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the Hon. Mr. Hamilton, at his seat at Pain's- hill in Surry, This machine consists of a wheel, which turns upon its axis, and has four curved pipes fixed to it. The mouth of the pipe ascends as the wheel is turned round by the stream, and the water (therein] descends, 'till the wheel has made balf* a turn', when it is discharged into the axle-tree, which is hollow, from an opening at the end of which it is conducted by troughs, or other channels, to wherever it is wanted.

We have next some very judicious observations and directions for watering of ground, in order to increase the quantity of grass; but for these, and some very useful remarks upon haymaking, we must refer to the book.

Chap. V. treats OF INCLOSING of land: ' a part of Husbandry,' (as Mr. Mills observes) in which the English have hitherto greatly excelled every other people ;- from which we daily reap such vast advantages, as leave room only to wonder, that there should yet remain among us prodigious tracts of now absolutely waste, though in fact, highly improveable, land. How immensely might the power and wealth of this nation, the splendor and revenues of the crown, and that most important object, population, the true bulwark of the strength and glory of a state, be increased, by inclosing, and cultivating, many parts of the extensive forests, heaths, and commons, in this puissant kingdom! The infinite benefits that would accrue therefrom, are evident to a demonstration.'

In particular ;-inclosures ascertain to every man his just property, and prevent trespasses, and litigation. They keep the land warm, and thereby add to its fertility. They afford fhade in the summer, and shelter in the winter, for cattle. Their cuttings afford fuel ; and are an encouragement to good Husbandry, and a remedy against beggary, by employing many poor people in the labour which the making, or mending, of them constantly requires, [but] which is amply repaid by the increase of crops : for it has been remarked, not only that well inclosed countries generally maintain treble the number of inhabitants to or more, than the champaign ; but also, that those in


So says Mr. Mills ;—but whoever views the draught of the wlieel in the plate, and confiders the structure of the pipes, will foon be convinced ibat it is absolutely impesible for the water to be discharged at all, when the wheel has made only half a turn; and that a ubole revolution must be performed, to produce that effect.

+ The inciosing of heaths, commons, and, what are commonly called, waste grounds, is undoubtedly a great benefit to the public, and a manifeft hel, to population, and therefore to be encouraged. But where large, open corn-fields are inclosed, we are not quite clear at the crops will be thereby much, if at all, increased : and we are


habitants are much better fed, and clad, than the common run of people in uninclosed lands.

Mr. Mills advises every gentleman whose estate is not yet inclosed, to begin with having a map of it drawn, that he may portion it out with the greater propriety, so as to render it most pleasing to the eye, and most convenient to each farmer.-And he very truly remarks, what is deserving of all such gentlemen's notice, that small farms have always been observed to yield the greatest proportional rent.'---[How then shall we account for that ruinous practice, which prevails in too many places, of letting a whole township to two or three overgrown farmers, who are thereby enabled to hoard up the annual gifts of providence, and in the midst of plenty, produce an artificial scarcity, to the enrichin, indeed of themselves, but to the unspeakable detriment of their poor neighbours; who, notwithstanding their utmost industry, are forced to crouch to these unfeeling masters, at the same time that they pay them an exorbitant price, for that corn which is required for the daily bread of themselves and families. -This grievance could never have arrived at the height it has done, if the Act of 31 Eliz. Cap. 7. Sect. 1. had been observed, which requires four acres of ground to be laid to every cottage (with some few exceptions only) erected since that time. But alas ! where will you find any cortage at all, with such a quantity of land occupied therewith, at this day?]

As to the methods of raising different kinds of fences, for inclofing land, we must refer to the book; and proceed to the laft Chap. of this Vol. which treats of the situation of farms and farmboufes :-a subject (as Mr. Mills observes) truly interesting to every inhabitant of the country, as the health, and consequently the welfare, of them all must greatly depend on the choice of proper situations to live in.

Besides the healthiness of the situation, the air, water, and foil, should be particularly attended to in the choice of a farm or estate. "The air fhould be pure and temperate ; the water wholsome and easily come at; and the soil rich.'

The buildings on the farm should be proportioned to the produce, especially as to store-rooms.—The house should be be built on the most healthy spot of the farm, in a temperate air, such as the middle of a hill commonly enjoys, where it is neither ftiling in the summer, nor exposed to the rage of winds and storms in the winter.

But as it is impollible for all houses to be thus situated, we

pretty well persuaded that the number of people will be greatly lefened by Such a practice ; for no small share of that land which must be ara . while in an open field, will be laid down to grass, when inclosed. And every one knows that grass-land is managed with much fewer bands than arable -and who will employ more than they want?


afterwards meet with several judicious methods of guarding, in some measure, against such inconveniences of situation, as can not wholly be removed, or avoided. The following Observations appearing just, as well as philosophical, we prefume the extract may be acceptable to out Readers.

« We are too little attentive to the situation of houses with regard to rivers; though a judicious choice in this must be of great consequence to the health of the inhabitants. A quick Aowing stream, with a clean channel and dry banks, will rather add to the beauty and healthiness of a country: but oozy banks over-run with weeds, or other strong coarfe grass, should be carefully avoided, as being a fhelter to all manner of putrid filth, from whence unsalutary vapours muft arise.--It is a general opinion, that it is fafer to dwell on the north, than on the fouth, fide of such a river. Yet it has been observed by a most ingenious gentleman, whose long residence in warm climates has afforded him ample opportunities of knowing the truth, that an pozy, flow-moving river, or a putrid marth, is leaft hurtful on the north-fide of a dwelling-place. The reason affigned by bim is, that the southerly winds being warm, putrefaction is thereby promoted and increased in such a river, or marsh, and the vapours are also more copiously raised. These vapours do not rife high into the air, rendered light by the warmth of the south wind, but rather glide along the surface of the earth, where they are moved by a gentle breeze, and so are brought into the houses, and breathed by the inhabitants, to the injuring of whose health their mischief is not confined; for they also hurt their furniture, and even their utensils of Husbandry: whereas when the north-wind blows, the air is generally cool, putre, faction is checked, fewer vapours arise, and thefe, by the greater density of the air, are sooner raised high and diffipated. Northerly winds are also generally brisker; and therefore the air has lefs time to be tainted in paffing over fuch river or marh. The same quantity of vapour arising in any given time, is diluted as it were, and its power weakened, by being mixed with a greater quantity of air. Add to this, that, poffibly, the human body, being more relaxed when the warm and southerly winds blow, may then be more susceptible of the injuries occafioned by these moist and putrid exhalations.'

