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picafe in another, though there are certain general principles which universally regulate it, the (cale of mulic being the same ia all countries.-Harmony confifts in the agreeable effect of founds differing in acuteness produced together; the general principles of it are likewise fixed.

« One end of music is to communicate pleasure, but the far no bler and more important is to command the palkons and move the heart. In the furft view it is an innocent amusement, well fitted to give an agreeable relaxation to the mind from the fatigue of study or busines.- In the other it is one of the recit uietul arts in life. The effect of eloquence depends in a great measure on it. We take music here in the large and proper {ente of the won, the art of variousy affecting the mind by the power of Sounds. In this sense, all mankind are more or less judges of it, widmout regard to exactness of ear. -Every man feels the difference between a sweet melodious voice, and a harib difonant


* As the proper application of the voice to the purposes of eloquesne bas been ligtie attended it, it has been thoughat ali art usrattainable by any rules, and depending entirely on natural taste and genius. Ia focie mealure it certainly is io, yet it is much more reducible to tiles, and morr capable of being caughty than is commonly inzaginede Indeed before philosopy aícertains and methodizes the ideas and principles on which an art depends, it is no wonder it be dificult of acquisition.-The very language in which it is to be communicated is to be formed, and it is a confiderable time before this language comes to be underfood and adapted. We bave a remarkable infiance of this in the subject of musical exprebon, or performing a piece o mulc with taste and propriety. People were fensible, that the same music performed by different artists had very different effectsa Yet they all played the same notes, played equally well in tune and ia time. But till there was an unknown fomewhat that gave it meaning and expression from one hand, while from 29other it was lifeless and infipid.- People were satisfied in resolving this into performing with or without taste, which was thought the entire gift of nature.--Geminiani, who was both a composer and performer of the highest class, first thought of reducing the art of playing on the violin with taste to rules, for which purpose he was obliged to make a great addition to the musical language and characters. The scheme was executed with great ingenuity, yet it has scarcely been attended to by any pradical musicians except Mr. Avison.

'Music, like eloquence, must propose, as its end, a certain effe&t to be produced on the hearers. If it produces this effect, it is good mufic; if it fails, it is bad. No music can be pronounced good or bad in itself; it can only be relatively so.

Every country has a melody peculiar to itself, expreffive of the several passions. A composer must have a particular regard to this, if he proposes to affect them.-Thus in Scotland there is a species of music perfectly well fitted to inspire that joyous mirth fuited to dancing, and a plaintive music peculiarly expreffive of that tenderness and pleasing melancholy attendant on diftress in love ; both original in their kind, and different from every other in Europe. - It is of no consequence whence this music 'derives its origin whether it be fimple or complex, according to the rules of regular compofition, or against them; whilft it produces its intended effect in a superior degree to any other, it is the preferable mufic; and while a person feels this effect, it is a reflection on his taste and common sense, if not on his candor, to despise it.

• They who apply much of their time to music, acquire new tastes, besides their national one, and in the infinite variety which melody and harmony are capable of, discover new sources of pleasure formerly unknown to them. But the finest natural taste never adopts a new one, till the ear has been long accustomed to it, and after all seldom enters into it with that warmtb and feeling, which those do, to whom it is national.

• The general admiration pretended to be given to foreign mufic in Britain, is a despicable piece of affectation. In Italy we fee the natives transported at the opera with all that variety of delight and pasfion which the compofer intended to produce. -The fame opera in England is feen with the most remarkable listlessness and inattention. It can raise no pasfion in the audience, because they do not understand the language in which it is written. --To them it has as little meaning as a piece of inStrumental mufic. The ear may be transiently pleated with the air of a song, but that is the most triling effect of music.Among the very few who understand the language and enter with pleasure and taste into the Italian music, the conduct of the dramatic part appears fo ridiculous, that they can feel nothing of that transport of paffion, the united effect of mufic and poetry, which may be gradually raised by the artful texture and unfolding of a dramatic story*.-Yet vanity prevails so much over the very sense of pleasure, that the Italian opera is in England more frequented by people of rank, than any other public diversion; and they, to avoid the imputation of want of taite, condemn themfelves to some hours painful attendance on it every week, and to talk of it in raptures which their hearts never felt,

• Simplicity ini melody is very neceffary in all mufic intended to reach the heart, or even gready to delight the ear. --The effect here must be produced instantaneously, or not at all. The fubject must therefore be simple and easily traced, and not a fina gle' note or grace fhould be admitted, but what has a view to the proposed end. If simplicity of mielody be fo necessary where the view is to move the pafsions, fimplicity of harmoniy must be Itill more neceffary. Some of the most delicate touches of pathetic music will not allow any accompanyment.

* Brown.

« The ancient music certainly produced much greater and more general effects than the modern, though the accounts of it be supposed greatly exaggerated. Yet the science of mufic was in a very low state among the ancients. They were strangers to harmony, all the voices and instruments being unisons in concert: and the instruments they made use of, appear to have been much inferior in respect of compass, expression, and variety, to those which we are poffessed of. Yet these very deficiencies might render their music more expressive and powerful. The only view of composers was to touch the heart and the passions. Proper melody was fufficient for this purpose, which might easily be comprehended and felt by the whole people.—There were not two different species of mufic among them, as with us, one for the learned in the science, and another for the vulgar.

