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probable that he is the Attalus cited by He-command of Craterus, to finish the subjugasychius, in his Lexicon (under the wordtion of the district of Paratacene. He also Kopivvovou) as the author of a book Ilepi na- served with distinction in the Indian camροιμιών, "On Proverbs.” (Fabricius, Bi- paigns of Alexander (B.C. 327-325), and bliotheca Græca, iii. p. 544, v. p. 106, ed. was, with his division, in the force sent Harles; L. Annæus Seneca, Epistola 9, homeward through Carmania, under the 63, 67, 72, 81, 108, 110, Naturales Quas- command of Craterus. tiones, lib. ii. c. 48 and 50; M. Annæus While Alexander was on his death-bed Seneca, Suasoria, 2.)

J.C. M. (B.C. 323), Attalus was one of the seven offiA'TTALUS ("Attalos), a physician, who cers who passed a night in the temple of Sewas a contemporary of Galen at Rome, in rapis, to consult the oracle of the god as to the second century after Christ. He was whether Alexander should be brought to the a pupil of Soranus, and belonged to the temple. On the death of Alexander, when medical sect of the Methodici. Galen gives the infantry, discontented with the arrangean account of his attending the Stoic phi- ments made by Perdiccas and others of the losopher Theagenes in his last illness, and superior officers, rose in revolt, Attalus and accuses him of having been the cause of his Meleager were sent to quiet them. Instead death by his faulty treatment. Theagenes of doing so, they took part with the revolters, appears to have been suffering from an attack and Attalus sent men to put Perdiccas to of acute hepatitis, which Attalus undertook death. The firmness of Perdiccas, however, to cure in three days, by means of a poultice prevented the execution of this purpose, and of bread and honey, by fomenting the part quelled the revolt. This account of the part with warm oil, and by restricting the patient to taken by Attalus on this occasion rests on the a drink probably answering to our water-gruel, sole authority of Justin. Some have thought which three remedies, Galen says, were con- that the Attalus mentioned by that writer was sidered by Thessalus and his followers to be a different person from the son of Androsufficient to acute diseases. Galen menes; but we are disposed to identify them, warned Attalus of his error (though his own Attalus managed to reconcile himself to Perproposed plan of treatment does not appear diccas, and received the command of his fleet altogether satisfactory), but without effect, in the expedition against Ptolemy, the son of and in three days' time, when Attalus brought Lagus, in Egypt (B.C. 321); and (unless the some of his friends to enjoy his triumph, he marriage was of older date) received the found the patient dead. This case is exa- hand of Atalante, sister of Perdiccas, in mined and explained at some length (though, marriage. of course, in the style of the sixteenth century)

When Perdiccas was assassinated by his by Zacutus Lusitanus, De Medicor. Princip. own officers on the bank of the Nile (B.C. Histor. lib. ii. hist. 102, p. 363, Lyon, 1642. 321), Atalante was also put to death. Atta(Galen, De Meth. Medendi, lib. x. cap. 15, lus, who was at Pelusium with the fleet, imtom. x. p. 909, ed. Kühn.) W. A. G. mediately sailed to Tyre, and took possession

A’TTALUS, a presbyter of the Christian of the town, and of a considerable treasure church in the fourth century, condemned at which Perdiccas had deposited there, and the Council of Aquileia, A.D. 381, for having atforded an asylum to such of the friends of embraced Arianism. (Epistola Synodalis Perdiccas as fled to him. When Eurydice Concilii Aquileiensis ad Augustos, quoted by attempted to raise a sedition against AntiBaronius, Annales, A.D. 381, c. 93.) J.C.M. pater in Syria, the same year, Attalus sup

A'TTALUS ("Attalos), son of ANDRO-ported her; but, on the failure of her efforts, MENES, an officer of eminence in the army of appears to have returned to Tyre, or proAlexander the Great. He is first noticed on ceeded to Pisidia, where he united his forces occasion of the conspiracy of Dimnus, when, with those of Alcetas, brother of Perdiccas. after the execution of Philotas, Attalus and He attacked the Rhodians, but was beaten three of his brothers, Amyntas, Polemon, by them at sea (B.C. 320 or 321), and made and Simmias, were charged with being im- an attack, apparently without success, upon plicated in the treason, on account of their Caunus and Cnidus. He and Alcetas deintimacy with Philotas. Polemon fled, and feated Asander, the satrap or governor of Cathis was held to be a corroboration of his ria, whom Antipater sent against them (Asan. own and his brothers' guilt. The other DER]; but they were soon afterwards defeated three, however, defended themselves so well by Antigonus in Pisidia, where they had colas not only to secure an acquittal, but to ob- lected sixteen thousand infantry and nine huntain leave for Polemon to return [AMYNTAS). dred horse: the army of Antigonus was

