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INDEX.

ALBERT (the Emperor), his love of ARCHITECTURE, influence of the

justice, 122 ; his treatment of the crusades on, 111, 112.
Swiss, ibid. ; his death a misfor- ARCHITECTURE, Gothic, rise of, 112;
tune for Germany, ibid. ; his at- its chief characteristics, ibid. ; its
tachment to the church, 148 ; his peculiarly Germanic origin, ibid.
policy favourable to the cities, 152.

ARMINIUS, the type of his age, 40;
ALBERTUS MAGNUS, his intellectual

his noble character, 40, 42 ; his
powers and rare learning, 115 ; his

success in war, 41; his familiarity
orthodoxy, ibid.

with Roman civilization, ibid. ; his
Alcuin, his friendship with Charle patriotism, ibid. ; his domestic
magne, 70.

policy, 42 ; the hatred of his kind.

red, ibid. ; the ingratitude of his
ALEXANDER THE Great, charac-
teristics of his genius, 9; his love

countrymen, ibid. ; his fame after

death, 43 ; vast historical conse-
of the Oriental, ibid. ; his leading

quences of his deeds, ibid. ; cele-
idea, ibid. s his resemblance to the

brated in a poem of Klopstock's,
heroes of the middle age, 107. I ibid.
Alfred, superiority of, to his age, ARNOLD OF BRESCIA, his revolu-

69 ; his moral qualities, ibid. ; com- tionary philosophy, 115 ; his su-

pared with Charlemagne, ibid. periority to later heretics, ibid.
Alva, Duke of, his character, 219; Arts, the fine, their relation with

his earlier career glorious, 220; history,1,2; the useful, when bene-
his cruelty in old age, ibid.

ficial to man, 22, 117.
Anglo-Saxons, their policy supe-Attila, bis personal disposition, 55,

rior to that of the Franks, 68; 57; his wars desolating, 55 ; his
their conversion to Christianity, personal appearance, 57 ; vast ex-
69; their high intollectual culture, tent of his kingdom, ibid. ; his
ibid. ; vast services of their mis hatred against the Romans, ibid. ;
sionaries, ibid. ; their constitution, nature of his power personal, 58 ;
ibid.

used the Gothic language, ibid. ;
ARABS, their influence on the West

attempted to root out the Latin,
limited, 112, 113; their high na-

59; career of, a frequent subject
tional character, 113; the influence

of Gothic poetry, 74.
of Mahomet ; historical results of Austria, province of, was peopled
Mabommedanism, 114, 115. by Gothic tribes, 91 ; prosperity
of, under the Othos, ibid. ; acqui-l consequences of, 10; predominant
sition of by Rodolph of Haps in the eighteenth century, 281 ;
burg, 120.

necessarily destroys itself, ibid. ;

principle of inculcation second only
AUSTRIA, as a federal state, its

to that of perfect justice, ibid.
historical importance, 126; was
founded by Rodolph of Haps. Basil, council of, contributed to
burg, ibid. ; its excellent race of revive the connection between the
princes, 127, 143 ; acquisition of several states of Europe, 141.
Luxemburg, 142 ; union with Bible, knowledge of, in the middle
Hungary, 143 ; permanent annex - ages, 74.
ation of the imperial dignity, ibid. ;
aggrandized by the victories of Bou

BOURBON, duke of, his desertion
the Swiss over Charles the Bold,

from the French king to be pal-
144 ; its influence on Europe com. |

I liated, 182.
pared with that of France and BURGESSES, rise of the order of, 97 ;
England, 193 ; was to remain a were favoured by the emperors,
federative state according to the ibid. ; influence of the crusades,
scheme of Charles V. ibid. ; the 11l; their soaring spirit displayed
excessive severity of the Spanish | in their architectural monuments,
branch, 223, 224; the excessive ibid. ; founded a peculiar state in
mildness of the German branch, the Hanseatic League, 126; their
one of the causes of the Thirty | characteristic excellencies, 157.
Years' War, 224; its happy alliance
with England, 271; basis of its
new policy, ibid. ; its national re- CÆSAR, indebted for victory at
vival after the Thirty Years' War, 1 Pharsalia to German tactics, 30;
ibid. ; Montecuculi and Eugene, 1 by the multitude preferred to
272, 274 ; military glories of Aus- Alexander, 173.
tria, 274 ; the early part of the CALVINISM, compared with Luther-
eighteenth century, its glorious anism, 235 ; was fertile in political
epoch, 282; its European functions,

ideas, ibid. ; favourable to the re-
ibid. ; its separation from England,

publican spirit, ibid. ; its rejection
296.

