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"State Trials," vol. xiii. p. 1380, it is stated that Sir Robert Atkyns openly appeared and argued for the defendant as counsel," although he was at that time resident in the country, and had so entirely retired from the profession, that he was obliged to borrow a gown to appear in court." In the contemporary reports of the proceedings, however, Pollexfen and Jones are mentioned as the defendant's counsel, and Sir Robert Atkyns is not named. It is improbable, therefore, that he actually delivered his argument, although he formally composed it for the occasion, and afterwards published it. The argument is a laborious piece of legal reasoning, clearly arranged, and displaying great historical research, and a careful and acute examination of the various authorities on the subject. It was published by himself in 1689, under the title of "The Power, Jurisdiction, and Privivio-lege of Parliament, and the Antiquity of the House of Commons, asserted ;" and was republished after his death among his "Parliamentary and Political Tracts."

In the reign of James II. Atkyns composed another legal argument, which was suggested by the case of Sir Edward Hales, and was directed against the king's prerogative of dispensing with penal statutes, which had been asserted in that case.

(Life of Lord Keeper North, p. 184, 4to. edit.) He was, however, too consistent in his principles, as well as too independent in character and circumstances, to submit to the abject subserviency which the court at that time required from the judges; and soon after he left the Bench, a committee of the House of Commons, appointed to inquire into certain judicial misdemeanours of Sir William Scroggs, notice "an ill representation which had been made by the Lord Chief Justice to the King of some expressions Atkyns had used in favour of the right of petitioning." (Commons' Journals, December 23, 1680.)

In the year 1682 Sir Robert Atkyns resigned his office of recorder of Bristol, in consequence of his being involved in an alleged irregular civic election in that city, which led to his being indicted and found guilty of a riot and conspiracy. The whole proceeding obviously originated in the lent party-spirit of the time, inflamed by a recent parliamentary election for Bristol, at which Sir Robert Atkyns had been proposed (apparently against his will) as a candidate. He succeeded in arresting the judgment in the Court of King's Bench, where he argued his own case with great moderation and skill; but by the advice of Chief Justice Pemberton, and his brother, Sir Edward Atkyns, who was a baron of the Exchequer, he resigned his recordership-which was, in fact, the object of the prosecution. (Modern Reports, vol. iii. p. 3.)

Upon quitting the bench, in 1680, Sir Robert Atkyns withdrew from all public occupation to his seat in Gloucestershire, where he lived for several years in great seclusion; and "keeping no correspondence" (as he himself says in one of his letters) about public affairs. There is no doubt, however, that at this time he was privy to the consultations and designs of the popular party; and, in 1683, he was applied to for his opinion respecting the management of the defence of Lord Russell. He readily gave his advice on this occasion; and, in the letter which contained it, censures in strong terms the doctrine of constructive treason, and expresses his sympathy for the unfortunate gentlemen who were then under prosecution. After the Revolution he published two tracts, entitled a "Defence of Lord Russell's Innocency," in which he argues against the sufficiency of the evidence for the prosecution, and the validity of the indictment. Both these tracts, and also his letter of advice respecting Lord Russell's defence, are published among his "Parliamentary and Political Tracts."

Upon the occasion of the prosecution of Sir William Williams, in 1684, for having, as Speaker of the House of Commons, and by order of the House, directed Dangerfield's "Narrative" to be printed, Sir Robert Atkyns composed an elaborate argument for the defence. In the account of this case in Howell's

It is not recorded in any of the histories of the Revolution in 1688 that Sir Robert Atkyns took any prominent part in the promotion of that event. Nevertheless, his character and opinions, as well as his political associations and the marks of distinction afterwards bestowed upon him by the new government, afford a strong presumption that he was not an inactive spectator of the change. In April, 1689, he was appointed chief baron of the Exchequer, Sir John Holt being at the same time made lord chief justice, and Sir Henry Pollexfen chief justice of the Common Pleas. In the same year he was chosen speaker of the House of Lords, and continued to hold that office until the great seal was given to Lord Somers in 1693. In the course of the following year he signified his intention of retiring from public life; the immediate cause of this determination being disappointment in his desire to obtain the office of master of the rolls, which was given to Sir Thomas Trevor. Attempts were made to induce him to continue in his office of lord chief baron until certain difficulties respecting the choice of his successor were removed; but he persisted in his determination, and retired to his seat at Sapperton, near Cirencester, where he spent the remainder of his life. He died in the year 1709, at the age of eighty-eight years.

