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ing on war, 185 ; his challenge to ! his object in retaining the elector
Francis serious, ibid. ; his later de of Saxony and the landgrave of
signs against France, ibid. ; his Hesse in captivity, 205 ; his last
outward calmness, combined with contest with France unsuccessful,
vehemence of character, ibid. ; his ibid. ; his retirement from the
moderation in success, 186 ; his world, 206; his social qualities,
reliance on the honour of Francis, ibid. ; his greatness as a sovereign,
ibid. ; his success in the war against ibid. ; honours paid to him on his
Solyman, 187; his characteristics decease throughout Europe, 207;
as a general, 188; his campaign his views as to the succession to
in Africa, ibid. ; his attention to his estates, 215; aims at a federa-
the naval resources of Spain, 189; tive union between the states
devotedness of his generals and of under the Austrian dynasty, 215,
his armies, ibid. ; his great military 216 ; necessity of the hereditary
resources, ibid. ; his repugnanoe principle, 215; disunion among
to warfare against Christian states, his posterity, 216.
ibid. ; result of his measures in

CHARLES VI., the emperor, his go-
Spain, in Italy, and in Germany,
190 ; his sway propitious to Euro-

vernment mild and conciliatory,

279; compared with Ferdinand II.
pean freedom, 191, 193 ; his

and Leopold I., ibid. ; renovates
Italian policy, 194 ; organizes

Hungary, 279, 280 ; directs his
Italy as a federal state, 194, 195 ;

chief attention to internal adminis-
brilliant results of his government

tration, 282 ; his excessive reliance
in Italy, 195 ; imparts a new
impulse to the Spanish mind, 196 ;

on international treaties, ibid.
sudden development of genius

CHIVALRY, the third power of the
and learning in Spain, ibid. ; his

middle age, 102 ; its rise and de-
friends and confidants, 197, 198 ;

velopment, 103; its nature and
his love of thoughful, reserved

importance, ibid. ; exemplified in
characters, 198; his sole aim in

Richard Cour de Lion, 106, 107 ;
Germany to avert a schism, 199 ;

the heroes of the middle age con-
his efforts to conciliate the Pro-

trasted with those of antiquity,
testants, ibid. ; his zeal for the

107; its war of little political im.
Church, ibid. ; opportunities of

portance, ibid. ; its depth of inward
curbing the ecclesiastical power in

feeling, ibid. ; its poetry a faithful
Spain, 200 ; reason of his dilato-

mirror of the age, ill; spirit
riness, ibid. ; violent fermentation

of, assumed various forms, 119;
of mind thronghout Europe, ibid. ;

in Spain, its tendency religious,
his desperate situation at the open-

ibid. ; in Western Europe adven-
ing of the Smalcald war, 201; turous, ibid. ; in Germany patrio-
his unexpected triumph, ibid. ;)

tic, ibid. ; Rodolph of Hapsburg
his moderation in victory, 202 ; |

and his immediate successors, 120;
hinders the war from becoming

Frederick the Fair, 123.
one of religion, ibid. ; effects a CARISTIANITY, how influenced by
religious peace of half a century's national character, 82 ; asceticism
duration, 203 ; political error in of the Egyptians, ibid. ; logical
his treatment of the elector of acuteness of the Greeks, ibid. ;
Saxony, ibid. ; he commits the the ritual and ecclesiastical, ibid. ;
administration of Germany to his legislature of the Romans, ibid. ;
brother, 204 ; his power in Ger-1 Christian organization of the do-
many renuined unbroken, ibid. ;l mestic and public life of the Ger.

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mans, ibid. ; its imperfect realiza lization, ibid. ; their enthusiasm
tion by man, 114 ; compared with and devotion, 106; love of adven-
Mahometanism, ibid.

ture, ibid. ; motives of interest,
Church, union of, with the state in

ibid.
the old German institutions, 81,82; CRUSADES, causes of their failure,
contest between the popes and the 108, 109; energies of the Span-
emperors, 99; feudal and eccle iards and Germans otherwise ab-
siastical duties of the bishops in sorbed, 109; enthusiasm of the
compatible, 99, 100; bishops pro Normans and French, ibid. ; their
hibited from carrying arms, 100; effects on the spirit of chivalry,
sale of bishoprics by the emperors, 110; the three great military or-
ibid. ; ecclesiastical rights of the ders, ibid. ; influence of the East on
emperors, 102.