of the mysterious, 237 ; was fruit-
Austrian PRINCES, their principles

ful of new sects, 237, 238.
of government, 147; their love of CARLOVINGIANS, their attachment
peace, ibid. ; their attachment to to religion, 64 ; their virtues bere-
the church, ibid. ; their repug- ditary, 65 ; rise of their dynasty,
nance to despotism, 147, 152; ibid. ; their heroism, 66 ; pro-
their political ideal, 148; their tected popular rights, 69; adhered
reverence for national rights, 152 ; | to the use of the Frankish language,
their view of the imperial consti 71; rise of their dynasty a national
tution, ibid. ; their misfortunes and reaction, ibid.
constancy, ibid. ; they best upheld c,

CHARLEMAGNE, his heroic ancestry,
the constitution of the middle
ages, 155, 156 ; their love of peace

66, 67; his conquests, 67 ; his
with France carried to excess, 190.

wars and military capacity, 67,
69 ; cruel treatment of the Saxons,

67; the Rhenish provinces the
BALANCE of power, system of, among centre of his monarchy, 68; the

the Græco-Macedonian states, 9;l high civilization of the Rhine land

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due to him, ibid. ; the subjugation
of the Saxons indispensable, ibid. ;
compared with Alfred, 69; effects
of.his legislation, 70, 81 ; the idea
of the empire derived from him,
70; bis intercourse with Alcuin
and other scholars, ibid. ; his at-|
tention to learning and art, ibid. ;
his encouragement of the German
language and poetry, ibid. ; his
predilection for Germany, 71; was
himself a subject of poetry, 78;.
singular conception of, by the
Norman poets, ibid. ; causes of the
short duration of his empire, ibid. ;
character of his successors, ibid. ;
his partition of the empire, 78, 79;
law of succession among the
Franks, 79; causes of the dissolu-
tion of his empire, 79, 80; his-
torical insignificance of his pos- |
terity, 80; his generous policy,
84 ; his relations with the Roman

see, 87.
CHARLES THE BOLD, effect of his

career on Europe, 144 ; his cha-
racter, ibid. ; his projected Bur-!

gundian kingdom, ibid.
CHARLES IV. (the emperor), his;

policy erroneous, 123 ; his imperial
constitution arbitrary, 124; bis
reign fatal to the imperial dignity
and injurious to Germany, 124,
140 ; bis protection of the Scla-
vonic races, 124 ; his reign bene-
ficial to Bohemia, ibid. ; his mo-

ral and intellectual character, ibid.
CHARLES V., age of, forms an histo-1

rical epoch, 139; origin of great
historical events, ibid. ; modes of
human progress, ibid. ; simulta-|
neous unfolding of the moral and
intellectual powers of Europe, 140 ;]
relations of Charles V. to his own
times, ibid. ; Charles V., the em-
peror, the people and nobility de.
voted to him, 168 ; the attach-
ment of the princes doubtful, ibid. ; ||
his facilities for acquiring absolute
power, ibid. ; enterprizes of Sick.!

