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face of the sky? The mighty crowds that strongly than another, it is the heresy that, gather round the base of the ascent to for the sake of promoting the objects of a knowledge and its powers-the million party, assists or assails opinion without that keep the plains and the low valleys, regard for truth, making the end sanctify murmuring at the scanty numbers that, the means. The Utilitarian may protest scaling the hills, survey the whole scheme against being charged with any such delaid out before them, and discern in the signs as we have indicated upon poetry, mass its torpidity for good, its activity for and sculpture, and music, and abstract enevil. And here is the grand distinction, joyments of any kind : he may tell us that which the great principle keeps out of his design does not comprehend any such view. The Many are the uninstructed desecration of the intellectual pleasures : and the unwise—the Few are the tried and that, rightly understood, even the and the gifted. If in any question of shapes of Beauty, the most exquisite, and morals we shape our course by the the remotest springs of mental excitement, former, we fall into crooked paths and may be included within his definition of labyrinths, and our way lies amongst ob- Utility. But it is impossible to discover structions: if by the latter, we step in cence of that kind in his code-unlight, and have the free prospect before less, perhaps, by a cross reading, or by us to choose our path. The things visible reading backwards, neither of which expeand invisible that bring pleasure to the riments we have tried. We suggest, howmultitude are to the educated minority ever, that the utility delineated by the repulsive, or at least disagreeable. Their Benthamite philosophy not only does not perceptions are more acute and refined embrace these elements of human happi--they cannot rest satisfied with coarse ness, but that they could not by any ingeplenty—they must have the repast regu- nious method of insinuation be made to lated by tasteful distribution, and relieved enter into the scheme. The purpose of the by the improvements of art. The rough Utilitarian is to reduce society to that state work of life, with its present and perishing of intercourse and adjustment which shall rewards, is not enough for them - they guarantee to the bulk of the people the look above and beyond it. That which is certain means of acquiring that which conhappiness to the Many, would be pain and stitutes their happiness. Now as the culfatigue to the Few : and if both were to be tivation of refined delights creates the most levelled to the rank of the numerical ma- visible, perhaps the most striking, and cerjority, away with poetry, away with all tainly the most effectual and progressive speculations upon man's attributes and distinction between the existing classes of hopes, with the ideal world, the exalting society-șince the main ground of complaint and ennobling pursuits that sometimes on the part of the Many is that the Few afford us glimpses, like the beams falling enjoy immunities that are borbidden to through the gates of Paradise on the them,-leisure, drawing in its wake, its Peri, of the races and systems beyond trim gardens,” its “sweet contempla-away with the inspirations of art, the tion,” and “ its peaches ripening in the glorious legacies of Phydias and Praxiteles, sun, '-an abiding energy towards the atof Titian, Michael Angelo, and Rembrandt tainment of supreme advantages à sense -away with the miracles of Intellect, of authority over the masses—a presence the wondrous and mystical mythologies, of majesty and controul—and a constant the solemn pageants of the antique faith, vindication of the ascendancy of mind over Sophocles and Euripides, the dramas, matter, of knowledge over numbers-it shadowy and full of profound analyses of must be evident that the Utilitarian cannot human passion and suffering—they are achieve his desires, cannot bring down “caviare to the general,” they contribute mankind to the level of the majority, until nothing to the happiness of the greatest he has completely dislodged these distinnumber, for of a truth the greatest num- guishing pursuits that create the separaber find their happiness in things identified tion which he desires to terminate. The only with the grosser nature, and not with only mode by which he could establish his the elevated, the purified, and the great. plan of happiness without doing this, would
Now we do not treat this matter politi- be to educate the multitude up to the cally :-if we depreeate any one heresy standard of the minority; and if he do this, against good taste and good feeling more he will secure, and deserve the gratitude
of the world; but until he has succeeded of a constrained existence, are fain to believe in doing it—which he will when he has that the highest bliss of this breathing discovered the way to extract sunbeams globe consists in having an abundance to from cucumbers—he ought not to agitate live upon, and nothing to do for it. Once his theory of happiness, and claim credit upon a time a poor woman, resting her at the same time for entertaining due and jaded limbs against a hedgerow, gazed with proper respect for the arts which, in the mute wonder upon a spanking equipage present state of the community, it would that flew past her along the road, discoverinevitably abolish.