Attalus served with distinction after his much more numerous, and composed of betacquittal. During Alexander's operations ter troops. Attalus, with Docimus and Poleagainst the Sogdian insurgents (B.c. 328), mon (the latter probably his brother) were Attalus, with Polysperchon, Gorgias, and taken, and confined in a strong fort situated Meleager, was left in Bactria to secure that on a rock. After a time the prisoners, only province; and early next year (B.C. 3:27) | eight in number, by bribing some of the Attalus was sent, with others, under the I guard, obtained their own freedom and the possession of the fort; but while deliberating of prefect when hostilities were renewed, and whether to hold out there or attempt to es- Rome was a second time besieged by Alaric. cape, they were blocked up by troops from the The capture of the Port (Portus), at the mouth different posts in the neighbourhood. They of the Tiber, a few miles distant from Rome, in had just time to admit some persons from which the corn for the supply of the citizens without, who favoured them, and though was stored up, obliged the city to submit to these did not make their number more than the Gothic king (A.D. 409), who directed the sixty, they held out for above a year, ex- Romans to elect an emperor in place of Hopecting to be relieved by Eumenes. At last norius. It was by the command of Alaric they were obliged to surrender, and we hear that Attalus was chosen. The choice was, no more of Attalus. (Arrian, Anabasis, iii. however, a popular one, and the accession of 27, iv. 16, 22, 27, v. 12, vi. 17, vii. 26, and the new emperor was hailed with great joy, Fragmenta, apud Phot. Bibliotheca, Cod. 92; to which the prospect of a resident sovereign, Diodorus Siculus, xviii. 27, 45, xix. 16, 35; and the lenient character of Attalus, appear Justin, xiii. 3.)

J. C. M. to have conduced. As he was baptised by A'TTALUS ("Attalos), an ATHENIAN Sigesarius, whom Sozomen describes as “ the sculptor, who executed the statue of the Ly- bishop of the Goths,” and who was an Arian, cian Apollo, which was in the temple of it is probable that his baptism immediately Apollo at Argos. The date of Attalus is un preceded or accompanied his elevation. His known. (Pausanias, ii. 19.) R. W. jun. accession gave hope to the Arians of greater

A'TTALUS (called on his coins FLAVIUS indulgence than they had experienced from Priscus ATTALUS, the son of Priscus), one of Theodosius and his sons. Those also who the later Emperors of the Western Roman adhered to the ancient religion of the empire Empire. He is described as being an Ionian rejoiced at the accession of one who had been by descent (by which is probably meant that brought up a heathen. his family was from Ionia in Asia Minor), Attalus immediately proceeded to appoint and a heathen by education; and it is pro- his officers. Alaric himself was made general bable that he continued a heathen until about of the army, conjointly with Valens, who howthe time of his accession to the empire. After ever appears to have been at the time at Rathe first siege of Rome by the Visigoths, under venna with Honorius; Ataulphus, or Adolphus, Alaric (A.D. 409), Attalus was sent by the Ro- brother of Alaric's wife, and afterwards his man Senate, with Cæcilianus and Maximia- successor in the Gothic kingdom, was made nus, to the Emperor Honorius, at Ravenna, on general of the household cavalry: the other a mission, the object of which is not clearly | offices were filled up with Romans. Attalus stated. They could only relate and lament the then assembled the senate, and made a long sufferings which Rome had endured, all useful and elaborate speech, in which he promised measures for remedying these evils being to preserve their privileges, and to reduce obstructed by Olympius, then chief minister Egypt and the provinces of the east under of Honorius. Attalus received from Olym- their ancient subjection to Italy. Perhaps by pius the appointment of chief of the treasury thus recalling the memory of their departed at Rome, and was sent back under the escort of greatness, Attalus thought to revive the naValens, and six thousand Dalmatian soldiers, tional spirit of Rome: he was also misled by destined to garrison Rome. The escort was some pretended prophecies; but whether these attacked and destroyed by Alaric ; but Attalus were of pagan or Christian origin is not said. and Valens, and about a hundred men, escaped His first attempt was on the province of to Rome; where Attalus immediately super- | Africa of which Carthage was the capital, seded Heliocrates in charge of the treasury, which was held for Honorius by Count Fleraand proceeded, by order of Olympius, to clian. Attalus rejected the advice of Alaric confiscate the property of those who had to send a small body of Gothic troops under been friends of Stilicho. This employment Drumas, and sent Constans, one of his partiwas, however, disagreeable to him: accord- zans, with scarcely any force, to supersede ing to Zosimus, " he thought it impious Heraclian in the government of the province. to insult the unfortunate;" and he made the Sozomen and Zosimus attribute his conduct search as inefficient as he could: he even to his infatuated reliance on the aboveprivately admonished some of the proscribed mentioned prophecies; but possibly an unparties to conceal their effects. His mild- willingness to deliver up the provinces of the ness offended his employer, and he was sent empire to barbarian troops may have had its for to Ravenna to pay the penalty of his influence. Attalus, with Alaric, then adindulgence; and would have been put to vanced toward Ravenna at the head of a comdeath, if he had not taken sanctuary in a bined army of Romans and Goths. Honorius Christian church.