ingen, ibid. ; his efforts to restore
religious unity, 171; his anticipa-
tion of the evils of the Reforma-
tion, 172; right motives of action,
ibid. ; men of great ideas seldom
appreciated, 173 ; his merits un-
derrated, 174; difficulty of judg-
ing him, ibid. ; his boyhood and
youth, ibid. ; his instructors,
Adrian and Chièvres, ibid. ; his
character in youth, 175; bis per-
sonal appearance, ibid. ; state of
Spain at his accession, ibid. ; perils
besetting his government, ibid. ;
his treatment of Ximenes, 176 ;
his self-reliance only gradually
developed, ibid. ; his resolution to
repair to Germany, ibid. ; import-
ance of his election as emperor,
ibid. ; critical state of Europe, 177;
acquisition of Mexico, ibid. ; de-
velopment of his character and
intellect, ibid. ; his anxiety to re-
store the lustre of the imperial
dignity, ibid. ; investigates the
new doctrines, 178; upholds the
ancient faith, ibid. ; his sense of
justice, ibid. ; his view of the du-
ties of an emperor, ibid.; the fa-
cility of augmenting his power,
179, his reverence for vested rights,
ibid. ; hostility and secret intrigues
of Francis I., 180; invasion of
Navarre by the French, ibid. ;
suppression of the Spanish revolt,
ibid. ; was the real founder of
Spanish greatness, ibid. ; his in-
fluence on the Spanish nobles, 181;
he upholds the free constitution of
the Spanish cities, ibid. ; his love
for Spain, ibid. ; the great men he
encompassed himself with, 181,
182 ; parallel with Francis I.,
182; the acquisition of Bourbon
and of Doria, ibid. ; his error in
releasing Francis I., 183; the jus-
tice of his claims on Burgundy,
ibid. ; his desire of peace with
France, 184; family alliances be-
tween the French and Austrian
houses, ibid. ; bis mode of carry-

ing on war, 185 ; his challenge to ! his object in retaining the elector
Francis serious, ibid. ; his later de of Saxony and the landgrave of
signs against France, ibid. ; his Hesse in captivity, 205 ; his last
outward calmness, combined with contest with France unsuccessful,
vehemence of character, ibid. ; his ibid. ; his retirement from the
moderation in success, 186 ; his world, 206; his social qualities,
reliance on the honour of Francis, ibid. ; his greatness as a sovereign,
ibid. ; his success in the war against ibid. ; honours paid to him on his
Solyman, 187; his characteristics decease throughout Europe, 207;
as a general, 188; his campaign his views as to the succession to
in Africa, ibid. ; his attention to his estates, 215; aims at a federa-
the naval resources of Spain, 189; tive union between the states
devotedness of his generals and of under the Austrian dynasty, 215,
his armies, ibid. ; his great military 216 ; necessity of the hereditary
resources, ibid. ; his repugnanoe principle, 215; disunion among
to warfare against Christian states, his posterity, 216.
ibid. ; result of his measures in

CHARLES VI., the emperor, his go-
Spain, in Italy, and in Germany,
190 ; his sway propitious to Euro-

vernment mild and conciliatory,

279; compared with Ferdinand II.
pean freedom, 191, 193 ; his

and Leopold I., ibid. ; renovates
Italian policy, 194 ; organizes

Hungary, 279, 280 ; directs his
Italy as a federal state, 194, 195 ;

chief attention to internal adminis-
brilliant results of his government

tration, 282 ; his excessive reliance
in Italy, 195 ; imparts a new
impulse to the Spanish mind, 196 ;

on international treaties, ibid.
sudden development of genius

CHIVALRY, the third power of the
and learning in Spain, ibid. ; his

middle age, 102 ; its rise and de-
friends and confidants, 197, 198 ;

velopment, 103; its nature and
his love of thoughful, reserved

importance, ibid. ; exemplified in
characters, 198; his sole aim in

Richard Cour de Lion, 106, 107 ;
Germany to avert a schism, 199 ;

the heroes of the middle age con-
his efforts to conciliate the Pro-

trasted with those of antiquity,
testants, ibid. ; his zeal for the

107; its war of little political im.
Church, ibid. ; opportunities of

portance, ibid. ; its depth of inward
curbing the ecclesiastical power in

feeling, ibid. ; its poetry a faithful
Spain, 200 ; reason of his dilato-

mirror of the age, ill; spirit
riness, ibid. ; violent fermentation

of, assumed various forms, 119;
of mind thronghout Europe, ibid. ;

