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shot, for not engaging the enemy, Voltaire very shrewdly observed, that it was done to encourage others. Trusler's Memoirs.
XCVII. Oppression the Cause of Revolutions. From the commencement of society, mankind have groaned under the weight of despotism. The history. of human revolutions is only a recital of the usurpations of power, the revolt of reason, and the vengeance of the most powerful. In all the nations of the earth, oppression has produced a forcible reaction, and this reaction has given birth to revolution. Every where has violence wearied out the patience of the oppressed; for, in fact, the people possess but a certain portion of patience. Every where, men who have been slaves, become savage beasts, and then they surpass even their despots in fury, and resemble ti. gers broke loose from their chains. In all climates, anarchy and disorder have been the consequences of explosions occasioned by excessive oppression, and have only been terminated, after a bloody contest, by the triumph of liberty, or by re-establishing that empire of despotism which succeeding events must ultimately destroy. If we attentively peruse the history of all despotic governments, we shall behold them describe a uniform circle of oppression, misery, lethargy, despotism, and massacre; so true is it that despotism, by shedding the blood of the people, instructs them, in their turn, to strike their tyrants. Francis Pages—Secret History of the French Revolution.
XCVIII. Which is the most perfect Popular Government ?
" That," said Bias, “ where the laws have no superior." * That," said Thales, “ where the inhabitants are neither too rich nor too poor.” “That,” said Anacharsis, the Scythian, “ where virtue is honoured and vice detested." · That,” said Pittacus, “ whose dignities are always conferred upon the virtuous, and never upon the base.” · That,” said Cleobulus, where the citizens fear blame more than punishment.” “ That said” Chilo, “where the laws are more regarded than the orators.” “ But that," said Solon, " where an injury done to the meanest subject is an insult upon the whole constitution.- Apothegms of the Ancients.
XCIX. Effects of Drinking.–Wine and other physical exhilarants, during the treacherous truce to wretchedness which they afford, dilapidate the structure, and undermine the very foundation of happiness. No man, perhaps, was ever completely miserable, until after he had fled to alcohol for consolation. The habit of vinous indulgence is not more pernicious, than it is obstinate and pertinacious in its hold, when it has once fastened itself upon the constitution. It is not to be conquered by half measures. No compromise with it is allowable. The victory over it, in order to be permanent, must be perfect. As long as there lurks a relic of it in the frame, there is imminent danger of a relapse of this moral malady, from which there seldom is, as from physical disorders, a gradual convalescence. The cure, if at all, must be effected at once; cutting and pruning will do no good; nothing will be of any avail short of absolute extirpation. The man who has been the slave of intemperance, must renounce her altogether, or she will insen
sibly re-assume her despotic power. With such a mis. tress, if he seriously mean to discard her, he should indulge himself in no dalliance or delay. He must not al. low his lips a taste of her former fascination.
Webb, the noted pedestrian, who was remarkable for vigour both of body and mind, lived wholly upon water for his drink. He was one day recommending his regi. men to one of his friends who loved wine, and urged him with great earnestness, to quit a course of luxury by which his health and his intellects would equally be destroyed. The gentleman appeared convinced, and told him that he would conform to his counsel, and though he could not change his course of life at once, he would leave off strong liquors by degrees.” “By degrees!" says the other, with indignation, “ if you should unhappily fall into the fire, would you caution your servants to pull you out by de, grees?"-Monthly Magazine for March, 1810,
Temples for Human Sacrifices..Every apartment de voted to the circulation of the glass, may be regarded as a temple set apart for the performance of human sacri. fices. And they ought to be fitted up, like the ancient temples in Egypt, in a manner to show the real atrocity of the superstition that is carried on within their walls. Beddoe's Hygeia.
CI. How to educate Children.--The great and fatal mis. take in education, is to imagine that children have any natural dispositions, that they are naturally either cruel or passionate, proud, generous, or affectionate; and the mistake originates in this manner : few parents begin to educate their children till they are four or five years old, when their tempers are completely formed, by improper means, instead of attempting to erase them by contrary impressions. Children, when left to themselves, generally do wrong, because their first notions tend to excess, if they are not controlled ; and consequently become hurtful to themselves and others : for this purpose they require, in their younger years, long and constant attention; and with this it is as impossible that they should be ill disposed, as that a piece of wax, which has received the impression of one figure, should represent another. Just what you wish your children to be, they will be if you take pains to make them so: but if a child is eager and impatient for every thing he sees, and it is constantly given to him, you must expect that he will never bear to be denied. If you suffer him to refuse every thing he is asked for, you must expect him to be selfish and illiberal; if you suffer him to strike or ill-treat those beneath him with impunity, you must not wonder if he becomes proud and haughty; if you never teach hiin to be gentle and affectionate, you must expect him to be coarse and cruel ; if you never per. mit him to take exercise, he will be puny and tender; if you supply all his wants, and never leave him to do any thing for himself, he will neither be active nor healthy; but if you use him to manly exercises, he will be strong and vigorous; and if you teach him forbearance, he will bear fatigue and difficulty. Our involuntary impressions being much more easily acquired than those we receive by the exertion of the will, example is generally found to be stronger than precept; it is of infinite importance, therefore, that we never expect from our children that which we do not do ourselves, and that all we enjoin or forbid
should be strengthened by the powerful authority of our own example.-W. Burdon.
cІІ. Of Slaves.-What injustice is discoverable in the conduct of the southern planter, which is also not found in the practices of the northern farmer? they are both tyrants to the utmost of their abilities. They both hold their fel. low creatures in slavery as unbounded as their powers. Nor is the condition of the white slave in the northern
states much preferable to that of the black slave in the · southern parts of the union. The laws and progress of
civilization have made the indigent labourer a slave to every man in possession of riches. He may change his master, but he is condemned to perpetual servitude; and his re. ward is the reward of every other slave-subsistence. The situation of the white slave is often more unfortunate than that of the black: he is probably harassed by domestic cares, and compelled to be a helpless witness of the distresses of his family; or he changes his employer so often, with the vain hope of meliorating his condition, that he becomes sick, infirm, or old, without having had it in his power to secure the friendship or protection of any of his masters. What then is the consequence? The wretched outcast, after a life of slavery, is neglected by those who have enjoyed the fruit of his labour: he may perish in the streets, expire on the highway, or linger out a miserable existence in some infirmary or poorhouse, till death shall relieve him of his pain, and the world of a burden. And the pitiful assistance, which is granted by the rich, to their sick, decrepit, or superannuated slave, is given as a charity, accompanied with reproaches and expressions of contempt; and the dying