European ideas, ibid. ; their in-
CiviliZATION, three chief causes

fluence upon commerce and the
of, 17; may be termed the age of

arts, 111, 112; furthered the
iron, 18; European, founded on

cause of freedom, 116; were the
the primitive Germanic constitu-

means of accelerating anarchy,
tion, 29; slow development of,

ibid. ; their influence on national
in Western Europe, 63; language

character, 130; effects of their
a test of, 74, 75; in what it con-

abandonment, 131.
sists, 117; comparison of the
middle ages with antiquity, 117, DENMARK, growth of her power in
118; growth of, 298 ; necessity the times of the Hohenstaufen,
of large artificial states, 299 ; re 136; her influence superseded by
lations of the state with the church tbat of the Hanseatic League, ibid. ;
and with commerce, 300.

disunion of the Scandinavian king-
CLEMENT VII., his nepotism and

doms, ibid.
secular policy, 196, 199.
CLERGY under Charlemagne be- EAST INDIES, trade with, its in-
came a separate estate, 81, 83 ;

tate. 81. 83: 1 fluence on the development of
were the depositaries of civiliza national character, 130, 136; the
tion, 83; relations of, with the

source of Portuguese prosperity,
nobility, 84 ; chief objects of their

135.
calling, ibid. ; the benefits result- ELIZABETH, Queen, inherited her
ing from their wealth in the middle father's sentiments, 229; com-
age, 85.

pared with William of Orange,
CONRAD, the emperor, election of, ibid. ; her heartlessness, ibid.
89 ; magnanimity of, 90.

ENGLAND, its religious wars, 207,
CONSTANCE, council of, its condemn 208 ; predominance of the Protest-

ation of the Hussites, 141; con ant party, 212; fermentation of
tributed to revive the connection

minds, ibid. ; its peculiar relations
between the several estates, ibid. ;

with America traceable to the Re-
put an end to the schism, ibid.

formation, 225 ; hostility between

the two Protestant parties, 226;
Constitution of parliamentary es-

absolutism of the Anglican party,
tates, excellence of, 131.

228 ; its resistance to Lewis XIV.,
CRUSADERS, neglect of colonization, 1 280; happy effects of its alliance

104, 105 ; want of unity of plan, with Austria, ibid. ; its intellectual
105 ; their vast influence on civiel: culture in the eighteenth century,
290 ; its steady equipoise in opin- | character of the religious wars,
ion, ibid. ; resistance to scepticism 208; its immoral policy in religious
from patriotic feeling, ibid. ; her matters, ibid. ; era of the belles
separation from Austria, 295; pro lettres commenced under Riche.
bable results of a union with Hol. lieu, 211; divisions among the
land, ibid. ; defects in her policy, Catholics, 226; contests between

ibid. ; her constitution, 302. the Jansenists and the Jesuits,
ENGLISH, their conquests and mili-

ibid. ; comparison between the
tary glory in the middle age, 132, 1

moderate and the strict Catholic
· 133.

party, 228; rise of a Spanish

party, ibid. ; influence of Lewis
EUROPE, regenerated by the German

XIV. on French literature-philo-
migrations, 5; causes of its civi.

sophy, 268 ; its literature, taste,
lization, ibid. ; primitive state of,

and art, 268, 269 ; parallel of the
6 ; its primitive population, 6, 11,

intellectual culture of France and
12; its freedom, 7; contrasted

Italy, 269; the separation of phi-
with Asia, 7, 8.

losophy and religion, 270 ; seeds

of the French revolution, ibid. ;
FERDINAND, the Catholic, his love

its irreligious school of literature,
of absolute power, 134.