in alarm sent an embassy, consisting of his On the downfall and flight of Olympius, chief officers, offering to make Attalus his soon after, Attalus was sent back to Rome by partner in the empire; but Attalus refused the emperor, as prefect or governor of the the offer, though he expressed his willingness city, his former office of treasurer being con- to allow Honorius his choice of an island, or ferred on Demetrius. Attalus held the office other place as a retreat, and to leave him the

His son,

state and retinue of an emperor. As the ever, Honorius restored to them. Attalus cause of Honorius seemed lost, Jovian, or as did not venture to trust the clemency of his Sozomen calls him, John ('Iwdvvns), or ac- late competitor, but preferred to remain with cording to Zosimus, Jovius ('loßlos), one of Alaric as a private individual. his ambassadors, embraced the side of Attalus; Ampelius, also remained with him. The and suggested to him to insist that Honorius deposition of Attalus took place A.D. 410, should undergo the mutilation of one of his about a year after his elevation. members : but Attalus immediately rejected At a subsequent time Alaric replaced Attathe proposal, and rebuked Jovian ; though | lus in his imperial dignity, but almost immehe received him at the same time into his diately afterwards again, and finally, deposed confidence, and confirmed him in his dignity him. We refer to this second and very brief of patrician. Honorius was preparing to reign of Attalus the account of Socrates, the quit Ravenna, and had vessels prepared for ecclesiastical historian, who says that Alaric the purpose, when he received a reinforce- “one day ordered him to go forth surrounded ment of four thousand men, or, according to with imperial state, and the next day made Zosimus, forty thousand, from his nephew him appear in the dress of a slave,” meaning Theodosius II., Emperor of the East; and probably of a subject. This second elevathis assistance determined him to carry on tion of Attalus was probably at the time of the struggle to the last. The foregoing ac- the third siege of Rome (Aug. A.D. 410) when count of the transactions at Ravenna rests the city was pillaged by the Goths. chiefly on the authority of Olympiodorus, On the retirement of the Goths into Gaul whose narrative appears more accurate and (A.D. 412), and afterwards (A.D. 414) into particular than that of Zosimus.

