect, the full attention of the mind; but when this change has taken place, it seems to act spontaneously, permitting the energies of the mind to be directed to other subjects; and the person pursues, almost unconsciously, the course which above all others is to be chosen. He is thus obeying one principle, while he is investigating another. While he is making new acquisitions, he is enjoying the advantages of the old ; and all that he acquires, becomes a part of himself.
This is then the third and last object of the student, to reduce to practice the principles acquired by classical study, and make them laws of his mind.
It is one of the many peculiar advantages of classical study, that this application is ever so ready at hand. It requires no costly apparatus, no complicated machinery. The mind is the great instrument, and this is ever present. Indeed, the very study itself, unlike most other studies, not only permits, but to a considerable extent, even requires the continual application of the principles it teaches.
Of the principles of language, the application is of two kinds. By the first, we obtain from words the thoughts and feelings of which they are significant; by the second, we express thoughts and feelings in their appropriate words. The first, is the art of interpretation ; the second, of composition. These are both of daily use in the study of the languages; for translation is but a combination of the two; and it is the only exercise which involves both, while it is at the same time the best for each. We never interpret so fully and clearly, as when we must give an exact version ; and the demand is never made upon us for so extensive a vocabulary, and such varied forms of language, as when we endeavor to express the thoughts of others. As an exercise for the formation of style, translation is evidently superior to original composition. In the latter, the mind is too much engrossed, or should be too much engrossed with the thought, to think much of the drapery that is thrown around it; in the former, the thought is given, and the drapery may be the object of undivided attention. In the latter, the student's vocabulary and forms of speech, are limited by the narrow boundaries of youthful thought ; in the former, they must be enlarged, so as to take in the greatest conceptions of the most mature and gisted minds.
The application of the principles of literature, like that of the principles of language, is two fold; first, to the appreciation of literary merit in others; secondly, to the attainment of literary excellence ourselves. The first is the work of the critic, the second of the author. It is especially important at the present day, that every educated man should be versed in both. The world is swarming with new books, upon which he must be able to pronounce an enlightened opinion; not only that their authors may receive justice, but that the judgment and taste of the less educated around him, may not be led astray. And yet there is a constant call for new composition. There never was a period, when the pen and voice, of every man who could use either, was more imperatively required in the cause of truth and virtue. There is a general conflict of opinion and feeling, which summons every man to the field, who can carry a weapon. How important, that he should come fully equipped, and perfectly trained to the use of all his arms. Classical study, above all other pursuits, furnishes a powerful excitement, and an admirable opportunity for the preparatory training required. It is constantly bringing before the student the noblest subjects for criticism, master-pieces of art, on which he may try and perfect his taste; and, consequently, the finest models in composition, to which he may refer as to a standard, his own efforts.
The practical applications of the remaining department of classical study, are too extensive and various to be noticed in this place. Indeed my endeavor in respect to the whole subject, has been merely to state the plan of the building, and give a few rude sketches, here of an arch, and there of a pillar, leaving it to my readers to extend the arch in long perspective, to multiply the pillar into the magnificent colonnade, and to add the various decorations, which are
requisite to complete the splendor, dignity and beauty of the whole.
The great number, variety and importance of the subjects, sciences, and arts, which are embraced in the complete circle of classical study, need no remark. But there is a feature in the course, which it may be more important to notice. Notwithstanding all this number and variety, there is still throughout, so intimate a connection, as to give to the whole a perfect unity. The study is one, and yet many. It has been called a circle ; in one respect it closely resembles it, Though it runs in every direction, it is still but a single line. The connection between the three departments, we have already noticed. That between the three great objects of pursuit in each department, is not less intimate. As particulars are the necessary introduction to generals, so it is by generals only, that we can retain many particulars. And as general principles are the only proper foundation for practical effort, so it is by this effort alone, that we can make these principles thoroughly our own. Thus are all the parts of classical study bound together by a golden chain ; so that every acquisition in any part, is of service in all the rest. And no one can perfect himself in a single part, without a knowledge of the others; so that even the seeming paradox is true, that the whole may be learned more easily than any part.
