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in fummer ; but this never withers: one of the qualities of it being to continue in fap all the year. The land on which it is fown should be in fine tilth, and free from weeds, especially couch-grass, which is the most hurtful. If the land is poor, it should be dunged, and laid down very smooth. The seed may be covered with a very light harrow, for it will not bear to be buried deep, and the ground should then be rolled, that it may be smooth for mowing. It may be fown at any time between April and September.'
Mr. Mills observes, that if the seeds of plants which do not arrive at their perfection in a few months, or during the firft
year, such as lucerne, fainfoin, and burnet, are sown in the spring, or beginning of summer, and the weather prove dry, or cold, the young plants are often crippled or destroyed : but if they are fown in the latter end of July, or beginning of August; the rains frequent at that season, the heavy dews which fall, and the increasing coolness of the nights, often bring them as forward by the latter end of November, as those sown in April.'
• Ten pounds of burnet-seed may do for an acre of land: but twelve, fourteen, or even fixteen, pounds will be better; because, when burnet is thin, the plants grow so large, that the hay made of them is coarse. These will rise in eight or nine days after the sowing *'- The plants must, at first, be kept very clean from weeds, but afterwards, we are told, that the quick and bushy growth of burnet, by which it soon covers all the ground, is, of itself, an almost effectual bar to weeds.'
• If the burnet does not grow equally every where, fome plants must be drawn where they are too thick, and planted where they are thinnest.' The seed sown in May may be mowed (he fays) at the latter end of July ::—but quære; and see the note *.
The first spring-cutting will purge horses; and Mr. Rocque believes it will also cure the grease : but it is only the first crop that purges.'Burnet should be mowed but once the first year, in order to leave it rank in the winter; and in this case it will be ready to feed in February or March, or to mow again in April.'
• When the seeds of this plant are to be saved, it must neither be fed, nor mowed, in the spring. The seed will be ripe about the middle of June, when it must be reaped, like wheat, and threshed on a cloth, before it is too dry, because it is apt to Ined, and it should afterwards be dried perfectly.'
Here we almost doubt the fact. - A friend of ours, who sowed some burnet last May, did not discover any appearance of the plants for more than twice that space of time. It was not cut the last week of Auguft; but it covered the ground pretty well, at that sime.
• Burnet does not lose its leaves in drying; and though the hay made of it be sticky, it will, after threshing, be very agreeable to horses, which are lo fond of it, that they never waste any. One acre will produce upwards of three loads of hay, and above forty bushels of seed. Horses are fonder of this seed, than of oats: and it is not only good for horses, but also for all manner of cattle; even for swine : and Mr. Rocque has experienced another virtue in it, which is, that, being ftung by a wasp, the leaves of this plant rubbed pretty hard upon the part so injured, immediately took off the inflammation.'
What has been said above, may possibly induce some of our Readers to make a trial of this much commended plant : and whether it merits all the encomiums that have been bestowed upon it, will best appear from their own experience. At present, however, it seems very deserving of that attention which every friend to Agriculture will be ready to pay to a plant, which promises lo much in the fingle article of a green winter pasture for sheep. If this circumstance should be happily confirmed by experience, it will indeed be a valuable acquisition ; as it mutt be owned, that few persons would chuse to eat the matton of Theep fed upon turnepy, (which always give it a rank tafte) if any other were to be had (in fufficient quantities) during the winter-season, and early in the spring.
Chap. III. gives a comparison of the Old Husbandry and the New. - As this is an object of the greatest importance, not only to the husbandman, as an individual, but to the nation in general ; Mr. Mills hopes to be excused, if he recapitulates Tome parts of what has been already said. Many gentlemen, he says, in this kingdom, have raised wheat in drills, horse-hoeing the alleys; and, where due care has been taken, generally with fuccefs: the grain has, in almost all inftances, been larger and better than that in the broad-cast way, and seldom less in quantity: sometimes it has been much more.
Moft of the experiments related in the second volume of this work shew, that, taking them only as fingle crops, they were equal to those sown in broad-cast, and raised at a much less expence, if we consider the saving in seed and manure: but if the produce of the same land is taken for several years running, the advantage is greatly in favour of the horse-hoeing Huibandry, in which the land, being never refted, brings a constant yearly return to the farmer. This difference will appear very confiderable, if we reckon, on the other hand, the loss of a crop, and the expence of a follow.'
• What will infinitely enhance the importance of this Hulbandry, is the advantage which may arise from a judicious change of
crops. This change of species becomes the more adviseable, when we reflect, that a crop of some of the before
mentioned roots is of equal, or rather superior, value to a crop of wheat.'
Mr. Mills, in summing up his comparison of the old Hufbandry and the new, says, -The importance of the new Hufbandry will appear considerable in a national light; for “ if (as he goes on) we compute the land now under corn in this king, dom, we might estimate one third to be fallow *; but I will suppose it to be only one fourth: and if we reckon the crops, for instance of wheat, to be, in general, under three quarters of an acre; and that, from land kept constantly in fo excellent order as it is in the new Husbandry, we might expect four quarters ; the difference to the nation will become very great indeed : such as, perhaps, no political arithmetician has yet dreamed of :--and the number of people may be proportionably increased.'
• Another circumstance attending the general practice of the new Husbandry, in point of population, is, that as the land will yield a greater increase of its various productions, and that increased variety will require a greater attention than is usually bestowed on farms, these muft, in general, become much less exo tenfrue than they now aret: and the certain consequence of this will be, that the number of farmers and labourers being increased, the number of people in the country, the only fource of population, will also be greatly augmented. If we look 'round this kingdom, and remark the numbers of acres lying waste and uncultivated, and then add thereto the happy consequences of an improved culture of the rest ; a very great, and a new, source of population immediately presents itself. This (as he very justly concludes) furely deserves the most serious attention of the legislature, and of every individual who is possessed of wastes and commons.'
