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Art. 6. An Account of a smgular Species of 1

Samuel Felton, Esq.
The insects here described are natives (
given us as non-descripts.
Art. 7: An Account of an American Armadil

This species of animals, we are told, ever, seen alive in England: bor is there any creature in any of the authors who have trei ing taken their drawings from dead animals fore of course hard, stiff and defective. Th the figure is now given, is, it seems, alive a possession of the Right Hon. the Lord Sout was brought over from the Mosquito Thore. pounds, and its fize that of a common cat. hath improved greatly both in appearance a hath been in his Lordship's poff ffion. It is and milk, anu refuses our gráin and fruits. according to the accounts of those who treat the ground.

To this concise description of the animal, drawn figure of it, on a large copper-plate. Art. 8. An Account of the Quantity of Rain fe

in Cornwall, ard of the Weather in that Place Borlase.

There is doubtless some amusement, as th in comparing the journal of the weather in accounts in the papers of storms, heats and d contraries, in another: but, though contemente end of the common news-papers, something entertainment should be the end of a learned society. Not that we mean to infinuate that meteorological observations are useless; on the to see more of these journals kept in different by gentlemen as accurate and careful in their ol Borlafe. It is, indeed, only by a comparison counts, properly autherticated, that we can e kind of certainty respecting the weather. Art. 10. Some Observations on the Cicada of Nori

lected by Mr. P. Collinfon. Of this paper, containing a very particular a fect treated of, we shall beg leave to insert the

in Pennsylvania the Cicada is seen annually numbers as to be remarkable; but at certain 15 years distance, they come forth in such gre the : eople have given them the name of Locu latter end of April these Cicadæ come near the known, by the hogs routing after them. Th

the ground, near the roots of trees, in such numbers, that in some places, the earth is so full of holes, it is like an honeycomb.

• Their first appearance is in an hexapode (an ill-shapen grub) with six feet. This is their middle or nymph ftate: they creep up every thing near them, and fix their claws fast, on the shrubs, and bark of trees : then the skin on its back bursts open, and the Ay comes forth, disengaging itself by degrees, leaving the case or exuviæ behind, in the exact shape, in which it was before occupied.

• At first coming out, the Cicadæ are all white, with red eyes, and seem weak, and tender ; but next day they attain to their full strength and perfection, being of a dark brown colour, with four finely-veined transparent wings, as will be better seen than described, by the specimens.

• They come forth out of the ground in the night; being then secure from being disturbed by so many creatures, that prey on them, whilst they are under the operation of exchanging one ftate for another. From the tenth of May to the fifteenth, they are observed to be spred all over the country.

* As soon as the dew is exhaled, the Cicadæ are very active, flying about from tree to tree. The male makes a singing noise, calling the female, which he effects by a tremulous motion he gives to two bladders, filled with air, under his wings. From their numbers the noise is so loud and troublesome, that it interrupts conversation with a continual dinn, from morning to evening. They continue coupling to the sixteenth of May : foon after the males disappear, and the females lay their eggs. They are much larger than the males.

They never could be perceived eating any thing; yet, as they are furnished with a long proboscis, which they frequently, extend, they may suck the dews, or the farina of flowers.

The male, in coupling, hath, at the end of his tail, two hooks, with which he enters between the rings, that surround the body of the female. These, spreading internally, confine them long together; which may be requisite, as there is a great number of eggs to impregnate, some say fix or seven hundred.

Soon after this work is over, the female begins laying her eggs. To affist her in this operation, she is armed with a dart near half an inch long, fixed between her breast and belly, and which extends to the end of her tail. This she sheaths up, when it is not in use : with this dart she pierces the small twigs of trees, and, at the same time, injects an egg. The darted twigs, engraved on the plate, will better shew the manner of this operation, than any verbal description.

'It is surprifing to see how quick' they penetrate into hard wood, and croud it full of eggs, the length of two or three

inches,

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inches, ranged in a line close together, from twelve to eighteeri in each partition. How she deposites the eggs in this direction, it was difficult to discover, they are so very shy whilst about this work: but my ingenious friend John Bartram, observing her, in the beginning of this operation, took a strong woody stalk of a plant, and, presenting it to her, the directly fell 10 work upon it, as he held it in his hand. It was very wonderful to see how dexterously she worked her dart into the stalk, at every puncture dropping an egg. This was seen very diftindly, as she did not touch the stalk with any other part of her body.

“The Cicadæ fix on most sort of trees, but like best the oak and chesnut, (which are the twigs engraven on the plate) and the sassafras, and all orchard trees.

« They always dart to the pith of the branch, that, when the egg hatcheth, the little insect may find soft food in its infant ftate. When mature, they creep forth, go down the tree, or drop off, and soon make their way into the ground, where they have been found two feet dcep. Here they find a secure repole, until they have passed through their changes, from a maggot to an hexapode, and lastly to a fly.

July 15th and fixteenth they were perceived coming forth : several darted twigs were perceived, and carefully examined, and opered: fome eggs were hatched, others not mature, of a duli brow colour. These were taken out, and spread on a table; in about an hour the eggs cracked. It was very entertaining to observe, how the little insect contrived to disengage itself, from the thell. When it was got clear from its incumbrances, it run about, very brifály, seeking a repository in the earth.