Let the student complete the magic circle, as early as he can, and let his subsequent efforts be directed to the sym, metrical extension of this circle in all directions. Who has not noticed, as the pebble drops into the water, the completeness of the ring that first appears, however small; and then watched to see, how it preserves the same form, as it enlarges on every side, till it is lost on the extended surface ? Similar to this should be the progress of the mind. Thus should it preserve its symmetry, and thus should it enlarge itself, till it is lost on the boundless expanse of truth. But no, it is never lost. It extends itself only like a conqueror, to make all that it passes over, its own.
The wonderful combination of the most perfect unity with the most extensive diversity, which characterises classical study, renders it of all pursuits the best fitted to enlarge, discipline, and mature the whole mind. No faculty is neglected, and all are cultivated with perfect harmony, and in due proportion. All the perceptive powers are called into
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exercise in the nice observation of particulars; all the reflective, in their arrangement and generalization; and all the practical, in the application of the results obtained by the former. By this study, memory enlarges her storehouses; discernment becomes more eagle-eyed ; judgment improves in accuracy; taste acquires new delicacy; imagination plumes her wings for a loftier Alight; while the soul is brought into the delightful consciousness of having commenced that progress of enlargement and elevation, for which it was created, and which is destined never to cease,
PHYSICAL CULTURE, THE RESULT OF MORAL
There is a disposition in almost every mind, to reach heaven, when this life is ended. All, except a few daring outlaws, who, by a life of sin, have grieved away the Holy Spirit, express the intention of being saved. Must not then every such mind have impressed upon it, more or less deeply, the desire of knowing what it must do to inherit eternal life? To enable each one to answer this momentous inquiry, a merciful God has granted to this favored Christian land, besides the unerring Scriptures, a sacred ministry, who, from Sabbath to Sabbath, direct the inquiring soul towards the Redeemer's kingdom, and journey on from day to day with the anxious spirit, towards the haven of eternal rest. To aid the mind in its search for truth, the press pours out a food of knowledge, to enlighten and instruct the intellect, not only in the arts and sciences, but also in religion. So that the mind may drink in new supplies of wisdom, to enlarge its capacities, and strengthen its powers, for the more perfect enjoyment of the pleasures of the life to come. Thus the soul, which is to live forever, and the mind, which is to extend into eternity, are regarded and provided for, by the gifted children of the Lord,
This is indeed well; but it does not reach the whole nature of man. Composed of body, mind, and spirit, the entire nature must receive a like tendency towards divine life.
While, then, so many are engaged in directing the mind and spirit to new acquirements of truth and knowledge, would it not be well to have pointed out to the accountable children of God, the duties which they owe to their mortal frames ?
In the following pages this subject will be noticed ; in doing which, I shall, .
First, Briefly advert to some of the reasons which may be offered, to show the religious duty of the physical culture of man :
Then, Exhibit some of the general principles on which this culture is founded :
And, Subjoin a few plain aphorisms, for the practical performance of the duty.
The subject of physical education would be too extensive for this short essay. It will therefore be confined to some of its branches.
Let parents, and all those who have the care of the young, consider this important subject. Let all, who would know their duty to the body, enter seriously upon its investigation. Let the Christian learn more of that duty which he owes bis mortal frame. Let the inquirer after truth enter this untrodden path of knowledge. Let all responsible and accountable agents, who shall read these pages, make the few suggestions which they contain the beginning of a conscientious investigation of the subject, that shall result in a holy dedication of the body to God, and a sacred cultivation of its powers for his service.
I state first, the grounds of the duty of this culture ; and remark, that
The powers of the body should be cultivated, because it is the workmanship of God, and the most wonderful part of his creation upon the earth. The works of the Creator were all designed, and are perfectly adapted, to glorify him. As the creatures of his hand, all animate and inanimate nature is vocal with his praise. In this sense, even man exalts his Maker. But while the heavens declare the glory of God, and the world which he has made answers his call to praise him, man alone, the noblest of his creatures, will