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short time, to feel the thorns springing up under their feet, when they perceive the fruits to wither, and the verdure to decay, they are filled with unreasonable wonder and astonishment; they had accustomed themselves to look for nothing less than uninterrupted health, conftant success, invariable harmony and affection: they suffer, therefore, not so much from the evil which they have as from the want of that which they have not. At the beginning of the voyage, the sky is generally clear, the waters calm and unruffled; but, to conclude from thence, that we are to fail through life, without storm or tempeft, is, to the Jast degree, absurd and unreasonable. It is the duty and the interest of both therefore, and especially of him who fits at the helm, to prepare against the worft, to steer the vessel with all possible care and diligence, and conduct it safely into the harbour of peace and felicity.
• Proceed we then to another neceffary branch of the hus. band's duty, good-nature and indulgence. In a world so full of miseries and misfortunes, errors and inadvertencies, paffions and follies, differences both in opinion and practice must arise, where the connection is close and intimate; mutual complacenty and forbearance, therefore, are absolutely and indispenfably neceffary in the married state ; power is never so amiable, as when clothed with meekness and humility ; and the fuperiority of our own understanding will be always most evident, when it condescends to forgive or to relieve the weakness of another. When women offend, therefore, they are to be confidered as women ; as beings whofe power and faculties are not so extensive, whose judgment and reason are not so strong and solid as our own; whole experience is confined within a much narrower circle; whose understandings are limited and enfeebled by education; who are liable therefore, with the greater eafe to be seduced or imposed on ; not sufficiently aware of arts which they are themselves ignorant of; nor upon their guard against that guilt, which they never practice.
• Vanity and extravagance are the stale and trite excuses for cruelty, inconitancy, and inhumanity in the worft of husbands;
certain it is, that he who is the cause ought not to murmur at the effect; and he who makes his own misery, hash no right to complain of it: what shall we say, if the weeds, which thus overrun the garden, are planted there and cultivated too by our own hands? Flattery, too lavishly bestowed, will. naturally produce that pride which is thus condemned ; and that pride enfamed and encouraged will as naturally beget luxury ftravagance; is it not most abfurd then to be surprised
idol expeéls worship, when men have taken id much railc it; or that when they have been at fucht expence
to feed a vice, they should be astonished at the size and the increase of it?
• If the husband is already possessed of love, fidelity, tenderness, prudence, and good. nature, he will always remember that most effential part of his duty to his wife, which consists in the care and protection of her, in providing for and maintaining her, as well as his situation, rank, and circumstances in life will permit.
• The superior strength, power, and capacities of one sex, as I have before observed to you, were originally designed to protect and preserve the other woman is left by nature, weak and defenceless, unable to struggle with the troubles and difficulties, or contend with the fraud and malice of an ill-natured and designing world : on man, who is more able, she must rely for aid and support; this aid and support, this necessary care and assistance, the husband is bound conftantly to afford her: he receives her, for the most part, from the hands of those, under whose wing she had till that time been safe and happy; from those whose goodness he promiseth to supply, and whose indulgence he hath sworn to imitate : he snatches her from the borom of parental tenderness to feed and cherish her in his own : as he hath taken her therefore from one protection, it is incumbent on him to provide her with another : to give her, without selfishness or reluctance, as her indisputable right, a share of all that he hath, of all the good things which God hath pleased to bestow upon him ; The hath an undoubted claim to all his joys and pleasures, and he hath no right to withhold any thing from her, but his sorrows and misfortunes.'
The foregoing extract may fuffice for a specimen of Mr. Francklin's manner, in regard to pulpit compofitions; those who are desirous of becoming acquainted with his performances in different brancheɛ of literature, are referred to our accounts of his Poem on Translation ; of his Sophocles ; and of his Dirsertation on ancient Tragedy : for all which, See the* GENERAL INDEX to our first twenty-four volumes.
• To be had of T. Becket ; in two parts.
Specimens of abbreviated Numbers, or, an Introduction ta an En.
tire New Species of Arithmetic : Calculated in a more especial Manner for the Counting- house and Public Offices, particularly the Cuftoms, Exchequer, and Excise : The Principle being founded on a new Method of finding the Decimal for any Coin, Weight, or Time, &c. &c. By one single Multiplication only, without the Ufa of a Pulgar Fraction. And also lon a Method hitherto undiscovered)
of finding the Interest of any Sum, at any Rate, and for any Time: By one single Multiplication, not exceeding three Figures, without the Aisistance of Siatings, or Reference to Tables : reducing the whole Body of Arithmetic, (so far as it relates to General Calculations) to a Synopsis confined to the four first Rules of Arithmetic. The whole founded on a principle hitherto unattempted, and now first offered to the Public. By William Wefton. 8vo. 45. bound. Marfi, &c.