in Spain, its tendency religious,
his desperate situation at the open-

ibid. ; in Western Europe adven-
ing of the Smalcald war, 201; turous, ibid. ; in Germany patrio-
his unexpected triumph, ibid. ;)

tic, ibid. ; Rodolph of Hapsburg
his moderation in victory, 202 ; |

and his immediate successors, 120;
hinders the war from becoming

Frederick the Fair, 123.
one of religion, ibid. ; effects a CARISTIANITY, how influenced by
religious peace of half a century's national character, 82 ; asceticism
duration, 203 ; political error in of the Egyptians, ibid. ; logical
his treatment of the elector of acuteness of the Greeks, ibid. ;
Saxony, ibid. ; he commits the the ritual and ecclesiastical, ibid. ;
administration of Germany to his legislature of the Romans, ibid. ;
brother, 204 ; his power in Ger-1 Christian organization of the do-
many renuined unbroken, ibid. ;l mestic and public life of the Ger.

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mans, ibid. ; its imperfect realiza lization, ibid. ; their enthusiasm
tion by man, 114 ; compared with and devotion, 106; love of adven-
Mahometanism, ibid.

ture, ibid. ; motives of interest,
Church, union of, with the state in

ibid.
the old German institutions, 81,82; CRUSADES, causes of their failure,
contest between the popes and the 108, 109; energies of the Span-
emperors, 99; feudal and eccle iards and Germans otherwise ab-
siastical duties of the bishops in sorbed, 109; enthusiasm of the
compatible, 99, 100; bishops pro Normans and French, ibid. ; their
hibited from carrying arms, 100; effects on the spirit of chivalry,
sale of bishoprics by the emperors, 110; the three great military or-
ibid. ; ecclesiastical rights of the ders, ibid. ; influence of the East on
emperors, 102.

European ideas, ibid. ; their in-
CiviliZATION, three chief causes

fluence upon commerce and the
of, 17; may be termed the age of

arts, 111, 112; furthered the
iron, 18; European, founded on

cause of freedom, 116; were the
the primitive Germanic constitu-

means of accelerating anarchy,
tion, 29; slow development of,

ibid. ; their influence on national
in Western Europe, 63; language

character, 130; effects of their
a test of, 74, 75; in what it con-

abandonment, 131.
sists, 117; comparison of the
middle ages with antiquity, 117, DENMARK, growth of her power in
118; growth of, 298 ; necessity the times of the Hohenstaufen,
of large artificial states, 299 ; re 136; her influence superseded by
lations of the state with the church tbat of the Hanseatic League, ibid. ;
and with commerce, 300.

disunion of the Scandinavian king-
CLEMENT VII., his nepotism and

doms, ibid.
secular policy, 196, 199.
CLERGY under Charlemagne be- EAST INDIES, trade with, its in-
came a separate estate, 81, 83 ;

tate. 81. 83: 1 fluence on the development of
were the depositaries of civiliza national character, 130, 136; the
tion, 83; relations of, with the

source of Portuguese prosperity,
nobility, 84 ; chief objects of their

135.
calling, ibid. ; the benefits result- ELIZABETH, Queen, inherited her
ing from their wealth in the middle father's sentiments, 229; com-
age, 85.

pared with William of Orange,
CONRAD, the emperor, election of, ibid. ; her heartlessness, ibid.
89 ; magnanimity of, 90.

ENGLAND, its religious wars, 207,
CONSTANCE, council of, its condemn 208 ; predominance of the Protest-

ation of the Hussites, 141; con ant party, 212; fermentation of
tributed to revive the connection

minds, ibid. ; its peculiar relations
between the several estates, ibid. ;

with America traceable to the Re-
put an end to the schism, ibid.

formation, 225 ; hostility between

the two Protestant parties, 226;
Constitution of parliamentary es-

absolutism of the Anglican party,
tates, excellence of, 131.

228 ; its resistance to Lewis XIV.,
CRUSADERS, neglect of colonization, 1 280; happy effects of its alliance

104, 105 ; want of unity of plan, with Austria, ibid. ; its intellectual
105 ; their vast influence on civiel: culture in the eighteenth century,

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