ing the splendid dresses of the high-born People will differ to the end of time as ladies who sat within : and when it was to what it is that composes “ happiness, gone, the wayfarer exclaimed with a deep our being's end and aim." But it cannot sigh, 6 Heaven and that would be too be doubted that nearly the whole world much !” The value which the have agreed upon one point—that an im- worked place upon the state of idle luxury possible condition of humanity, could it be is, perhaps, natural, but it is unquestionsecured—the doubtful luxury of wealth ably founded in error. Suppose they had and idleness—is the most desirable, and the their own way-suppose that the Greatest most likely to put us at our ease. That Number were allowed to attain the sort of this estimate of contentment is erroneous happiness which appears to them to be —that it proceeds upon a false view of the the most agreeable—what a world we materials which are necessary even to our should have of it, what masses of drones repose, not to speak of our ambition, our and domestic usurpation, what filching of tastes, and our love of our species, all of rights and privileges, what vulgar pretenwhich demand the exercise of activity in sion and arrogant monopoly, what spleen, some form—and that, supposing we could malice, and uncharitableness would take all procure this luxury of living without the place of the generous virtues, of effort, it could not subsist, because the liberality, forethought, and temperance. natural tendency of men to go forward, Of a truth if the multitude could be the increasing necessities of circumstances, happy after their own fashion, the fields the inextinguishable passions, agitating the would run arid for want of culture, and still community, and the irresistible im- the blessings of the bountiful soil would pulses towards discoveries, invention, alte- be wasted like dust in the whirlwind. ration, combination, and change through- Whatever your Utilitarian may say to the out every conceivable ramification of life, contrary, be assured that the present diswould unavoidably dissolve the placid tribution of society is the wisest after all, compact-are facts which we may assume and that since man was born to trouble as without circumlocution, or any other proof surely as the sparks fly upwards, it is for a than that which instinct supplies, and wise end that we cannot accomplish the which lies deeper, and is more irresistible aim of our wayward and short-sighted than the most elaborate statistical tables. fancies. Yet this impracticable scheme of life- Dean Swift says, that the happiness of this living in invalid chairs—this being life consists in being well deceived; and pillowed on the air, and sleeping in rose- although we cannot entirely approve of the leaves—this imaginary tranquillity of sky sarcastic shape into which he has thrown the and temper, with a climate of perfumes, axiom, we believe that it contains the kernel singing-birds, and dancing girls, golden of much sound wisdom. If we can deceive apples and silver fish, banquets and tem- ourselves into satisfaction with our lot, if ples springing up like Eastern enchant- we can persuade ourselves, by comparison ments with a wave of the hand, and all or induction, that we have reason to be the voluptuous extravagances which are grateful for things as they are, so as to forordinarily attributed to the pomp of lavish tify ourselves with courage
and fortune—this scheme, or vision, or phantas- hope to improve them, then it is a decepmagoria is the very mode of being for tion—if deception it be—which it is well which the Greatest Number yearn-the worth while to cultivate. But what need excluded, and humble, and ignorant, who, is there of any sophistry to make us happy. feeling their own lot to be hard, and turn- Have we not the verdant world for our ing away in grief and weariness from domain—the blue skies—the music of the exigent labour, and the galling struggles woods and the waters the inexhaustible beauties and glories of the boundless crea- country; it is a philosophy of bricks and tion, wider than the mind can comprehend, mortar, of counting-houses and inkstands, or the imagination can traverse ? Happi- and its disciples, instead of being permitted ness does not consist in wealth, which is to breath the air of out-of-door liberty, the meanest and most contemptible of its ought to be confined to their narrow lanes ingredients.
and alleys, where with pallid faces, sleek
hair, and pens behind their ears, they I care not, Fortune, what you me deny, You cannot rob me of free Nature's grace;
might work out in miserable security their You cannot bar the windows of the sky,
own theory of human happiness. The Through which Aurora shews her brightening face.
greatest number forsooth !it ought to be But the Benthamite philosophy ex- called the smallest amount of happiness for cludes such considerations as these. It the smallest number-a mere fraction of grovels in the shambles, instead of flying thought and mortality struck off the surto the hills and plains for joy and consola- face of the globe, like an atom from the tion; it keeps to the cities and avoids the edge of a flint.