289; parallel between Voltaire and
FERDINAND OF AUSTRIA, brother Rousseau, ibid. ; its internal con-

of Charles V., was destined to in- | dition in the eighteenth century,
herit the Spanish throne, 174 ; 1 293 ; adoption of the commercial

his fidelity to Charles V., ibid. system, ibid. ; fails in its rivalry
FERDINAND II. (the emperor), criti. with England, ibid. ; causes of the

cal state of the empire at his elec. failure of its new policy, 294 ; im-
tion, 245 ; his policy towards his mediate origin of the revolution,
Protestant subjects, 249 ; his in 294, 304.
fluence on the course of the Thirty FRANCIS I., his early career bril.
Years' War, 250; his heroism,ibid.; | liant, 182 ; degeneracy of his cha,
his tenderness, ibid. ; his eccle racter in his later life, ibid. ; com.
siastical advisers, ibid. ; bis energy pared with Charles V., 183; his
in overcoming obstacles, 254 ; in- | policy, ibid.; his ill success against
sists on the restoration of the Charles, ibid. ; his breach of faith,
church lands, ibid.

ibid.; his envious disposition, ibid.;
FEUDALISM, its excessive develop-

his alliance with the Turks, 187.
ment, 131; diminished sanctity of FRANCONIAN EMPERORS, one of the
the feudal tie, ibid.

three great national dynasties, 92;
France, rapid growth of royal au-

arrived at unlimited power, 93 ;
thority, 128; in the middle age

laid the foundation of the contest
less civilized than Italy and Ger-

with the church, ibid.
many, ibid. ; the spirit of chivalry FRANKS, mode of their conversion
less developed than among the to Christianity, 63; their yoke
Normans and English, ibid. ; 1 rude and oppressive, 64; extent
career of the Maid of Orleans, of their kingdom, ibid. ; their two
ibid. ; establishment of despotism, royal dynasties, the Merovingians
129 ; since Philip-le-Bel, its go. and Carlovingians, ibid. ; virtues
vernment despotic, 190 ; was a and vices hereditary in families,
source of disquiet to Europe, ibid.; 64, 65; development of the con-
its selfish policy, 191; political l. stitution, 65; the old German

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constitution unsuitable to later |
times, ibid. ; growth of the royal
authority, 65, 131 ; decay of the
order of freemen, 66 ; evils of the
spirit of conquest, ibid. ; extinc-
tion of the old nobility, ibid. ; rise
of feudalism, ibid. ; power of the
great feudatories, ibid. ; their
kingdom not strictly hereditary,
67; their hatred of the Saxons,
67, 97; their law of succession,

79.
FREDERICK THE FAIR(the emperor),

his chivalrous spirit, 122, 123.
Frederick IV., his policy, 143 ;

his singular character, ibid. ; bis
European influence, ibid. ; his
negotiations and war with Charles
the Bold, 144; his love of peace,
ibid. ; his friendship for Pius II.,
148.

Gauls, sanguinary worship of, 26.
GENSERIC, barbarous policy of, 55.
Germany, its fertility, 14; its

mountain ranges, ibid. ; its vast
forests, 15, 16; its climate, ibid. ;

its political importance, 22, 24.
German Empire, idea of, derived

from Charlemagne, 70, 81, 85 ;
relations of church and state, 81,
82; the clergy a separate estate,
81, 83; the ecclesiastical order and
counterpoise to the nobility, 83 ;)
nature of the nobility, 83, 84 ;|
relations between the clergy and
nobility, 84; rapid rise of, 89 ;
its great emperors in the early
middle age, ibid. ; advantages of|
elective monarchy, 90, 98; de-
velopment of the hereditary prin-
ciple, 90, 92; its relations with
the neighbouring states in the
tenth century, 90 ; growth of, in
extent and power, 91, 96; parallel
between the three great imperial
dynasties, 92, 93, 94 ; its connec.
tion with Italy advantageous tol

civilization, 94 ; its internal con-
dition under the Saxon emperors,
95, 96 ; colonization of Sclavonic
provinces, 96 ; rise of the order of
burgesses, 97, 98; nature of the
imperial power in the middle age,
97 ; its division into five great
national duchies, 97, 98 ; rela-
tions of the dukes to the emperor,
98; development of its constitu-
tion, ibid. ; growth and prosperity
of the cities and towns, ibid. ; con-
tests between the popes and the
emperors, 99; feudal and eccle-
siastical duties of the bishops in-
compatible, 99, 100 ; sale of bi.
shoprics by the emperors, 100 ;
ecclesiastical rights of the empe-
rors, 102; right of the pope to
confirm the election of the empe-
rors, ibid. ; consequences of the
disputes between the popes and
emperors, ibid. ; European influ.
ence of the empire lost, ibid. ; a
central power in Europe necessary,
191 ; power of the emperor pro-
pitious to general freedom, 192;
the papal power limited the impe-
rial, ibid. ; its intellectual decay
after the Reformation, 211; out-
break of a religious war long de-
layed, ibid. ; causes of the duration
of peace, ibid. ; abhorrence of the
Calvinists, 212; equality in power
of the religious parties, 227 ; the
religious peace a state of perma.
nent disunion, ibid.; disorganiza-
tion of the body politic, ibid. ; its
great military resources in the
eighteenth century, 284 ; German
dynasties and German influence
in foreign states, 285; ambition
of Prussia and Bavaria, ibid. ; the
virtual dissolution of the consti-
tution, ibid. ; the national energies
limited to the acquisition of know-
ledge, 286 ; parallel between the
intellectual culture of the Germans
and French, 287 ; Leibnitz and
Grotius, 288 ; German philosophy,
290; its intellectual culture free

