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who served as intestine enemies to the bishops, and as a dead weight on the side of patriarchal tyranny. These monastic hire. lings contributed more than any thing else, to ruin the ancient ecclesiastical discipline, to diminish the authority of the bishops, and raise, to an enormous and excessive height, the power and prerogatives of their insolent and ambitious patrons.

. To these lamentable evils were added the ambitious quarrels, and the bitter animofities that arose among the patriarchs themselves, and which produced the most bloody wars, and the most detestable and horrid crimes. The patriarch of Constantinople diftinguished himself in these odious contests. Elated with the favour and proximity of the imperial court, he cast a haughty eye on all sides, where any objects were to be found, on which he might exercise his Jordly ambition. On the one hand, he reduced, under his jurisdiction, the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch, as prelates only of the second order ; and on the other, he invaded the diocese of the Roman pontif, and {poiled him of several provinces. The two former prelates, though they struggled with vehemence, and raised considerable tumults by their opposition, yet they struggled ineffectually, both for want of strength, and likewise on account of a variety of unfavourable circumstances. But the Roman pontif, far fun perior to them in wealth and power, contended also with more vigour and obftinacy, and, in his turn, gave a deadly wound to the usurped supremacy of the Byzantine patriarch.

• The attentive inquirer into the affairs of the church, from this period, will find, in the events now mentioned, the principal source of those moft scandalous and deplorable diffenfions, which divided, first, the eastern church into various sects, and afterwards separated it entirely from that of the west. He will find, that thele ignominious schisms Aowed chiefly from the unchristian contentions for dominion and fupremacy which reigned among those who set themselves up for the fathers and defenders of the church.

- None of the contending bishops found the occurrences of the times so favourable to his ambition, as the Roman pontif. Notwithstanding the redoubled efforts of the bishop of Conftantinople, a variety of circumstances united in augmenting his power and authority, though he had not, as yet, assumed the dignity of fupreme law-giver and judge of the whole Christian church. The bishops of Alexandria and Antioch, unable to make head againft the lordly prelate of Conftantinople, fed often to the Roman pontif for succour against his violence; and the inferior order of bishops used the same method, when their rights were invaded by the prelates of Alexandria and Antioch. So that the bifhop of Rome, by taking all these prelates altergately under his protection, daily added new degrees of influence



and authority to the Roman see, fpected, and was thus imperceptibly Such were the means by which the dominion in the eaft. In the west its causes. The declining power and emperors, left the authority of the imperial city almost without contro over, and triumphs of the barbaris prejudicial to his rising dominion, to its advancement. For the kings empire, were only solicitous about ficient degree of Itability to their re when they perceived the subjection shops, and the dependance of the bit tif, they immediately resolved to re their interests, by loading him with rious kinds.

Among all the prelates who rul ing this century, there was none wh and success, the authority and prete as Leo, commonly surnamed the G observed, that neither he, nor the o were able to overcome all the obsta way, nor the various checks which Many examples might be alledged in cularly the case of the Africans, wh could engage to submit the decifion the determination of their causes to

« The vices of the clergy were n mous lengths, and all the writers o bity and virtue render them worthy their accounts of the luxury, arroga oufnefs of the facerdotal orders. those of the firft rank, created var who managed for them the affairs of courts were gradually formed, wher gave audience, and received the ho tude. The office of a presbyter was and eminent nature, that Martin, dacious as to maintain at a public peror was inferior, in dignity, to or deacons, their pride and licentiousnes vous complaints, as appears from the

• Thele opprobrious stains, in th would never have been supported, mankind been sunk in superstition ar neral formed their ideas of the righ

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ministers, from the model exhibited by the facerdotal orders among the Hebrews, the Greeks, and Romans, during the law of Moses, and the darkness of paganism. The barbarous nations also, those fierce and warlike Germans, who, after the dee' feat of the Romans, divided among them the western empire, bore, with the utmost patience and moderation, both the dominion and vices of the bishops and priests, because, upon their conversion to Christianity, they became naturally subject to their jurisdiction ; and fill more, because they looked upon the minifters of Christ, as invested with the same rights and privileges, which distinguished the priefts of their fictitious deities.

• The corruption of that orders wito were appointed to promote, by their doctrine and examples, the sacred interefts of piety and virtue, will appear less surprizing when we consider, that multitudes of people of all kinds were every where admitted without examination and without choice into the body of the clergy, the greatest part of whom had no other view, than the enjoyment of a lazy and inglorious repose. Many of these ecclefiaftics were confined to no fixed places or assemblies, had no employment of any kind, but fauntered about wherever they pleased, gaining their maintenance by imposing upon the ignorant multitude, and sometimes by mean and dishonest practices.

• But if any should ask, how this account is reconcilable with the number of saints, who, according to the testimonies of both the eastern and western writers, are said to have thone forth in this century ? The answer is obvious ; these faints were canonized by the ignorance of the times. For, in an age of darkness and corruption, thofe, who distinguished themselves from the multitude either by their genius, their writings, or their eloquence; by their prudence and dexterity in managing matters of importance, or by their meekness and moderation, and the afcendant they had gained over their resentments and passions ; all such were esteemed soinething inore than men, they were reverenced as gods; or, to speak more properly, they appeared to others as men divinely inspired, and full of the deity.