Early in life Sir Robert Atkyns married the daughter of Sir George Clerk of Walford, in Northamptonshire, by whom he had no issue. By his second wife, who was a daughter of Sir Thomas Dacres of Cheshunt, in Hert


fordshire, he had an only son (the subject of the next article) to whom his large estates in Gloucestershire descended. (Biographia Britannica; Penny Cyclopædia, art. " Atkyns, Sir Robert;" Lincoln's Inn Registers; Parliamentary History.) D. J. ATKYNS, SIR ROBERT, Knight, was the only son of the subject of the last article. He was born in 1646; and was knighted by Charles II. when he visited Bristol a few years after the Restoration. He was returned to the House of Commons as member for Cirencester in the Oxford Parliament, in March, 1680-1; and afterwards, in 1685, represented the county of Gloucester in the only parliament holden by James II. He died in 1711, two years after the death of his father. Sir Robert Atkyns, the younger, was not a prominent public character; and he is only distinguished as the author of a History of Gloucestershire, which he compiled with much labour and care, but which was not published until the year after his death. A second edition of this work was published in 1769. (Biographia Britannica; Wood, Athena Oxonienses.) D. J. ATOSSA. [DARIUS.] ATROCIA'ÑUS, JOANNES, a Latin poet, philologist, and botanist, was a native of Germany, and born towards the end of the fifteenth century. Weiss (art. Atrocianus, Biographie Universelle) asserts that Herzog (Athena Raurace) has confounded Atrocianus with J. Acronius or Acron, professor of medicine and mathematics at Basle, making them one person. Herzog has been followed in his account by Adelung and modern medical biographers, all of whom may have been misled by the skill of Atrocianus as a botanist, and his intimate connection with the most celebrated physicians of his day. He was well versed in the learned languages, and was engaged for some time as a schoolmaster at Fribourg. From Fribourg he went to Basle, which city he quitted on the establishment there of the reformed religion; and, in 1530, he was at Colmar. Beyond this nothing appears to be known respecting him. His works are:1. "Emilius Macer de herbarum virtutibus, jam primum emaculatior, tersiorque in lucem editus. Præterea Strabi Galli, poetæ et theologi clarissimi, Hortulus vernatissimus; uterque scholiis Joānis Atrociani illustratus." Basil, 1527, 8vo. 2. "Æmilius Macer de herbarum virtutibus, cum Joannis Atrociani comentariis longe utilissimis et nuquam antea impressis. Ad hæc: Strabi Galli Hortulus vernantissimus." Fribourg, 1530, 8vo. This commentary must not be confounded with the Scholia published in 1527; the commentary is confined to the Emilius Macer: and is fuller and altogether different from the Scholia. 3. " Elegia de bello rustico, ann. 1525, in Germania exorto; præterea ejusdem Epigrammata aliquot selectiora; præmissa

etiam est Epistola ad bonas litteras hortatoria." Basil, 1528, 8vo. and Hanau, 1611, 8vo. This poem has passed through many other editions, and is inserted in Freher's


Germanicarum rerum Scriptores," Frankfort, 1624, iii. 232, and Strassburg, 1717, iii. 278. 4. "Nemo Evangelicus; Epicedion de obitu Frobenii, typographorum principis Morwpia, hoc est, superbia," Basil, 1528, 8vo. The Nemo Evangelicus is a poem against the Reformers. It was reprinted the same year with the "Nemo" of Ulrich Hutten. 5. "Querela Missæ-Liber Epigrammatum," Basil, 1529, 8vo. (Athena Rauracæ, 334; Biographie Universelle, edit. 1843; Saxius, Onomasticon Literarium, iv. 606; Hendreich, Pandecta Brandenburgica.) J. W. J. ATROMETUS. ESCHINES.] ATROMETUS. [AMOMETUS.]

