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gives fore instances of the good effe&ts of Sailing, in those disa orders, which practice Dr. Gilchrist has endeavoured to revive. Dr. W. is considerably, but very judiciously, diffuse on the use of opium, not only as a palliative, but even sometimes as a cure in certain circumstances of these difeases. He makes some very necessary practical distinctions in directing it; and with regard to its succeeding, by a very gradual exhibition of it, in such as were thought incapable of bearing it (which was true in a com'mon dose) he usefully afsures us, p. 362. as follows. Nay, this way, those who suffer most from opium may be brought at length io bear it easily; a remarkable instance of which I lately had in a lady, whom four or five drops of laudanum taken by the mouth, affected with a violent pain and cramp in her stomach; and fixteen drops in a clyfter, though it did not occasion
these complaints, made her delirious for twelve hours; for this lady, having afterwards begun with one drop of Laudanum, gradually rose to twenty-five; nay, she has sometimes taken that quantity thrice a day, without feeling any of its former bad effects. In cases of great fickness, accompanied with a pain in the stomach and frequent vomiting, when the patient could not bear Laudanum inwardly, I have ordered three or four tea-spoon'fuls of it to be rubbed into the stomach and belly, afterwards applying to these parts a piece of Aannel moistened with hungary water made hot. The effect was, that all the patients complaints began to abate in less than an hour after the application of the laudanum, which I ordered to be repeated at the distance of fix or eight hours, if it was necessary.'
In cases where opium disagreed, from the costiveness. generally attending it, Dr. W. has experienced very good effects from the extract of Henbane, given from one grain and a half to three or four at bed-time, and repeated in a smaller quantity in the morning. After some practical remarks on camphire, castor, musk and afa fætida in these diseases, he gives a very remarkable case, p. 374 to 377.of an hypochondriac patient afflicted with a violent head-ach, and a bad state of the stomach for three years, which were at last removed by, opium, beginning with half a grain every night at bed-time, and gradually increasing it to i gr. and 1, and sometimes to two grains in a day. The cure however was very gradual, for though he was fenfibly better within a month after beginning it, and in eight or ten months free from all his most troublesome complaints, so that he then began to lessen the dose, or take it only every other night, yet we find it was not until the third year after his beginning it, that he was so well as not to need above three doses of it in a twelve, month. Dr. W. thinks a strong infulon of tanfy may be available in
to the heat of the hand. This article concludes with observings that, when this symptom arises from Marp humours in the ftomach or intestines, the expulsion or correction of them is necessary to any durable relief.
For the removal or palliation of hysteric faintings with convulsions, he directs some of the anti-hysteric fæcids, but declares he never found any thing fo effectual as the pediluvium; by which, after the vain exhibition of various medicines, he has seen the patients restored, as it were instantaneously, to their fenfes.
If violent pain with a cramp in the stomach be attended with an inclination to vomit, he promotes it with warm water, and then directs a glyster of fix ounces of the same, with laudanum; from fifty to eighty drops; giving also two spoonfuls of a mixture of musk, with some stomachic and carminative water every four hours. When this fymptom is owing to the true gout, blisters to the ancles are added.
An indigestion, with vomiting and pain in the stomach, is to be treated variously according to its particular cause : When owing to scirrhous obstructions in the alimentary canal, palliation only can be expected. Two cases are given here of ladies cured chiefly or folely by laudanum, after the failure of many other medicines. In flatulent hysteric colics, with a coftive body, laxative clyfters, with a drachm or two of afa fætida, are recommended. In violent vomitings, draughts of salt of wormwood with lemon juice are ordered to be taken in the act of effervescence. But Dr. W.avers, he has always succeeded in such cases, by directing a clyster of warm water, with fifty, fixty, or even eighty drops of laudanum in it; giving, in case of cortiveness, fome pills of aloes with calomel, whose operation ensued after that of the opium had terminated. In flatulence of the stomach, he advises the spiritus æthereus with laudanum; giving an instance of a lady about 45, who, in an extraordinary siatulent distension of the stomach, found nothing relieve her so immediately, as a tea-spconful of this spirit, in two table-spoonfuls of water, which always brought up a deal of wind.
Under the article of a nervous asthma, which he observes to vary considerably in different persons, and to require a various treatment, he gives a singular case exactly described, in which he found the most considerable relief, and even a temporary cure, from the bark. For palpitations of the heart he directs a various treatment, according to their different causes, those arising from polypi in the heart, or its great blood vessels, or from oflification of its valves, being capable only of palliation. Among other remedies in an immoderate flux of pale urine, such as bark with some cinamon, alun, &c, he recommends a tight broad belt about the patients loins, or a strengthening plaster, giving
one instance of the success of the first, and two of the latter application. He has known a violent periodical head-ach, in a good measure prevented by a dráugħt consposed of 45 drops of laudanum, 45 of tincture of ipecacuanna, half an ounce of spirit of mindererus, an ounce of rose-water, and two drachms of sugar taken an hour before the usual approach of the paroxysm, which generally excites a plentiful sweat, while it leffens the pain. Many other remedies are directed here, according to the different causes of this afflicting symptom; the cure of which, when violent, he thinks, is always to be commenced with pediluvium, &c. Low-spirits, the last article in this chapter, are considered as resulting from four different causes, the specific treatment of each being added; though the Author very ingenuously concludes his work, with respect to this symptom, from the fourth cause, in the following terms. " When low spirits or melancholy have been owing to long continued grief, anxious thoughts, or other distress of the mind, nothing has done more service than agreeable company, daily exercise, ånd a variety of amusements.'