The monks, who had formerly lived only for themselves in solitary retreats, and had never thought of assuming any rank among the facerdotal orders, were now gradually distinguished fiom the populace, and were endowed with such opulence, and such honourable privileges, that they found themselves in a condition to claim an eminent station among the supports and pillars of the Christian community. The fame of their piety, and sanctity was, at first, fo great, that bifhops and presbyters were often chofen out of their order, and the passion of erecting edifices and convents, in which the monks and holy virgins might serve God in the most commodious manner, was, at this time, carried beyond all bounds,

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• The monastic orders did not all observe the same rule of discipline, nor the fame manner of living. Some followed the rule of Augustine, others that of Bafil, othen that of Antony, others that of Athanasius, others that of Pachomius; but they must all have become extremely negligent and remiss in observing the laws of their respective orders, since the licentiousness of the monks, even in this century, was become a proverb, and they are said to have excited the most dreadful tumults and feditions in various places. All the monastic orders of all sorts, were under the protection of the bishops in whose provinces they lived, nor did the patriarchs claim any authority over them, as appears with the utmost evidence from the decrees of the councils held in this century.'

(To be concluded in our next.]

Conclusin of the Account of Mr. Mills's Husbandry. See our last. MP

TR. Mills having, in the former volumes of his work,

conducted the husbandman through the various methods of improving and managing most kinds of soil, and of cultivating the several productions of the field; in the fourth, brings bim into the garden,- an object of great pleasure, and not less profit, when attended to with due care and judgment.'

How far gardening may, properly speaking, be esteemed a branch of husbandry, we pretend not to determine ; but as Mr. Mills says, he has restricted himself to the useful parts of it alone, he may, perhaps, be right, in introducing it here.

He professes to have divested the art of gardening of the cant expressions, and unintelligible reasonings, with which, he alledges, most of those who have treated of it abound. Amongst the writers of this class, Mr. Miller, author of the Gardener's Dictionary, very defervedly bears an eminent rank. From this ce. lebrated work, Mr. Mills has transplanted many and large extracts into his own But notwithstanding the great obligations he owes to Mr. Miller upon this account, he thinks himself obliged to controvert many of that gentleman's positions; for which he makes the following apology in the preface to this vol.

I flatter myself that every candid reader of this work will acquit me of having fought occasion to censure other writers : for a carping temper is my averfion. If, therefore, I have prefumed, in some instances, to differ in opinion from Mr. Miller; and if, through the carncftness of my desire to give the best information in my power, any warmth of expression may chance have dropped from my pen, when I espouse a practice different. from that which he recommends; I earnestly entreat the reader to impute it to the true cause, namely, my zeal to prevent his being mislead (misled] by some mistakes which have escaped that celebrated writer.'- The reader must judge between us, in this, on my fide very unequal conteft.' -Mr. Mills farther adds, that the justice which he owes to the public calls upon him to give reasons for his thinking differently from so established a master.


All this may be very right: but it seems rather somewhat odd, to set up those fame readers for judges in a controversy ; whom, but just before, he apprehended to be so extremely liable themselves to be misled by the mistakes of another.

What he calls CHAP. I. (though the only one contained in the whole volume) treats of gardening in general, fo far as is profitable to the farmer, and the country-gentleman ; and is divided into the following seven sections, viz.

$. I. Of the Kitchen Garden.
$. II. Of the Fruit Garden.
7. III. Of the Orchard.
S. IV. Of the Distempers of Fruit Trees.
$. V. Of the Culture of the Vine. [In Vineyards. ]
$. VI. Of the Culture of Olive Trees.
$. VII, Of the Culture and Management of Hops.

Most readers, we presume, will be somewhat surprized at feeing vineyards and olive-yards made part of a system of husbandry; but those articles are intended, it seems, for the benefit of our colonies, chiefly; as the advantages which may arise from a proper culture of the vine, and olive-tree, in fuitable parts of our (now) immense possessions in America, are acknowledged to be very great.

The pleafure or flower garden, being intended solely for ornament and recreation, is very properly omitted in this work; the (professed] design of which is utility.-But

• Neither the husbandman, nor the country gentleman, who prefers utility to show, can fet about an eafier or more profitable branch of culture, than that of the kitchen and fruit garden,

may very properly be intermixed, and occupy one and the fame fpot of ground, since they both require a good, deep foil, and nearly the same exposure: (and) the walls which inclose the kitchen garden, will be extremely serviceable for fruit.'

• The chief things to be considered in the choice of a spot of ground for a kitchen and fruit garden are, the fituation, the loil, the conveniency of water, the extent proper to be inclofed, and the manner of inclosing, and laying it out.'

The foil (we are told) should be rich, rather ftiff than light, and considerably deep: nor is a moderate degree of moisture any objection, in Mr. Mill's opinion.--The situation (he says)



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