Spain, under Ataulphus, Alaric's successor, The aspect of affairs soon began to change. Attalus accompanied them. While in Gaul Constans was slain in Africa by Heraclian, he resumed the title of emperor for a short who not only secured that province for Hono- time: but does not seem to have attempted rius, but by laying an embargo on the corn- to obtain any actual power. ships destined for Rome, produced in that city He appears to have had some influence a dreadful famine, so that the inhabitants were with the Gothic prince, and it was at his reduced to feed upon chesnuts in place of suggestion that Ataulphus offered to assist wheat, and some were suspected of feeding with his forces the usurper Jovinus, whom he on human flesh. Attalus in consequence re- marched to join. Jovinus, however, feared turned to Rome to consult the senate. Jovian, or suspected the Gothic prince, and reproached seeing the turn of affairs, and being bribed | Attalus with having brought him into conby Honorius, turned traitor again, and sought nection with so unwelcome an ally. On octo ruin Attalus by alienating Alaric from casion of the marriage of Ataulphus with him. Attalus himself gave offence to his Placidia, sister of Honorius (A.D. 414), AttaGothic patron, by refusing, in opposition to lus composed or sung an epithalamium. He the judgment of the senate, Alaric's renewed afterwards attempted to leave Spain, “ on offer to send a body of Gothic soldiers to some unknown enterprise" (incerta moliens), Africa; and contented himself with sending says Orosius, but more probably from fear of officers and money to support his adherents being delivered up to Honorius, with whom there. About this time Valens was put to the Visigoths maintained their alliance. His death on suspicion of treason, but whether by attempt to escape was not successful : he was Honorius or by Attalus is not clear. The captured at sea, and taken to Constantius, account of Zosimus rather leads us to sup- general of Honorius, and by him sent to pose it was by Attalus. Possibly Valens, Honorius at Ravenna, who took him to Rome, like Jovian, had deserted Honorius when his and having exhibited him publicly before cause seemed desperate, and now sought, by his tribunal at Rome, and mutilated him by fresh treason, to be reconciled to him. the amputation of two of the fingers of his

The siege of Ravenna meanwhile con- right hand, sent him into banishment in the tinued, but with little success : several towns Lipari Isles. Philostorgius says he was were taken by Alaric for refusing to acknow- delivered up by the Goths to Honorius after ledge Attalus, but Bononia (Bologna) success- the death of Ataulphus, which took place at fully resisted his attacks. Alaric was, by this Barcelona A.D. 415. The date of his capture time, quite estranged from the cause of Atta- is variously given: it probably occurred in lus, disgusted, as is commonly said, by his A.D. 416 or 417. Nothing further is known inefficiency; perhaps also offended by his re- of his history. fusal to sacrifice the empire entirely to the Tillemont and Gibbon both speak of Attalus Goths. However this may be, he resolved on very unfavourably: Tillemont apparently his deposition: and, having made terms with from his want of orthodoxy, and Gibbon Honorius, he brought Attalus to Ariminum from his deficiency in what are termed the (Rimini) and there publicly despoiled him of heroic virtues. Yet Attalus showed goodthe insignia of the imperial dignity, which ness of disposition in his unwillingness to were sent to Honorius. All the officers of persecute the friends of Stilicho, and his reAttalus resigned their honours; which, how- fusal (according to Olympiodorus) to require

the mutilation of Honorius. His disinclina-, enced by more than suspicion of what Attation to send Gothic troops into Africa, how- lus might do; nor is it clear that Attalus ever much at variance with the dictates had involved himself so far in his commuof self-interest, showed his regard for what nications with Demosthenes, as to be justly he deemed the interest and honour of the liable to punishment. His death was made empire; and his deposition was, in fact, the subject of reproach against Alexander, caused by his unwillingness to subserve the both by Cleitus and Hermolaus; and it is purposes and ambition of Alaric. (Zosimus, observable that Hermolaus, according to vi. 6—12; Sozomen, Eccles. Hist. ix. 8, 9; Quintus Curtius, speaks of Parmenion as Socrates, Eccles. Hist. vii. 10; Olympiodorus, the agent of Alexander in the affair : but apud Phot. Biblioth. Cod. 80; Philostorgius, Diodorus and others are silent as to ParEccles. Hist. xii. 3, 4, 5, with Godefroy's menion's participation in the death of his Notes; Paulus Diaconus, xiv.; Orosius, vii. son-in-law. (Diodorus Siculus, xvi. 93, xvii. 42; Procopius, Vandalic War, i. 2; Gibbon, 2, 3, 5; Justin, ix. 5, 6, xii. 6; Quintus CurDecline and Fall, &c., c. xxxi; Tillemont, tius, vi. 9, viii. 1, 7, 8.)