Thus have we given as full, and as connected an abridgment of this useful and ingenious work, as our plan admits of. The Author's frequent and modest acknowlegements of his insufficiency to account clearly for all the phænomena of this multiform disease, wholly to eradicate its various causes, many of which are inherent in the original fabric of several constitutions, or always to remove their effects; these considerations, we say, must abundantly preclude every ingenuous Reader, from making any such objections to his work, as are manifestly founded in the great limitation of the human capacity. It was imporfible for us not to observe, from this survey of the treatise, that few medical works of the same length have been conducted with -a spirit more directly opposite to that of empiricism, or mean selfishness; the Author, having, we suppose, published full as many instances of his failure as of his success; whence it is plain the love of truth must have operated in him with a great and very amiable influence. Where he differs, either from the particular opinions of other eminent medical writers, or from the generally received doctrines and practice in these diseases, which are not very seldom the case, it has not the air of differing for the sake of contention or through the love of novelty : fince generally some very probable, and often indeed strong reasons are produced to countenance, or to confirm his difference of judgment. He seems, without the least reserve; to have faithfully communicated whatever was remarkable, and fell within his own experience, in the cure or mitigation of this class of diseases, for which the republic of medicine are the more obliged to him from their natural abstruseness, which he has conRev. Sept. 1765.
tributed fumewhat to lesson. At the same time by discountenancing some very fanciful investigations of their causes, and advancing others that seem more simple and intelligible, he has evinced that strong affinity, which Hippocrates affirms between very good common and medical understanding.
Sermons on the relative Duties. Preached at Queen-sireet Chappel
, and St. Paul's Covent-Garden. By the Rev. Thomas Francklin, M. A. Vicar of Ware in Hertfordshire. 8vo. 48. bound. Dodfey, &c.
THAT we usually term the Relative Duties are generally
ranked under the fix following heads ---the duty of children to parents, and of parents to children, of servants to masters, and of masters to servants; of wives to husbands, and of husbands to wives. On each of these we have here a separate discourse, together with an introductory fermon, on domestic happiness. The ingenious Author avoids entering into those minuter parts of each duty which depend on the various ranks, circumstances, and conditions of human life; he only sketches the outlines, he says, which must be filled up and finifacd by the Reader's own sense and observation.
As the several subjects of Mr. Francklin's discourses have been frequently treated by some of the ableft of our moral Writers, the discerning Reader will not expect any thing new upon them, nor to see them treated in a more striking and interesting manner than they have already been ; especially as the Author confines himself to general views, which, however useful or agreeable they may be to a certain class of Readers, are, perhaps
, not the best adapted to impress the minds of the generality.
These fermons, however, are much superior to the common productions of this kind, and are distinguished by a liberal turn of thought, an easy and elegant fow of language, which must be acceptable to every Rcader of taste.
We thall give a speci men of his manner, from his fermon on the Duty of husbands to wives. The words he discourses from are, Lei every one of you love his wife even as himself. Ephef. v. 33.—The general term love, he tells us, comprehends regard and affection, contancy and fidelity, tenderness and delicacy, prudence and discretion, good- nature and indulgence, care and protection, indufry and fobriety, piety and virtue. • Infidelity, fays be, on the part of the husband is indeed
so universal, that its opposite virtue is almost out of counfinance; it is troied as vevial by one fex, and submitted
unavoidable by the other; the world is so complaisant as to stile it gallantry, and because it is known to be fashionable, it is not condemned as unlawful: thus vice is palliated with the name of error, and that which is in reality the highest disgrace to our nature, is considered as an ornament of it. Custom hath, I know not how, given a kind of sanction to it on one side, and at the same time condemned it on the other; as if God had, like man, made his laws with partiality and injustice, and that the seventh commandment were enjoined only against the weaker vessel ; but let those who thus miserably deceive themselves remember, that the same solemn contract hath engaged both : that if they neglect the obligation, and spurn at the command, it is not the injured wife alone who will resent the infringement of it: good men will consider it as an outrage against virtue here, and God will assuredly punish it as such hereafter.
• But to affection and fidelity, the good husband must also add tenderness and delicacy. It is the good-nature and complacency of the host, which makes the pleasure of the conquest; and in the manner of conferring a favour, there is almost as much merit as in the bestowing it. The husband, therefore, is to consider not how much, but to whom he gives; not what he speaks only, but to whom it is spoken : in his behaviour to his wife, the heart must seem to follow the hand, and the mind to direct the tongue; he should suit that delicacy which he would oblige, and imitate that elegance which he would please. To a wife, mere civility is coldness, and, mere complaifance is indifference; to her a more expressive kindness should add a grace to every word, and a peculiar tenderness diffuse itself over every action. It is, indeed, this behaviour alone, which can soften and temper the rudeness of masculine feverity, and give a polish to the rougher manners of one half of mankind; it is this tender commerce, and this delicate connection, which throws a lustre over the conversation of the civilized world, and constitutes in a great measure, the most elegant and refined pleasures of human life. < But further :
To love, fidelity and tenderness, the husband must likewise add, prudence and discretion.
• Half the miseries and disquietudes, half the interruptions of conjugal peace and domestic felicity arise from desires too ardent, and hopes too fanguine; both parties, at their first entrance into the nuptial state, especially in youth, are apt to form to themselves ideas, very inadequate and disproportioned to the condition of buman life; to entertain delusive notions of a romantic and visionary paradise, where the earth is cloathed with perpetual verdure, the Aowers never fade, and the fruits are immortal ; but when, instead of this, they begin, perhaps in a