BY CHARLES LAMB.
but for the superior invention which they If you ever run away, which is proble- show here in making Sundays worse. matical, don't run to a country village, Clowns stand about what was the marketwhich has been a market-town, but is such place, and spit minutely to relieve ennui. no longer. Enfield, where we are, is Clowns, to whom Enfield tradespeople are seated most indifferently upon the borders gentle people. Inland clowns, clods, and of Middlesex, Essex, and Hertfordshire, things below cows. They assemble to partaking of the quiet dulness of the first, infect the air with dulness from Waltham and the total want of interest pervading marshes. They clear off on the Monday the two latter counties. You stray into mornings, like other fogs. It is ice-but the church-yard, hoping to find a cathe- nobody slides, nobody tumbles down, nodral. You think, “ I will go and look at body dies, as I can see, or nobody cares if the print shops," and there is only one, they do : the doctors seem to have no where they sell valentines. The chief patients,—there are no accidents nor ofbookseller deals in prose versions of fences; a good thief would be something melodrames, with plates of ghosts and mur- in this well-governed hamlet. ders, and other subterranean passages. The We have for indoors amusement a tarts in the only pastry-cook-looking shop library without books, and the middle-ofare baked stale. The macaroons are the-week hopes of a Sunday newspaper perennial-kept torpid in glass cases, ex- to link us, by filmy associations, to pecting when Mrs.
gives a card party. a world we are dead to. Regent-street There are no jewellers, but there's a place, was,-and it is by difficult induction we where trap knobs are sold. You cast your infer that Charing Cross still is. There weary eyes about, up Baker-street, and it may be plays : but nobody here seems to gets worse. There was something like a have heard of such contingencies. tape-and-thread shop at that end, but here You go out with a dog, and the dog -are two apples stuck between a farthing's comes home with you, and the difference worth of ginger-bread, and the children is, he does not mind dirty stockings. too poor to break stock.
The week days would be intolerable,
LOUISA, Viscountess Beresford, is the GEORGE BERESFORD, Esq., Steward of youngest daughter of the late Most Rev. the town of Nottingham. This gentlemen William Beresford, Archbishop of Tuam, married Ellen, daughter of Thomas Greene, Baron Decies : her ladyship was married, Esq. of Sussex, and was succeeded by his first, to Thomas Hope, Esq., of Deepdene, elder son, in the county of Surrey, and, secondly, to MICHAEL BERESFORD, Esq. of Ottford, the present Viscount Beresford.
and the Squirres in Kent, an officer of the The ancient family of Beresford, formerly court of Wards. This gentleman, who was written Bereford, of which her ladyship is living in 1674, married Rose, daughter of a scion, flourished for ages in the counties John Knivett, Esq. : his third son, of Stafford, Warwick, and Leicester.
TRISTRAM BERESFORD, Esq., went over JOHN DE BERESFORD was seized of the to Ireland in the reign of James I., as manor of Beresford, in the parish of Alston- Manager of the Corporation of Londoners, field, in the county of Stafford, in 1087: called the Society of the New Plantation, from him lineally descended,
in Ulster. He settled at Coleraine, in the JOHN BERESFORD, who lived in the reign county of Londonderry, and was succeeded of Edward IV., and married Elizabeth, by his elder son, daughter of William Basset, of Blore: he SIR TRISTRAM BERESFORD, who was was succeeded in his manor of Beresford Member of Parliament for the county of by his eldest son : his second son,
Londonderry in 1661, and was created a THOMAS BERESFORD, seated at Baronet by Charles II., 24 March, 1664. Newton, otherwise Newton-Grange, and By his first wife, Anne, eldest daughter of Bentley, in the county of Derby, in the John Rowley, Esq. of Castle-Roe, in the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV. To county of Derry, he had, with other issue, the former of these princes he did good a son, and successor at his decease, 15 Jan., service in the French wars, and, says tradi- 1673, tion, mustered at Chesterfield a troop of SIR RANDLE BERESFORD, the second horse consisting alone of himself, his sons, Baronet, who was Member for Coleraine and their servants. He was interred in the in the first Parliament after the Restorachurch of Fenny-Bentley, where a fine tion : he married, in July, 1662, Catharine, alabaster monument was erected to his younger daughter of Francis, Viscount memory. He married Agnes, daughter Valentia, and, dying in 1681, was succeeded and heir of Robert Hassal, Esq., of Arcluyd, by his eldest surviving son, in Cheshire, by whom he had sixteen sons SIR TRISTRAM BERESFORD, the third and five daughters : his seventh son, Baronet, who headed a regiment of foot