This volume concludes with some observations on the great public evils attending the practice of landlords throwing their estates into very large farms : but as we have already introduced our own opinion upon this point, which entirely agrees with that of Mr. Mills, we too shall conclude with putting the landed gentlemen of this nation in mind of Virgil's direction,

Laudato ingentia rura,
Exiguum colito :

Georg. Lib. II. 412.


For, as Columella remarks, (Lib. I. C. 4.) « it is certain that a large tract of land not rightly cultivated, will yield less than a smaller space well cultivated.”.

The Account of Mr. Mills's Husbandry, to be concluded in our


Plain Trigonometry rendered easy and familiar, by Calculations in -- Arithmetic only: With its Application and Use in ascertaining all

Kinds of Heights, Depths, and Distances, in the Heavens, as well as on the Earth and Seas; whether of Tower's, Forts, Trees, Pyramids, Columns, Wells, Ships, Hills, Clouds, Thunder and Lightning, Atmosphere, Sun, Moon, Mountains in the Moon, Shadows of Earih and Moon, Beginning and End of Edipses, &c. In which is also shewn, a curious Trigonometrical Method of discovering the Places where Bees bive in large Woods, in order to obtain, more readily, the falutary Produce of those little Infetts. By the Rev. Mr. Turner *, date of Magdalen-hall, Oxford. Folio. 25. 6d. Crowder....' N a fhort dedication of this little treatise, the Author ob

serves, that the common method of answering trigonometrical problems being by large tables of fines, tangents and fee cants, renders it not only expensive by the purchase of them; but often precarious in the solution, by the mistakes of the press. I have therefore, adds he, for the use of the young mathematician, (from a confideration of what has been published on this curious subject) composed the present fyftem, by which any of the cases in right or oblique plain triangles may be anSwered on the spot, by an easy calculation in arithmetic only. The great advantages resulting from this methed to gentlemen in the army or navy, as well as to those in their private studies at home, muft immediately appear ; as it will be found to answer the most necessary problems as expeditiously as logarithms ; and at the same time wholly deliver you from those voluminous tables, and the inartificial fatigues of carrying them always

Having premised these confiderations as a reason for publishing the work before us, Mr. Turner lays down a few geometrical definitions and illustrations, and then proceeds to deliver the 'method for solving the several cases in plain trigonometry by arithmetic only, in the following axioms :

Axiom 1. Divide 4 times the square of the complement of the angle, whose .opposite fide is either given or fought, by 300

• Author of the View of the Earth ;-View of the Heavens ;-Syftem of Gaugiog -and Chronologer Perpetual.


with you.'

added to 3 times the said complement ; this quotient added to the said angle, will give you an artificial number, called some times the natural radius *, which will ever bear the fame proportion to the hypothenuse, as that angle bears to its opposite side.

In angles under 45 degrees, the artificial number may be found easier thus : divide 3 times the square of the angle itself

, whose opposite fide is given or fought, by 1000; the quotient, added to 57-3 t, a fixed number, that fum will be the artificial number required. This is to be used, when the angles and a lide are given, te find another side.

Axiom Il. The square of both the legs, i. c. the square of the base and perpendicular added together, is equal to the square of the hypothenuse; whose root is the hypothenuje itself.—This is

, made use of, when the base and perpendicular are given, to find the hypothenuse.

Axiom III. The sum of the hypothenuse and one of the legs multiplied by their difference, the square root of that product will be the other leg required. This comes into use, 'when the hypothenuse and one leg is given, to find the other leg.

. Axiom IV. Half the longer of the two legs, added to the bypothenuse, is always in proportion to 861, as the shorter leg is to its opposite Angle.This is useful, when the sides are given, to find the angles.

Why Mr. Turner should chuse to call the above rules by the name of axioms, we cannot imagine. An axiom implies a notion so plain and self-evident, that it cannot be rendered more conspicuous by demonstration : whereas the processes from whence some of the above rules were deduced, are concealed; and consequently they are so far from being axioms, that they have a fallacious appearance, and therefore require something more than the mere ipfe dixit of the writer to recommend them to the notice of geometricians.

But be that as it may, such is the method our Author has thought proper to follow, as being preferable to the logarithmical tables, which he seems to treat with contempt

. "We are however of opinion, that very few will follow the precepts he has laid down, and prefer a method consisting of large multiplications, divisions, and extractions of roots, to that of simple addition and subtraction. He tells us, indeed, that there is fome danger that the calculations by logarithms will prove erroneous, from the tables being incorrectly printed. There are doubtless fome errors in many of the logarithmical tables; but they are so

• The natural radius is only turning the right angle, into an artificial number, which shall always bear the fame proportion to the hy; othenuse, as the given angle does to its opposite leg. 1. ' † 57-3 is the radius of a circle whose circumference is 360. ** 86 = ruuius and half of a circle whose circumference is 560.'


- go degrees


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