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changed the names, although the fame destructive measures are ftill pursued ;-our good old man (we had like to have wrote woman) endeavours to persuade us, that this is a falle and groundless report : and that, if we will but have a little patience, we shall most certainly find that every thing will be right. He particularly rests the matter, on his Majesty's happy choice of so unexceptionable a personage, as the Marquis of Rockingham ; of whom he gives a very advantageous charac. ter; and thinks that we ought, by no means, to draw any inference to the disadvantage of the Marquis, from the circumftance of his keeping race horses ; fince that great ftatesman, the Earl of Godolphin, was no less famed upon the turf, than in the cabinet.

MISCELLANEOUS. Art. 37. An Esay on the Duty and Qualifications of a Sea-Officer,

written originally for the Use of two young Officers. 8vo. 2 s.


A sensible and plain exposition of the duty of a sea-officer, in its various branches; with an earnest exhortation to young officers to peruse the instructions here laid down. It cannot be expected that we thould be qualified to judge of the propriety of the particular injunctions, con-. tained in an essay of this nature.

S E R M O N S. I. The Free Grace of God exalred, in the Chara.Ier of the Apostle Paul.

At St. Alban's, May 26, 1765. By John Gill, D.D. Keith. II. Difference of Conditions confidered, with respect to Learning and Morals. Before the University of Cambridge. By John Manwaring). B. D. Fellow of St. John's College. Whison.

III. At the Vifitation of the Bishop of Winchefer, at Kingston upon Thames, May 23, 1763. · By Thomas Herring, M. A. Preb. of York, and Rector of Cullesden, Surry. Whilton.

IV. The Use and Office, with fome Infances of the Weakness and Imserfection of Reason in Matiers of Religion.—At the triennial Visitation of the Dean and Chapter, at the Cathedral Church at Litchfield, April 20, 1765. By Thomas Shaw, M. A. late of Queen's College, Oxford. Rivington.

V. The Nature and Obligation of an Oath. - In the Chapel of his Majesty's Castle of Dublin, Nov. 13, 1763. Before the Earl of Northumberland, Ld. Lieut.. of Ireland. By Will. Henry, D. D. F. R. S. Dean. of Killaloe, and Chaplain to his Excellency, Kearily,



For AUGUST, 1765.

An Ecclefiaftical History, Ancient and Modern, from the Birth of

Christ, to the Beginning of the present Century: In which the Rije, Progress, and Variations of Church Power are confidered in their Connexion with the State of Learning and Philosophy, and the Political History of Europe during that period. By the late learned John Lawrence Mofheim, D. D. and Chancellor of the University of Gottingen. Translated from the Original, and accompanied with Notes and Chronological Tables, by Archibald Maclaine, M. A. Minister of the English Church at the Hague. 4to. 2 Vols. 21. 2s. Boards. Millar.

R. Mofheim's character for learning, judgment, and can


stand in need of any praises from us.

Such of our Readers as are unacquainted with his works will, in the history now before us, meet with abundant proofs of uncommon erudition, discernment, and industry. The plan of it is excellent; a spirit of freedom and moderation breathes through the whole ; and it may with truth be affirmed, that no ecclefiaftical history has hitherto appeared, that, upon the whole, is so impartial and infructive. In a work of such extent, comprehending to great a variety of objects, errors and mistakes are indeed unavoidable; the moft confiderable of these, however, are corrected by the ingenious and learned Translator, who has added many useful and judicious notes, which do honour to his abilities and taste, and render the translation much more valuable than the original.

The account Mr. Maclaine gives of his translation is as follows:- How far justice has been done to this excellent work, in the following translation, is a point that must be left to the decision of those who fhäll think proper to peruse it with attention. I can say, with the frieteit iruth, that I have spared Vol. XXXIII.



no pains to render it worthy of their gracious acceptance; and this consideration gives me some claim to their candour and indulgence, for any defects they may find in it. I have endeavoured to render my translation faithful, but never propoled to render it entirely literal. The style of the original is, by no means, a model to imitate in a work designed for general use. Dr. Mosheim affected brevity, and laboured to croud many things into few words ; thus his diction, though pure and correct, became fententious and harsh, without that harmony which plcases the ear, and those transitions which make a narration Aow with ease. This being the case, I have sometimes taken confiderable liberties with my author, and followed the pirit of his narrative without adhering strictly to the letter. Where, indeed, the Latin phrase appeared to me elegant, expreslive, and compatible with the English idiom, I have contantly followed it; in all other cases, I have departed from it, and have often added a few sentences to render an observation more striking, a fact more clear, a portrait more finished. Had I been translating Cicero or Tacitus, I should not have thought such freedom pardonable. The translation of a classic author, like the copy of a capital picture, muft exhibit not only the subject, but allo the manner of the original; this rule, however, is not applicable to the work now under consideration.

• When I entered upon this undertaking, I proposed rendering the additional notes more numerous and ainple, than the Reader will find them. I foon perceived that the prosecution of my original plan would render this work too voluminous, and this induced me to alter my purpose. The notes I have given are not, however, inconsiderable in number; I wish I could say as much with respect to their merit and importance.--I would only hope, chat some of them will be looked upon, as not altogether unneceflary.'