N the preface to this little treatise, the Author has given us
to understand, that the piece before us is nothing more than a specimen of what he intends hereafter (on proper encouragement) to produce on the same subject; that the work is replete with novelty; and that this discovery will tend to render the doctrine of vulgar and decimal fra&tions rather curious than useful. He adds that he does not at present think proper to inform the world, by what method this species of figures was firkt discovered ; that being reserved for his future work.
This new method, as our Author calls it, is performed by the multiplication of certain factors, or numbers, a specimen of which he has given is in the following table.
A TABLE Of Factors, to be used as Multipliers, for the reducing any Coin, Weight, Measure, Time, &c. &c. &c. into a Decimal Fraction, by one single Operation only, viz.
AvoIRDUPOISE WEIGHT, the Integer an Hundred 1l'eight. Multiply by 893 to find the Decimal of any Number of Pounds, 558
Number of 349
any Number of Drams. TROY WEIGHT, the Integer a Pound. Multiply by 834 to find the Decimal of any Number of Ourers. 417
any Number of Pennsscts. 174
any Number of Grains Coin, the Integer a Pound Sterling. Tultiply by 5 to find the Decimal of any Number of Shillings. 417
any Number of Perce. 1042
any Number of Fariningse Time, considered as a Calendar Year of 12 Months. Multiply by 275 to find the Decimal of any Number of Days, 834
any Number of Months, 193
any Number of Weeks. & N. B. As this is intended but as a specimen, I have only introduced examples of the three most useful cafes, viz. Weight,
Coin, and Time ; (until I see what reception this innovation in figures will meet with.) And for the working thereof, take the following
GENERAL RULE. • MULTIPLY the given Coin, Weight, &c. &c. by the given Factor as in Whole Numbers, and the Product is the Decimal, placing your Peint of Separation, and prefixing Cyphers where necesary.
Such is the method delivered by the Author; and surely a discovery that will render the doctrine of vulgar and decimal fractions rather curious than useful, must be of amazing importance to the world! No wonder therefore the Author has thought proper to keep the secret to himself. But as every man has a right to enjoy his own opinion, and as we do not think so highhy of this discovery (if indeed it be any discovery at all) we will endeavour to Ahew how these boasted factors may be found de novo. Nor will there be the least necessity for our having recourse to any new or abstruse process; the old method of changing vulgar fractions into decimals being abundantly fufficient for the purpose: for they are in fact nothing more than the decimals of units expressed in the denominations of the given integers.
Thus the factor to find any number of pounds, averdupois weight, the integer being an hundred weight, is it=.008328+. The factor for ounces, thoz
Troy weight, the integer a pound.
Coin, the integer a pound Sterling.
For farthings, a=001011+
Behold! gentle Reader; the tenebrious veil is withdrawn; the whole secret is discovered; the boasted factors and their origin are seen in open day; and, what is still more, several of them appear to be inaccurate and defective ! Inaccurate, because the last figure is too great ; and defective, because the prefixed cyphers are omitted. Mr. Weston indeed observes that cyphers must be prefixed where necessary ;' but has not told us how tve are to know when they are, and when they are not neceffary; whereas, had those cyphers been suffered to have kept their original places, the difficulty would never have existed.
The discovery of one secret more will we believe be abun. dantly fufficient to shew the real merit of this new species of arithmetic. The whole doctrine, with a table of factors, and the application to practice, may be seen in Mr.Ward's well known treatise entitled The Young Mathematician's Guide, page 70. first Edit. A book which ever since its first publication in the year 1707, has been in the hands of almost every student in arithmetic.
In a word, the doctrine of solving questions by factors has been known for ages, and particularly practised in the art of gauging. Nor is there hardly a school boy so ignorant as not to know, that, in solving a question in the golden rule, he may either multiply the second and third numbers together, and divide that product by the first number ; or divide the second number by the first, and multiply the third number by that quo. tient. Now the above quotient is really a factor, and will indeed often tend to shorten the operation. But surely this is no new discovery, unless what has been known ever fince the time of Euclid, at least, and probably long before, can be called by that name.
An Esay on a Course of liberal Education for civil and active Life.
With Plans of Lefures on I. The Study of History and General Policy. II. The History of England. II. The Constitution and Laws of England. To which are added, Remarks on a Code of Education, proposed by Dr. Brown, in a late Treatise, intitled, Thoughts on Civil Lilerty, &c. By Joseph Priestley, L. L. D. Tutor in the Languages and Belles Letters in the Academy at Warrington. 8vo.“ 3s. '6d. Boards. Henderson,
T is a great defe&t, as Dr. Priestley very justly observes, that
of study is provided for young gentlemen designed to fill the principal fations in allive life; these being indiscriminately brought up in the same manner as others intended for the learned professions. "We have hardly, says he, any medium between an education for the counting-house, consifting of writing, arithmetic, and merchants-accounts, and a method of inftitution in the abftract sciences : so that we have nothing liberal, that is worth the attention of gentlemen, whose views neither of these tvo onnosite plans may suit.
morly, none but the clergy were thought to have any - learning. It was natural, therefore, that the whole ation, from the grammar-school, to the finishing at