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Rochester and Canterbury, in particular) is to plant their fields with the above kinds of fruit trees, in strait lines every way, and to plow between the rows for a crop of corn. And the year following they usually cross-plow the same field; by which method no more ground is lost from the plough, than a small square plot, where each tree is planted ; and, at the same time, the trees themselves are greatly benefited, by those frequent ftirrings of the earth about their roots.
Sect. IV. contains many useful directions relating to the Diflempers of Fruit-trees; for which we refer to the Book.
Se&. v. (Of the Culture of the Vine) is chiefly adapted to the use of those who are inclined to try their skill in the management of a Vineyard.— Tho' Mr. Mills seems doubtful as to the fate of Vineyards in England, yet he appears certain that they may be brought to perfection in our American colonies, where he thinks they may be rendered an object of importance to the induftrious inhabitants; for whose use this Section is professedly intended, as well as the next, upon the Culture of Olive Trees, But as neither of these articles seems to fall within the province of a mere English Husbandman, we shall proceed to the last Section in this volume, which treats of the Culture and Management of Hops.—The Directions here given for the management of this useful plant, are very distinct and minute, but too prolix for our insertion. We Thall therefore content ourselves with giving Mr. Mills's account of the annual charge of an acre of Hopground, in most parts of England where hops are cultivated, which (he says) is computed thus, viz.
I 0 0
But then he also adds, that in some places they pay 4 or 51. an acre yearly for the rent of the land; and in the next paragraph he owns, that if the husbandry part be hired, it may coft 31. 10 S, an acre. - He likewise owns that an acre will require 3000 poles, which may coft after the rate of 20s. for an hundred, i. e. 301. for the first poling of an acre; and that a recruit of 500 Poles yearly will be necessary to keep an acre of hop-ground in constant repair. -Here is a yearly expence of 5l. or, if they cost but 15 s. an hundred (which is his lowest price) of, at least, 31. 15 s. per ann. to be added to the interest of the
A a 3
money funk in the fi fpoling,
Mr. Mills computes the produ years, at the rate of 30 1. a year be pretty near the truth: for tho from 50 to 80l. or even 100 l. times, its produce has been frequ thing at all. We therefore thi cautioning the husbandman, who dling, against embarking too far precarious branch of agriculture.
In Part V. which begins Vol making and managing Fermented L this Part is, Concerning Fermentati more regrets that we have not ye ments on this subject, because he o quainted with the chemical prin depends, to supply the deficiency. to select the most judicious dir been hitherto made on this h Boerhaave : from whom he gir of Fermentation.-" The mass of first resting, and poffefling a cert vessels, gradually begins to swell, tine motion, through its whole b wards, and sideways, in strange circ though with a different force. In every monent formed in every pa endeavour to rise up to the surface, fing noise, or often break in the mais froths, discharging with an tartish spirit, which proves acrimon elastic, and capable of bursting a expansive force.'- [The following regard. ]— If a large vessel full height of its action, should discharge a small orifice, and a strong health nostrils the vapour so issuing, he wo or if he received but little thereof, and remain an idiot his whole life.'
The following practical observati brew or prepare their own liquors ;
tion is finished, and gone off, then the veffel should be immediately stopped down, and the liquor kept for some time in its Jees, a great part of which will be affumed and affimilated by the liquor, which will thereby become richer and stronger in fpirit, than it was before. If the veffel is not stopped down, the fpirit produced in the fermented liquor will foon exhale, and leave behind only a vapid useless Auid; but if the liquor is kept quiet in a clofe veffel, it will gradually become more pure and fpirituous.'
Chap. I. OF WINE. Mr. Mills obferves, that the directions given in this Chapter may, with little alteration, be adapted to the juice of other fruits in general, as well as to that of the grape in particular. This circumstance may render what is here faid of greater use to the English husbandman, than it would otherwise be.
A due degree of maturity (he observes) is essentially neceffary in every kind of fruit, the juice of which is intended to be made into wine; because the juice of unripe fruit is a rough acid liquor, which cannot be made to undergo a vinous fermentation, without great difficulty.'-This, we fear, will always semain an insuperable obstacle to the making wine, of the grape, here in England; where that fruit is rarely brought to a due degree of maturity, in any sufficient quantities, for that purpose.
In some measure, however, to remedy this great inconvenience, he directs, that
* In cold countries, where, for want of the sun's having force enough to mellow and enrich the juice of the grape, the Must is thin and poor ; [there] sugar, or dried grapes, ihould be added to the Must, to give it a body.'