Such are the modest terms in which Mr. Maclaine speaks of his translation: we shall only add, that whoever takes the pains of comparing it with the original, will find that he has executed his talk with filelity and judgment.

Dr. Mosheim, in his preface, acquaints his readers, that his principal care has been employed in establishing upon the most solid foundations, and confirming by the most respectable authority, the credit of the facts related in his birtory;—that for this purpose, he has drawn from the fountain-head, and gone to those genuine fources from whence the pure and uncorrupted streams of evidence flow ;--that he has consulted the best authors of every age, and chiefly th:

· were contemporary with the events they relate, or !

Yeriods ir inh they happened ;and that he

'o rep contents with brevity, perfpicus

• In the execution of my task, says he, I can affirm with truth, that I have not been wanting in perseverance, industry, or attention ; and yet with all these, it is extremely difficult to avoid mistakes of every kind, as those who are acquainted with the nature of historical researches abundantly know. How far I have approached to that inacceslible degree of exactness, which is chargeable with no error, must be left to the decision of those whose extensive knowlege of the Christian history entitles them to pronounce judgment in this matter. That such may judge with the more facility, I have mentioned the authors who have been my guides; and, if I have in any respect misrepresented their accounts or their sentiments, I must confess that I am much more inexcusable than some other historians, who have met with and deserved the same reproach, fince I have perused with attention, and compared with each other, the various authors to whose testimony I appeal, having formed a resolution of trusting to no authority inferior to that of the original sources of hiftorical truth.'

The Doctor divides the history of the church into two general branches, which he calls its external and internal history. The external history comprehends all those prosperous and calamitous events that have diversified the external state and condition of the church ; the internal comprehends the changes and viciffitudes that have happened in its inward conftitution, in that system of discipline and doctrine by which it stands distinguished from all other religious societies.

He adopts the usual division into centuries preferably to all others, because most generally liked; though it be attended with difficulties and inconveniencies. In order to remove a confiderable part of these inconveniencies, however, besides this smaller division into centuries, he adopts a larger one, and divides the space of time that has elapsed between the birth of Christ and the present times into four periods, distinguished by signal revolutions or remarkable events. Accordingly, he comprehends the whole of his history in four books : the first is employed in exhibiting the state and vicissitudes of the Christian church, from its commencement, to the time of Constantine the Great. The second comprehends the period, that extends from the reign of Conftantine to that of Charlemagne, which produced such a remarkable change in the face of Europe; the third contains the history of the church, from the time of Charlemagne to the memorable period when Luther arose in Germany, to oppose the tyranny of Rome, and to deliver divine math from the darkness that covered it ; and the fourth carries

the history from the Luther to the present times. hiftory of ear

s divided into two parts, of the church. The inter


ternal and

nal history comprehends the state of letters and philosophy,- the doctors and ministers of the church, and the form of its government, -together with its doctrines, ceremonies, and herefi s.

Such is the method pursued in this valuable work; in our account of which we must confine ourselves to some of the most interesting parts, as it is impossible to give a regular abstract of the whole. ---The Author introduces his history of the first century with a short view of the civil and religious state of the world at the birth of Christ, in order to fhew that mankind, in that period of darkness and corruption, stood highly in need of some divine teacher to convey to the mind true and certain principles of religion and wisdom, and to recall wandering mortals to the sublime paths of piety and virtue. The confideration of this wretched condition of mankind, he observes, will be fingularly useful to those who are not sufficiently acquainted with the advantages, the comforts, and the support, which the sublime doctrines of Christianity are so proper to administer in every state, relation, and circumstance of life.-- A set of miserable and unthinking creatures, says he very justly, treat with negligence, nay, sometimes with contempt, the religion of Jesus, not considering that they are indebted to it for all the good things which they so ungratefully enjoy.'

He now proceeds to give an account of the civil and religious state of the Jewish nation at the birth of Christ. After mentioning some of the principal matters that were debated among the three famous Jewish sects, he tells us, that none of them seemed to have the interests of real and true piety at heart, and that their principles and discipline were not at all adapted to the advancement of


and substantial virtue. The Pharisees, he says, courted popular applause by a vain oftentation of pretended sanctity, and an austere method of living, while, in reality, they were strangers to true holiness, and were inwardly defiled with the moft criminal dispositions, with which our Saviour frequently reproaches them. They also treated the commandments and traditions of men with more veneration, than the sacred precepts and laws of God. The Sadducees, by denying a future state of rewards and punishments, removed, at once, the most powerful incentives to virtue, and the most effectual restraints upon vice, and thus gave new vigour to every sinful paffion, and a full encouragement to the indulgence of every irregular defire. As to the Effenes, they were a fanatical and superstitious tribe, who placed religion in a certain sort of seraphic indolence, and, looking upon piety to God as incompatible with any social attachment to men, diffolved, by this pernicious doctrine, all the great bonds of human society.


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