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but no allowance for this increase will be sufficient to remove the cause of our surprize.' : $ 7. Of boiling the Wort.---Observation :-That long boiling of the hop is a pernicious practice, and produceth an inert, auitere, and nauseous bitter, is the place of a pleasant, active, and aromatic one. But every brewer may eafily fuit the degree of bitternefs to his ow) palate, thus :- Instead of putting shc hops into the wort when this is put into the copper, or before it boils, they may be put in five minutes before the wort is taken off the fire: if this is not suficient to give the desired degree of fragrant bitter, ten minutes may be taken; and fo on to ale time which fhall be found to answer. I prefer påtting the hops to wort towards the latter end of the boiling, rather than at the beginning, because the continued boiling of the liquor kill dilipate their fragrance, even though the hops are taken out of the wort." *. As the defign of boiling the wort is to clear the liquor of imparities, and to obtain the vistue of the bop; a much less time than usual will be fufficient. It is, in fact, of greater coniequence thaa is generally imagined, that the wort be not boiled longer than is neceffary; because that longer boiling discharges it of so much air, that the fermentation often becomes imperfect: it gives, especially to strong extracts, a vifcidity which fermentation can scarcely ever get the better of, and it inevitably difper fes the fragrancy of the bops. From what I have seen, I am well affured, that from 20 to 30 minutes boiling is sufficient for ferong extracts, and from 30 to 60 for small beer.'-This method of boiling strong beer a forter time than small, may for any thing we know) be very right; tho' we apprehend it to be just the reverse of the common practice.

Private perfons, who would regard only pleasure and health in their malt liquors, should never exceed eight, feldom fix, bushels of malt to the hogshead of their ftrongeft beer. When it is only of this strength, it will never hurt them, unless taken to great excefs; and at the same time it will be strong enough to exbilarate the spirits sufficiently to enliven conversation. The quantity of hops must be suited to the taste of the drinker, and to the aime that the liquor is to be kept. The common allowance is, from one pound and an half (a very small allowance, truly!) to three pounds for a hogshead. For very strong beer, some go as far as fix pounds.-Small beer fhould always be brewed by itself; and in that cafe, two bushels and an half of malt, and a pound and an half of hops, are sufficient to make a hag Mead.'

fio. Os fermenting Molt Liquors. Caution :- When the fermentation is at its height, all the dirt, or foul yeast, which rises on the surface, must be carefully skimmed off, whatever be the quality of the liquor.'

Though it be not common to rack beer off from the hogsheads into which it is first put; yet as the lees in the cask will be constantly rising upon every change of air, and so produce frequent frettings, or flight fermentations, to which it is often owing that beer becomes soon hard, or contracts a degree of acidity; it seems to Mr. Mills highly adviseable, the better to prevent this, to rack the beer off into perfectly clean and sweet calks, as soon as it is become tolerably clear. The cause of the frettings being hereby removed, the liquor thus managed will remain long in a state of perfection, and probably become thosoughly fine without the allistance of art.

$11. Of the Distempers of Malt Liquors.-Among others, incident to beer, Mr. Mills mentions its appearing ropy: which, he says, is very diffi ult to cure. We have known it effectually cured, by putting a bunch of hyssop into the cask.

Chap. IV. treats of Distillation; and Chap. V. of Vinegar.But we pass from them, as it is high time we should, to Part VI. in which the Author speaks of the culture of some plants which though not necessarily included in the general management of a farm, are nevertheless, objects of great benefit to the public, as well as to the husbandman who rears them judiciously. These are Hemp, Flax, Madder, Ioad, and Weld or Dyer's-Weed. Concerning the culture of each of these plants, he has collected (chiefly from M. Du Hamel) a variety of seemingly good directions : for the particulars of which, we must, however, refer to the work itself;-- which is concluded with an

APPENDIX, containing corrections of, and additions to, all the five Volumes.

These additions (which are pretty considerable) we shall hope to see inserted in their proper places, whenever a new Edition is called for; which may probably be the case foon: as we really think Mr. Mills's Work, a very judicious compilation, upon the whole, and highly deserving the notice of the public. We only with that he had been somewhat more liberal of his own reflections


the quotations he makes; a task, which (if we may judge from a few specimens of that kind) he seems very capable of performing; and which we would therefore beg leave to recommend to his consideration, upon a revisal.

In the Preface to this volume, (which was published with the last number) he mentions the present Work as being only the first part of his general plan : but what that plan is, he does not say. He hints, however, that what still remains to be done will require so much time and labour, that, considering his bad state of health, it is impossible for him to promise when it may be in his power to finish it.


A Comparative View of the State and Fas

of the Animal World. 12mo. 3$. H E following Discourses, (says

tisement prefixed to them) were private literary society, without the m publication. It must, in truth, be ackno will find in them many hints thrown o quence, which are not so fully and accu importance requires; befides that the preffed with a freedom, which, howeve company, may perhaps be deemed too E Public. All this the Author himself was he had neither leisure nor inclination to

This little Work, however, notwithst has, in the Editor's opinion, a very confi and in these sentiments he has the ho several of the Author's friends of great public of Letters. He has taken the libe ing it to the Public, almost without the A not without his knowledge : how far h so doing, that Public, to whose cand determine.'