HUMPHREY BERESFORD, Esq. of New- against King James, and was attainted by ton-Grange, married Margery, daughter that Monarch's Parliament, in 1689. He of Edmond Bardesly, Esq., and was suc- married, in Feb., 1687, Nichola - Sophia, ceeded by his eldest surviving son,
daughter and co-heir of Hugh, Baron
Glenawly, and, dying 16th June, 1701, of John Fitz Gibbon, Esq., and sister of was succeeded by his only son,
John, Earl of Clare, Lord Chancellor of SIR MARCUS BERESFORD, the fourth Ireland, by whom he had surviving issue, Baronet, who married Catherine Poer, John, present Baron Decies. Baroness Le Poer, daughter and heiress of George, in Holy Orders, married James, third Earl of Tyroné. By this Susan, third daughter of Hamilton connection the representation of the ancient Georges, Esq. of Kilbrew, in the family of De La Poer was vested in the
county of Meath, and has issue. house of Beresford. The De la Poers William, in Holy Orders, married sprung from Sir Roger Le Poer, Knt., who
Anne, daughter of Charles, late came to Ireland with Strongbow, and ac
Earl of Tankerville, and died in companied the invader in his expedition to
1830, leaving issue. recover the kingdom of Leinster for Der- Catherine-Eleanor, married to the mot Mac Murrough, and also assisted John
Rev. William Armstrong. de Courcy in the reduction of Ulster. The Araminta-Anne, married to the Very lineal descendant of Sir Roger Nicholas le
Rev. Arthur John Preston D.D., Poer had summons to Parliament as Baron
Dean of Limerick, and died 26th le Poer 23rd Nov. 1375 : from him, through September, 1816. a long and proud line of influential nobles, Harriet, married to Thomas-Birmingderived Richard, Baron Le Poer, who was ham-Daly-Henry Sewel, Esq., who advanced, 9th Oct., 1673, to the Viscounty claimed the barony of Athenry. of Decies, and the Earldom of Tyrone: Frances, married to Colonel Burhis grandson, James, the third Earl, married Anne, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Louisa. Andrew Richards, Esq. of Dangan Spidoge, The Archbishop was created a Peer of in the county of Kilkenny, by whom he Ireland 21st December, 1812, by the title left, at his decease, 19th Aug., 1704, an borne by his ancestors, of LORD DECIES : only daughter and heiress, the Lady Ca- his Grace died 6th September, 1819, and therine Poer, the wife of Sir Marcus Beres- was succeeded by his eldest son, ford. The original barony, by writ of Le John, present LORD DECIES. Poer, descended on this daughter of the last The youngest daughter of the ArchEarl of Tyrone, while the Earldom of bishop, Louisa, the lady whose portrait Tyrone and all the other honors expired forms this month's illustration, was marwith the father. Sir Marcus Beresford ried on the 29th Nov., 1832, to WILLIAM therefore, in consequence of his alliance, CarR BERESFORD, Viscount BERESFORD, was raised to the Peerage of Ireland, 4th in the Peerage of England, and Duke of Nov., 1720, as Baron Beresford of Beres- Elvas, in that of Portugal, a General ford, in the county of Cavan, and Viscount Officer in the British Army, and one of Tyrone, and was created Earl of Tyrone the heroes of the Peninsula.
Her Lady18th July, 1746. His lordship died 4th ship was previously married, in 1806, to April, 1763, leaving, with other issue, Thomas Hope, Esq. of Deepdene, the celeGeorge de la Poer, his successor, and a brated author of Anastasius, who died the
2nd Feb., 1831, leaving issue by her, WILLIAM BERESFORD, who having en- Henry-Thomas Hope, Esq. of Deeptered into Holy Orders, was successively
dene. Bishop of Dromore, Bishop of Ossory, and Adrian-John Hope, a Captain in the Archbishop of Tuam. His Grace married, 4th Dragoon Guards. 12th June, 1763, Elizabeth, second daughter Alexander-James-Beresford Hope.