J. C. M. Histoire des Empereurs.)

J. C. M. A'TTALUS, the MARTYR, one of those A'TTALUS. ("Attanos), a MACEDONIAN Christians who were put to death at Lyon officer of rank, in the reign of Philip II., of during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, A.D. Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great. 177. He was a native of Pergamus in Asia, Attalus married the daughter of Parmenion, and a Roman citizen, well instructed in Chrisone of Philip's best officers; and when Phi- tianity, and a man of eminence in the church lip, toward the close of his life, repudiated of Lyon, of which he was regarded as “ a Olympias, he married Cleopatra, niece of pillar and foundation.” He and Alexander, Attalus. On occasion of these nuptials At- one of his fellow-martyrs, were exposed to talus, being drunk, insulted Alexander, by wild beasts ; but, as these did not destroy inviting the Macedonians, who were present them, they were subjected to various tortures, at the marriage-feast, to ask of the gods a and then put to death. Attalus, while under “legitimate” successor to the throne. Alexan- torture, was asked what was the name of der kindled at the insinuation, and asking God: to which he answered, “God has not Attalus whether he thought him a bastard, a name like a man; or, as Rufinus gives it, threw his wine-cup at his head. Attalus “ Those who are many are distinguished by threw his in return; and a brawl ensued, in names: he who is one needs no name. which Alexander had nearly fallen by the (Epistle of the Churches of Vienne and Lyon, hand of his own father. The retreat of in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, v. 1; RuAlexander and his mother into Illyricum finus, version of the above letter, in the Acta and Epirus left Attalus predominant at the Sanctorum, June 2.)

J.C. M. court of Philip, where his abuse of his influ- A'TTALUS ("Attalos), the name of three ence led to the king's death. A quarrel be- kings of PERGAMUS, one of the kingdoms tween two persons the name of Pausanias, which were formed after the breaking up of one of whom was the friend of Attalus, led the great Macedonian Empire. Previous to Attalus to commit a gross outrage on the the time of the first Attalus, Pergamus had other. The injured man complained to been governed by dynasts or tyrants, whose Philip, but, not being able to obtain justice descendant Attalus I. assumed the title of from him, determined on his assassination, king, and transmitted it to his successors. which he effected b.c. 336.