At p. 43----45, and at p. 54, 55, Mr. Mills attacks fome particulars, advanced in Mr. Miller's account of making WINE, as given in his Gardener's Dictionary, in a very ungenteel, not to say illiberal, manner; considering the great obligations he himself owes, in all his preceding volumes, to that in general) very judicious and instructive work. So that even fuppofing what he here objects to Mr. Miller, to have fome just foundation, yet we must be of opinion, that he certainly ought (all things considered) to have expressed his censure in terms not so harsh, as those he has really made use of. -Let any impartial reader confult the pages referred to above, and judge whether our opinion, in this particular, be well founded, or not.
The colour of Wine, Mr. Mills fays, is frequently artificial, He adds - Wine may be naturally of a pale dilute red; but a deep red is almost always the effect of artificial additions, as of the red-woods, elder-berries, bilberries, &c. In France, no fecret is made of these practices, the colouring matters being publicly thrown out after they have been used. --Turbid wines are
fined by a mixture of whites and theils baster, and ifinglass. The use of the i correct any finall degree of acidity that tracted.'
The following observations will prob persons as may attempt making wine he and particularly that of countries wh powerful, has passed its fermentation is off into casks, it will require something end, it will be right always to preserve a grapes, which may be hung up in a roo for them ; when they should be picked or three good handtuls of them should according to its size.' When at which it usually is bottled, [but what informed) care thould be taken to exan ciently bright; because a natural bright indication of the liquor's having underg and consequently of its being rend
To this agrees Dr. Neumann's defin of good wine, which closes the chapter wholesomeness of wines (says that excell of, from their being bright, clear, and of an agreeable reviving smell and taste; the mouth for some time, a flight sense moderately strong and spirituous ; pallin citing appetite ; producing a gentle sweat the belly open the next day ; [he does from red Port] without being followed b ness of the limbs, or other uneasiness. S used, is a very valuable cordial.'
Mr. Mills begins Chap. II. (which trea with observing, that the principles on wh fhould be managed, are, in general, so i for Wine; that he thinks it needless to e The following points, however, he recom Jy observed :
It is of great importance in making thoroughly ripe. The juices of unripe a four taste in spite of all endeavours, and n mellow flavour which the sun only can be fore be the first care of every one concerne to let his apples hang upon the tree till th turity.
When your apples are fit for gatherin ways be done by hand) it is essential to
that purpose: for water is a bad ingredient in all vinous li quors.'
One general rule for all fruits, is, to press their juice for fermenting, when the fruit is in the greatest perfection for eating.
Apples that have lain any time in heaps, to sweat, are generally covered with a clammy moisture. This fhould be wiped off, for it is a watery juice, which would impoverish the Cyder.' The rotten parts Ahould also be cut out, for they communicate to it a putrid taste.
He is an advocate for racking Cyder off the lees; for repeated experiments have proved, that fourness in all fermented liquors 6 begins ever at the lees, and therefore the more of them is lefe among the Cyder, the more readily it will turn eager.'
Chap. IIL treats or BREWING : under the following heads :
$1. Of the Choice of Water for Brewing.Pure Rain-water, as being the lightest, is esteemed the best.-Well and Spring waters are commonly hard ; and hard water is very unfit for drawing a tincture from any vegetable.-River-water is generally next to rain-water in point of softness.--Pond-water, if pure, is equal to any other for brewing.
$ 2. Of Malt.-Bite a grain of it afunder, and if it tastes mellow and sweet, breaks loft, and is full of four from one end to the other, it is good. So also if it swims on the surface, when pue into the water.-The best way of grinding it, is to bruise it in a mill composed of two iron cylinders. These bruise the malt without cutting its hulk, so that the hot water instantly pierces its whole fubftance, and soon draws forth a rich tincture, with much less malbing than in the common way.'
§ 3. Of Hops.- The newer the hops are, the better they will always prove; for the fragrance of their favour is in some degree lost by keeping, though they be ever so well preserved.'
4. Of the Brewhouse, and of the vessels ufed in Brewing. ! Too great care cannot be taken to keep every vessel perfectly clean and sweet, for if they are tainted, the liquor put into them contracts a disagreeable scent.
$ 5. Of the heat of Water for Majbing.--The malt should not be put to it whilft boiling hot.
6. Of Mafning.-When the water is brought to a due heat, the malt is to be put in very leisurely, and uniformly mixed therewith. Remark. It is found that the grains, after the several taps are spent, remain of the same bulk as before, or at least very little diminished. May we not from thence infer, that the part absorbed by the water, and in which the virtue of the malt and the strength of the beer confift, is contained in an exceedingly small compass ? It is indeed true, that hot water and sepeated malhes do fwell a little the hulls and skins of the malt;