Such are the modest terms, in which performance, which every man of taste, perufe with pleafure; as it abounds with useful and entertaining subjects; while as ing runs through the whole of it: and, in original thinkers, the Author writes ration. He appears to be well acquaint to poffefs delicacy of sentiment, and fer what muft naturally procure him the este reader, to be a fincere friend to the high humanity.

He sets out with a short account of th views that have been given of human na which enquiries into it have been profe difficulties attending the study, and th tle progress has been made in the know proceeds, in the remaining part of his firft obfervations on certain advantages which t to poffefs above us, and to enquire mor comparative ftate of mankind and the inf part of the work contains some very useful is curious and interesting, and we fincere Author had treated it at more length, as he seems well qualified for prosecuting such enquiries with success.

In the four remaining discourses, he considers the uses that mankind make of those advantages which they possess above the rest of the animal creation, and which are principally derived from reason, the social principle, taste, and religion. He then proceeds to consider the effects which a superior understanding has in promoting the happiness of the individual, and to point out some of the inconveniencies that attend it. The bulk of mankind, he observes, look upon a person of distinguished genius with that awe and diftant regard that is inconsistent with confidence and friendship. They never unborom themselves to one they are afraid of, nor lay open their weaknesses to one they think has none of his own. For this reason we commonly find men of genius have the greatest real affection and friendship for such as are very much their inferiors in point of understanding; goodnatured, unobserving people, with whom they can indulge all their peculiarities and weaknesses without reserve. Men of great abilities therefore, our Author fays, who prefer the sweets of social life and private friendship to the vanity of being admired, mus carefully conceal their superiority, and bring themselves down to the level of those they converse with. Neither must this seem to be the effect of a designed condescension ; for this is fill more mortifying to human pride than the other.

In regard to the social principle, he observes, that it does not appear to have any natural connexion with the understanding; that persons of the best understanding possess it frequently in a very inferior degree to the rest of mankind; and that the idle, the diffipated, and the debauched, draw most pleasure from it. Not only their pleasures but their vices are often of the social kind. This makes the social principle warm and vigorous, and hence perhaps there is more friendship among them than among men of any other class, though considering the flightness of its foundation, such friendship cannot be supposed to be very lasting. Even drinking, our Author observes, is found favourable to friendship, especially in northern climates, where the affections are naturally cold; as it produces an artificial warmth of temper, opens and enlarges the heart, and dispels the reserve natural perhaps to wise men, but inconsistent with friendship, which is entirely a connexion of the heart.

The advantages derived to mankind from tastę, by which, says our Author, is meant the improvement of the powers of the ima, gination, are confined, he observes, to a very small number. The servile condition of the bulk of mankind requires constant labour for their daily subsistence. This of necessity deprives them of the means of improving the powers either of imagination or of teafon, except in so far as their particular employments make


such an improvement neceilary. Yet there is great reason to think men of this class the happiest, at least such of them as are raised above want. If they do not enjoy the pleasures arising from the proper culture of the higher powers of their nature, they are free from the misery consequent upon the abuse of these powers. They are likewise in full polleifion of one great source of human happiness, which is good health and good fpirits. Their spirits never languish for want of exercise, and therefore the tædium vite, the insupportable liftlessness arising from the want of an object, fomething to with, or something to fear, is unknown among them.

Our Author goes on to observe, that the only powers of the mind, that have been much cultivated in this Inand, are those of the understanding. One unhappy consequence of this, he fays, has been to diffolve the natural union between philosophy and the fine arts: an union extremely necessary to their improvement. The influence of music over the mind, he observes, is perhaps greater than that of any of the fine arts; and yet the effects produced by it are inconsiderable. This, we are told, is enzirely owing to its being in the hands of practical Musicians, and not under the direction of taste and philosophy; for in order to give music any extenfive influence over the mind, the composer and performer must be well acquainted with the human heart, the various associations of the passions, and the natural transitions from one to another, so as to enable him to command them in consequence of his skill in musical expression, · As our ingenious Author treats this subject with more precifion than any other which hath fallen under his confideration, we need make no apology for inserting part of what he has advanced on this head.

• Music, says he, is the science of sounds, in so far as they affect the mind. --Nature independent of custom has connected certain sounds or tones with certain feelings of the mind.Meafure or proportion in sounds has likewise its foundation in nature. Thus certain tones are naturally adapted to solemn, plaintive, and mournful subjects, and the movement is flow; others are expressive of the joyous and elevating, and the movement is quick. - Sounds likewise affect the mind, as they are loud or foft, rough or smooth, diftinct from the confideration of their gravity or acuteness. Thus in the Æolian harp the tones are pleasant and soothing, though they do not vary in acuteness, but only in loudness.-The effect of the common drum in roufing and elevating the mind is very strong; yet it haš no variety notes; though the effect'indeed here depends on the proportion

measure of the notes.
Velody consists in the agreeable succession of fingle founds.
he melody that pleases in one country does not equally


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