from any political direction, 291 :1. privileges of the nobles, 29, 30;
characteristics of the German their princely families, 30; their
mind, ibid.

royalty elective, ibid. ; the Swiss

mountaineers and Swedish Dale-
GERMANS, primitive, vast results of|

carlians retained the primitive con-
their migrations, 4,5 ; their Asia- |

stitution, 30, 31, 95, 96; basis of
tic origin, 13; motives for settling

their nobility, 31 ; nature of their
in the extreme north, ibid. ; their

freedom, 31, 32; right of self-
deep love for nature, 16; not

defence, ibid. ; duty of revenge,
savages, 17, 18; not to be com-

31 ; mediatorial functions of the
pared with American Indians,

state, 32; modern sentiment of
ibid.'; were acquainted with the

honour, ibid. ; stringency of their
use of iron, 18; arms of, defen-

laws, ibid. ; public duties, ibid. ;
sive and offensive, ibid. ; their

their leagues and confederacies,
various tribes not equally advanced

32, 33; etymology of the name,
in civilization, ibid. ; were ac-

33; their brotherhood in arms,
quainted with the art of writing,

34 ; the origin of feudalism, ibid. ;
19; their alphabet in the Runic

their love of military enterprizes,
character, ibid. ; were acquainted

ibid. ; social position of their wo-
with the value of money, ibid. ;

men, 34, 35; their marriages and
their commerce, ibid.; their houses,

wedding gifts, 35, 36; heroism of
towns, and forts, 19, 20; modern

their women, 36; their migra-
ideas of their barbarism exagge tions, 37, 38; their pacific dispo.
rated, 20; their dress and orna-

sitions, 37 ; their various wars
ments, 20, 21; their poetry and

with the Romans, 40, 44 ; growth
songs, 22, 27, 28; their faith and

of a German party in the Roman
worship, 23, 28; their religious

empire, 44, 45, 53; the German
system contrasted with that of the

party particularly strong among
Greeks and Romans, 23, 24 ; their

the Christians, 50 ; their close
worship similar to that of the

intercourse with the Romans, 56;
ancient Persians, 23; their repug.

their contempt for the Roman
nance to temples and images, ibid. ;

dress, ibid. ; their peculiar recep-
their firm belief in a future life,

tion of Christianity, 82.
24 ; their conceptions of, sensual
and warlike, ibid. ; their self-

German language, version of the
devotedness, ibid. ; the joys of

Gospel by Ulphilas, its earliest
the Walhalla, ibid. ; their con-

monument, 74; rise of, as a se-
ception of God superior to that of

parate tongue, 75, 76; encourage-
other heathen nations, 25; their

ment of, by Charlemagne, 70, 71;
capital punishments, ibid. ; their

early development of, 72; trans-
deity the judge and avenger of

lations from the Latin frequent in
wrong, ibid. ; origin of ordeals,

the Carlovingian times, 73, 74;
ibid. ; their religious system wholly

is compounded of two dialects,
different from that of the Gauls |

75; origin of modern High Ger-
and Celts, 26, 27; their human man, 76.
sacrifices, 26; non-existence of GermAN poetry, encouraged by
Druids or bards, 26, 27; the Charlemagne, 70; heroic lays very
chiefs themselves minstrels, 27 ; numerous, ibid. ; " Wyne-lieder"
their constitution, 29–32; judg interdicted to nuns, ibid.; at.
ment of the Romans, 29, 65 ; the tempts to substitute Christian
rights of the freemen, 29; the poems for the old national poetry,

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