ATTALUS I. succeeded his cousin EuAt the time of Philip's murder Attalus ap- menes I., in B.C. 241. He was a son of Attapears to have been in Asia Minor, whither lus, a younger brother of Philetærus, the he had been sent with Parmenion and founder of the principality of Pergamus, by Amyntas, to prepare for the campaign against Antiochis. At the time of his accession the the Persians, and where he had made himself, Galatians, or Gauls, were overrunning Asia by acts of kindness and by his friendly de- Minor, plundering and ravaging the country, portment, acceptable to the army. The ac- and they served either as mercenaries in the cession of Alexander led Attalus to engage armies of the princes of Asia Minor, or made in some intrigues with the Athenians, then war upon one another. Attalus I. was the influenced by Demosthenes; but changing first of the Asiatic princes who succeeded in his mind, he sought to recover the king's defeating one of their hosts in Mysia in a favour, and, to effect this, gave up to him a great battle. This victory, which was gained letter which he had received from Demos- by the aid of Gallic mercenaries, took place thenes. Alexander, however, sent Hecatæus soon after the accession of Attalus, and on into Asia, with orders, if possible, to bring this occasion he assumed the title of king, Attalus a prisoner ; but if not, to put him and dedicated a sculptured representation of privately to death. Hecatæus preferred the the defeat of the Gauls on the Acropolis of latter course, and Attalus was put to death, Athens. By this victory Attalus extended apparently soon after Alexander's accession. his kingdom, which was afterwards increased It is doubtful whether Alexander, when he by his taking advantage of the disputes gave his commission to Hecatæus, was influ- | among the members of the royal family of Syria. In B.c. 229 he gained several victo- | On arriving at Oreus. he was informed that ries over Antiochus Hierax, and his kingdom Prusias, King of Bithynia, had invaded his gradually extended over all Asia Minor, west kingdom, and he hastily returned to Asia. of Mount Taurus. Seleucus Ceraunus, who Respecting the events of his war with Prusucceeded Seleucus Callinicus in B.C. 226, sias, and its termination, nothing is known. attempted to recover the possessions which In B.C. 205, Roman ambassadors appeared Syria had lost in Asia Minor, but he was in Asia to fetch the symbol of the great mother murdered during his campaign against Atta- of the gods from Pessinus, and Attalus assisted lus in B.C. 224. His kinsman Achæus, how-them in obtaining it. In the general pacificaever, carried out his plan, and succeeded so tion which was brought about at the close of far as to confine Attalus to the town of Per- B.C. 205, Attalus and Prusias were included, gamus. But he was prevailed upon by the the former as the ally of the Romans, and Byzantines, whom Attalus had assisted in the latter as the ally of Philip. This peace their war against the Rhodians, to abstain was broken by Philip in B.c. 203: by defrom further hostilities. While Achæus was stroying the town of Cius, on the Propontis, afterwards engaged in Pisidia in B.C. 218, he provoked the Rhodians, whom Attalus Attalus recovered some of the towns which sided with. In B.c. 201 Philip took revenge he had lost, by the aid of Galatian mercena- upon Attalus by invading his kingdom and ries, but as he was making progress in Æo- ravaging the neighbourhood of Pergamus in lis, an eclipse of the sun took place, which a most barbarous manner, though he was unfrightened the barbarians, and they refused able to take Pergamus itself. A sea-fight to fight any longer. In B.C. 216, Antio- took place off Chios, between the united chus III. marched against Achæus, who, fleets of Attalus and the Rhodians on the one after his victories, had revolted, and declared side, and the fleet of Philip of Macedonia on himself an independent king. Attalus now the other. Philip was defeated with consiformed an alliance with Antiochus, though derable loss; but as Attalus, who had purhe does not appear to have taken any active sued one of the enemy's ships too far, was at part in the campaigns against Achæus, who last obliged to save himself by flight, Philip was put to death in B.c. 214. In proportion claimed the victory. Hereupon Philip went as the kingdom of Antiochus now increased to Caria, and while he was still in Asia, Atin importance by the defeat of Achæus and talus, at the request of the Athenians, who other events, that of Attalus sank in the scale, were oppressed by a Macedonian garrison, and as Attalus had also to fear the enterprise sailed to Europe. He was received at Athens of Philip V. of Macedonia, his dominions in the most flattering manner, B.C. 200, and became more unsafe. These circumstances a new tribe was formed and called after him, induced him to join the league which was Attalis. At Athens he met embassies of the formed by the Romans and Ætolians against Romans and Rhodians, and war was again dePhilip and the Achæans, in B.C. 211. Two clared against Philip, who was then besiegyears afterwards Attalus and Pyrrhias were ing Abydos on the Hellespont. Attalus imelected strategi of the Ætolians, and in order mediately set out to relieve the place, but he to support them against Philip, Attalus did nothing. In the year following, B.C. 199, landed with a fleet on the coast of Ægina, the combined fleets of Attalus and L. Apuswhere he was joined by the Roman procon- tius sailed from Piræus to Andros, which sul P. Sulpicius and his fleet, and both spent was surrendered to them after a short siege, the winter of B.C. 207 and 206 in Ægina. and the place was given to Attalus; the RoWhile petitions were sent to Philip from mans kept the booty. After attempting to various parts of Greece to solicit his protec- take several other towns, Attalus and L. tion against Attalus and the Ætolians, Atta- | Apustius appeared before Oreus in Eubea, lus sailed to the island of Lemnos, and thence which had again fallen into the hands of the to Peparethus, which he ravaged. After this Macedonians, but was now taken after a resohe held a meeting of the Ætolians at Hera- lute defence of the Macedonian garrison. clea. P. Sulpicius and Attalus now went to Oreus was given to Attalus, and the Romans Nicæa in Locris, and thence they proceeded to took the prisoners. But before the war could Oreus in Eubæa, which the Romans besieged be brought to a close, Attalus was obliged to by sea, and Attalus by land. After a fearful return to Asia, for Antiochus III. had taken struggle the Macedonian garrison was com- advantage of his absence, and invaded the pelled to quit the place. While Sulpicius kingdom of Pergamus. Attalus requested the proceeded to Chalcis, Attalus took and de- interference of the Romans, and a Roman stroyed the town of Opus. Ignorant of the embassy was accordingly sent to Antiochus, approach of Philip, he lost his time in exact- which caused him to withdraw his troops from ing money from the wealthy inhabitants of the dominions of the ally of Rome. Attalus, Locris, and had it not been for some Cretans, in his gratitude towards his deliverers, again who discovered the enemy at a distance, At- joined the Romans in Greece in B.c. 198, talus would have fallen into the hands of the and after spending the winter in Ægina, he Macedonians. He had only time to escape to went to Thebes in Bæotia, with the view of his ships, whither he was followed by Philip. I detaching the Baotians from the cause of

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