• The introduction of harmony opened a new world in music. It promised to give that variety which melody alone could never afford, and likewise to give melody an additional charm and energy. Unfortunately the first composers were so immerft in the study of harmony, which foon appeared to be a fcience of great extent and intricacy, that these principal ends of it were forgot. They valued themselves on the laboured construction of parts which were multiplied in a surprising manner. In fact, this art of counterpoint and complicated harmony was in a very few years brought to the higheft degree of perfection, after its introduction by Palæstine, who lived in the time of Leo X.But this species of music could only be understood by the few who had made it their particular ftudy. To every one else it appeared a confused jargon of sounds without design or meaning. To the very few who understood it there appeared an evident deficiency in air or melody, especially when the parts were made to run in strict fugues or canons, with which air is in a great measure incompatible.—Besides the real deficiency of air in these compositions, is required the attention to be constantly exerted to trace the subject of the mufic, as it was alternately carried on through the several parts; an attention inconfiftent with what deligh:s the ear, much more with what touches the para sions; where that is intended, the mind must be disengaged, mult see no contrivance, admire no execution ; but be open and paffive to the impression. * The artifice of fugues in vocal music, feems in a peculiar Rev. Nov. 1765.


manner ftile

manner ill adapted to all the passions. If every one of four voices is expressing a different sentiment and a different musical passage at the same time, the hearer cannot possibly attend to, and be affected with them all. This is a stile of composition in which a person, without the least taste or genius, may arrive at great perfection, by the mere force of study: But without a very great share of these to give spirit and meaning to the leading airs or subjects, such compositions will always be dry and unaffečting. Besides the objections that lie against all complex music consdered as to its composition, there are others arising from the great difficulty of its execution. It is not easy to preserve a number of instruments playing together in tume. Stringed inAtruments are falling, while wind instruments naturally rise in their tone during the performance. But it is not fufficient that all the performers play in the most exact tune and time. They must all understand the stile and design of the composition, and be able to make the responses in the fugue with proper spirit. Every one must know how to carry on the fubject with the proper expression when it is his turn to lead ; and when he falls into an auxiliary part, he must know how to conduct his accompanyment in such a manner as to give an additional force to the leading subject. But musical taste and judgment are most remarkably displayed in the proper accompanying of vocal music, especially with the thorough bass. If this is not conducted with the ftriételt attention to heighten the intended. expreffion of the long, it defroys it altogether, as frequently happens from the throwing in the full chords, when a single note Ahould only have been struck, or when perhaps the accompanyment should have ceased altoge her.

• These are difficulties few performers have an idea of, and fewer are able to conquer. Most performers think they do all that is incumbent on them, if they play in tune and in time, and vanity often leads them to make their voice or inftrument to be heard above the rest, without troubling their heads about the compofer's design,

It has been much the fashion for some years past, to regard air entirely in musical compositions ; and the learned works of harmony have fallen into neglect, being considered as cold and Ipiritless. This change has been introduced by compofers who unfortunately happened to be great performers themselves. These people had no opportunities in the old compositions of thewing the dexterity of their execution ; the wild and extravagant Rights, which they indulged in order to display this, being abfolutely destructive of the harmony. They introduced therefore solo's of their own composition, or concerto's, which from the thinness and meagrenels of the parts, cannot be considered in any other light than solos. - It is not easy to characterise the


Atile of most of these pieces. In truth they have no character or meaning at all. The authors of them are little concerned what subject they choofe, their fingle view being to excite the surprise and admiration of their hearers. This they do by the moft unnatural and wild excursions, that have not the remotest tendency to charm the ear or affect the heart. In many passages they are grating to the ear when performed by the best hands, but in others they are perfectly intolerable.

"A new stile' of composition has lately been cultivated in Italy, and greatly promoted in Britain, particularly by one person of rank. The present fashion is to admire this, and to despise Corelli as vanting spirit and variety. The truth is, Corelli's excellence consists in the chastity of his compolition, in the richness and sweetness of his harmonies; the other pleases by its spirit and a wild luxuriančy, which makes an agreeable variety in a concert. but possesses too little of the elegance and pathetic expression of mufic, to remain long the public taste.

Though music, considered in its useful applications to delight the ear and touch the passions of the bulk of mankind, requires the utmost fimplicity, yet considered as an art capable of giving a lasting and varied enjoyment to the few, who from a stronger natural taste devote part of their time and attention to its cultivation, it both admits, and requires variety, and even some degree of complication. Not only the ear becomes more delicate by cultivation, but the musical taste.

• When the ear becomes acquainted with a variety of melodies, it begins by degrees to relish others, besides those which are national. A national melody may have expressions for only a few affections. A cultivated and enlarged talte casily adopts a greater variety of expressions for these and other affections, and learns from the deepest recesses of harmony, to express somey unknown to every national music.

• When one practises mufic much, the simplicity of melody tires the ear. When he begins to hear an air he was formerly acquainted with, he immediately recollects the whole, and this anticipation prevents his enjoying it. He requires therefore the affiftance of harmony, which, without hurting the melody, gives a variety to the mufic, and sometimes renders the melody more expreffive. Practice enables one to trace the fubject of a complex concerto, as it is carried through the several parts, which to a common ear is an unmeaning jumble of sounds. Diftinét from the pleasure which the ear receives here from the music, there is another which arises from the perception of the con: trivance and ingenuity of the composer. The enjoyment, it must be owned, is not of that heart-felt kind which fimple inufic can only give, but of a more sober and sedate kind, which proves more lasting: and it must be considered that whatever

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