In Chap. IV. Mr. Mills proceeds to treat of NATURAL GRASSES: the production of which, writers on Husbandry (he says) rightly commend as the cheapest, casiest, least hazardous, and mot profitable branch of farming. And then adds,
• It is surprising to think, how long a due attention to this important object has escaped the notice of mankind, and how
. This looks somewhat like an Irishisım :-for how should the land noru under corn (in the old way of Husbandry) be, any of it, at the same time fallow? We presume, therefore, that he only means that a third or fourib part of the whole arabie land in the kingdom, is (in the old way) follow every year.This, perhaps, may not be much amiss: though we cannot help thinking the calculation full high enough, upon the whole.
+ 'This would be an excellent regulation for the public: as nowing tends so much to hinder popularion, and increase the number of ingroffers, as the turn many gentlemen have unhappily taken, of throwing their elates into large farms. S4
much the easy means of making a proper advantage of the bounteous gifts of nature, in almost every country, have been strangely neglected and overlooked : for nothing has been delivered in any book, concerning the kinds of plants proper for the different kinds of cattle: the consequence of which inattention frequently is, that the farmer, by not distinguishing and selecting the seeds of proper grasses, fills his pastures with weeds, or, which is here equivalent to them, with bad grasses, unfit for the nourishment of the creatures which he intends to
In Sect. 2. of this Chap. he gives us the names and culture of the several grasses fittest for pastures. And, after justly censuring the common way of proceeding to lay down land to grass, by taking the seeds indiscriminately from a foul hay-rick ; by which Novenly method, the ground is often filled with weeds; he advises (after Mr. Stillingfeet, in his Observations on Grafjes) to have a few clean seeds gathered by hand; for would but the farmer be at the pains of separating, once in his life, half a pint, or a pint, of the different kinds of grass feeds, and take care to sow them separately; in a very little time he would have wherewithal to stock his farm properly, according to the nature of each soil.'
It is then added, how easy Mr. Stillingfleet found it to procure the creeping bent, the fine bent, the sheep's fescue, the crested dog-tail, and other valuable grasses, (of which drawings are given) by employing children of ten or eleven years old, to gather the seeds for him ; which, he says, they did, without making any mistakes, after he had once thewn them the forts
• Wherever farmers a&t in this undistinguishing manner, their management must be allowed, indeed, to be very bad. But still we are not entirely without our doubts, whether even the present work will be fufficient for their full instruction in this useful branch of Husbandry. For though the Author attempts to lay down rules for the farmer's guidance in this interesting concern; yet they seem not to be altogether to clear as might be wished. But this defect may, perhaps, be owing to the contradictions he met with in the writers from whom the rules he delivers are chiefly selected. Thus, p. 308, we are told, from Linnæus, that horses easily diftinguish wholefome from noxious food; and that some of those animals (in one of his journeys) when fo very hungry, as even to devou molt forts of plants they happened to meet with in a wood, (where he stopt to search for botanical curiofities) would not, however, eat monk's-hood, and fome other species of plants.-But notwithstanding this, we are told, in the very next page, viz. 309, (from the Swedish. Pan) that monk's. hood kills a goat, but will not hurt a borse : -as how indeed should it, if he cappot, even by the fevereft hunger, be brought to taste it i-We think that such apparent contradictions as the above, and some others that we have occasionally met with, fhould not haye been inserted, without an attempt, aţ least, to reconcile them.
he wanted,'Tis also no bad method to leave a small part of a meadow, where the graffes are best, and leaft mixed, unmowed till the seeds are quite ripe, and fit for gathering.
« The number of graffes fit for the farmer is very small; perhaps half a dozen, or half a score, are all he need to cultivate; and how small the trouble would be of collecting the seeds of these, and how great the benefit, must be obvious at first sight.
In Se&. 3, our Author treats of the improvement of pastures already under grass. Many meadows and pasture-grounds, he ob ferves, are lo over-run with bushes, weeds, ant-hills, &c. that great part of them is loft to the husbandman, whose first care, therefore, should be, the removing of these obstacles : for the more effectual doing of which, several ufeful directions are given.
Worn-out lands are commonly over-run with mofs ; but whatever restores the pasture to a good heart, will (he fays) deItroy the moss.'
But the most effectual way of improving old grass-grounds, is by means of M. de Chateauvieux's three-coulter'd plough, which is to be used thus : In November, or December, the whole surface must be cut with that plough, into flips three inches wide, which is the distance between each of the coulters, This will have two effects; first, the coulters will tear up great part of the moss with which all old paftures are infected, and gradually destroy it: and secondly, the coulters, piercing five or fix inches deep into the earth, cut the extremities of many the roots of the grass, and those cut or broken roots afterwards produce new ones, which will give fresh strength and vigour to the plants, and, as it were, renew them, and make them young again.'
• To render this improvement still more perfect, as soon as the whole surface is cut, dung must be carried on, and spread as foon after as possible. The smaller the dung is broken, the more useful it will be: because its minute particles will then be best carried by the rain into the traces which the plough has cut, and give surprising strength to the plants. This method of repairing and improving poor or worn out meadows and pasture-grounds, does not require any great quantity of dung: one load of it will go as far, in this practice, as three would in the common way ; and be much more beneficial to the grass. M. de Chateauvieux has tried it for some years, with all the success he could desire. He thinks that one acre thus cultivated, will produce as much grass as ten in the common way.'
The necessity of water, in pastures, is fo evident; that Mr. Mills has given drawings of various machines for raising it, where it cannot otherwise be had : an excellent wheel for which purpose is represented by Fig. 7, Plate IV. This engine was invented by M. de la Faye, and is now used with great success by