+ These Cicada are spred all over the country in a few days; but, being the prey of so many animals, their numbers soon decrease, and, their duration by the order of nature being short, quickly disappear.

" They are the food of most kind of domestic and wild fowl, and many beasts: even the squirils grow fat with feeding on them; and one of the repasts of the Indians, after having first plucked off their wings, is to boil and eat them.

- There are two distinct species of Cicadæ in North Amesica; the one here described being much larger than the other. The leífer species has a black body, with golden eyes, and re. markable yellow veined wings.” Art. 11. An Account of the Plague at Constantinople. By Dr.

Mackenzie. This paper, containing as well a natural history of the Plague, as a medicinal investigation of the diftemper and mode of cure, we ve induced to rank it under the present class. The account is en in a letter from Dr. Mackenzie, residing at Constan

tinople,

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tinople, to Sir James Porter, his Majesty's envoy at Brussels;

and contains a number of particulars, contradictory to the generally-received notions of this dreadful distemper. The ingenious Writer begins thus :

• So many great men have written upon the Plague already, as Prosper Alpinus, Sydenham, Hodges, Diemerbroeck, Muratori, Mead, &c. that it might be justly thought presumptuous in me to touch upon that subject after them. But as I find, that they differ in some circumstances, and that some of them have

had an opportunity of seeing only one year's plague; I may be allowed to write to you such remarks as I have made for almost thirty years, that I have lived in this plaguy country, without any quotations or confirmations from other authors; which I hope will help to reconcile the different opinions of the abovementioned famous authors. Which task I would choose rather, than to contradict them; for I am persuaded, that each of them wrote according to the best of his knowledge (as I do myself) without any intention of imposing in the leait upon mankind.

• It is beyond dispute, that the plague appears in a different manner in different countries; and that it appears differently in the same country in different years : for we find most other diseases alter more or less, according to the constitution and difposition of the air in the same climate : for, some years, fevers are epidemic, and very mortal : other years, they are epidemic, but not mortal; the small pox the same; &c. And so the Plague is some years more violent, and has some symptoms different from what it has in other years; which, I take for granted, muft be the reason of any difference that may appear in the remarks of the celebrated authors already mentioned. There is one extraordinary symptom, which the most of the authors mention, though none of them prove it, or pretend to have seen it; which seems to me inconsistent and incompatible with the animal ceconomy; making still proper allowance for Omnipotence and Divine Vengeance, as in that of Sennacherib's numerous army, and many other such plagues, mentioned in scripture. What I mean, is, that a person cannot die of the Plague (such as it appears among us) instanteously, or in a few hours, or even the same day, that he receives the infection. For, you know, Sir, by your long experience in this country, that all such as have the Plague, conceal it as long as they can, and walk about as long as possible. And I presume it must be the same in all countries, for the same reason, which is the fear of being abandoned and left alone ; and so, when they struggle for many days against it, and at last tumble down in the street, and die suddenly, people imagine, that they were then only infected, and that they died instantly of the infection; though it may be supposed, åccording to the rules of the animal Economy, that the noxious effluvia must have been for fome time mixed with the blood, be. fore they could produce a fever, and afterwards that corruption and putrefa&ion in the blood and other fluids, as at last stops their circulation, and the patients die. This was the case of the Greek, who spoke with your master of horfe, Knightkin, at the window, anno 1752, and went and died in an hour afterwards in the vineyards of Bujuk deré; and it was said he died fuddenly, though it was very well known to many, that he had the Plague upon him for many days before this accident happened.

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• Mrs. Chapouis found herself indisposed for many days, anno 1758, and complained pretty much, before she was fuspected of having the Plague. Captain Hills' failor was infected in Candia 3736; was a fortnight in his passage to Smyrna, as the captain swore to me; yet he was five days in the hospital there before he died. Mr. Lise's gardiner was indisposed twelve days before he took to his bed, and he lay in bed eight days before he died, in July 1745.

It is true, that Thucydides, in his account of the Plague at Athens, relates, that some were said to die suddenly of it; which may have led others into the same way of thinking: but Thucydides (with all due regard to him) inust be allowed to have known very little of the animal economy, for he was no pbyfician, though a very famous biftorian; and he owns moreover, that, when the Plague first attacked the Piræum, they were so much strangers to it at Athens, that they imagined the Lacedæmonians, who then besieged them, had poisoned their wells, and that such was the caufc of their death. Besides, he pretends to affirm, from the little experience he had of the Plague, that the same person cannot have it twice, which is absolutely false. The Greek Padré, who took care of the Greek-hospital at Smyrna for fifty years, affured me, that he had had the Plague twelve different times in that interval; and it is very certain, that he died of it in 1736. M. Brossard bad it in the year 1745, when he returned from France; and it is very well known, that he and all his family died of it in April 1762.' The Abbe, who takes care of the Frank-hospital at Pera, swore to me the other day, that he has had it already, here and at Smyrna, four different times. But, what is ftill more extraordinary, is, that a young woman, who had it in September last, with its moft

pathognomonic symptoms, as buboes and carbuncles, after a fever, had it again on the 11th of April, and died of it some days ago, while there is not the least surmise of any accident in or about Conftantinople since December, this only one excepted: but there died four persons in the same little house in September; d as the house was never well cleaned, and this young woman

always

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