ATRO PATES ('Aτроnáτns), à Persian satrap, probably of Media, commanded a large division of the Persian forces at the battle of Gaugamela, or, as it is generally called, of Arbela, B.C. 331. On the death of King Darius, Alexander appointed him to the satrapy of Media, and his daughter afterwards married Perdiccas, at the famous nuptials of Susa, B.C. 324. [ALEXANDER III. of MACEDONIA.] After Alexander's death, Perdiccas continued Atropates in the satrapy of Media, or, as Justin (xiii. 5) says, gave him the satrapy of the Greater Media. The northern part of this country was called Media Atropatene, in consequence of Atropates having formed an independent kingdom there, which existed till the time of Strabo (xi. p. 523). There was a story that Atropates once presented Alexander with a hundred Amazons, but Arrian asserts his disbelief of the tale, which, as he says, is not mentioned by the most trustworthy writers of the life of Alexander. (Diodorus Siculus, xviii. 4; Arrian, Anabasis, iii. 8, iv. 18. vii. 4, 13.) R. W-n. ATSYLL, RICHARD, an English artist of whom Vertue found a record, as graver, or seal engraver to Henry VIII., for which office he received a salary of twenty pounds per annum. (Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting, &c.) R. N. W. ATTA, TITUS QU'INTIUS, a Roman dramatic poet, is said by Eusebius to have died in the third year of the 174th Olympiad, that is in the year B.C. 82, and to have been buried on the Prænestine Way, two miles from the city. He was a writer of "Comœdiæ Togatæ," or Comedies representing Roman characters and manners; and his name is frequently mentioned by the Latin writers. Horace refers to his works in that tone of dissatisfaction with which his courtly taste taught him to regard most of the early monuments of Roman letters. Gellius, Isidorus, and others, furnish the names of the following comedies, as written by Atta:-"Matertera," " Satyri,"

Conciliator," "Ediles," "Tiro Proficiscens." The very insignificant fragments of his works which can be collected are given by Bothe, "Poetæ Scenici Latini." Festus says that his name of Atta was derived from a lameness in his feet, to which Horace likewise has been wrongly thought to make allusion. (Eusebius, Chronicorum Liber Posterior; Horace, Epistolarum, lib. ii. 1, v. 79; Gellius, lib. ii. cap. 9; Festus, Atta; Vossius, De Poetis Latinis; Crinitus, De Poetis Latinis, lib. ii. cap. 23.) W. S. ATTAGINUS ('ATтayîvos), a Theban who, with his fellow-citizen Timegenides, took a leading part in inducing the Thebans to join Xerxes when he invaded Greece, B.C. 480. A short time before the battle of Platea, when the Persians under Mardonius were encamped in Boeotia, Attaginus invited Mardonius and fifty Persians of the highest rank to a grand entertainment at Thebes; and he invited fifty Thebans to meet them. Among the guests there was also one Thersander of Orchomenus, from whom Herodotus had an account of a conversation which Thersander had with one of the Persians who could speak Greek. This is an instance in which the historian has, apparently without design, informed us of one of the direct sources of his information about the events of this great campaign. Thersander was an eye-witness of that which Herodotus reports. After the defeat of the Persians at Platæa (B.C. 479), Pausanias, at the head of the confederate Greeks, besieged Thebes, with the view of compelling the Thebans to surrender Attaginus and Timegenides, with the rest who had favoured the Persians. After twenty days' siege, Timegenides, with other Thebans, and the children of Attaginus, were surrendered to the combined forces. Attaginus made his escape. Pausanias set his children at liberty, saying that they were not to be blamed for their father's fault. The rest of the prisoners expected to save their lives by a judicious distribution of bribes, but Pausanias, suspecting their design, disbanded the confederate army, and, taking the Thebans to Corinth, put them all to death. Athenæus mentions the feast of Attaginus, but the name is written Autamnus in the last edition of Athenæus. The addition of the choice things which were served up on the occasion is an excusable invention of Athenæus. (Herodotus, ix. 15, 86, &c.; Pausanias, vii. 10; Athenæus, iv. p. 148.)

G. L. ATTAIGNANT, GABRIEL CHARLES DE L', or LATTAIGNANT, a canon of Reims, was born at Paris in the year 1697. To his post of canon he united the office of Conseiller Clerc" to the parliament of Paris. He was endowed by nature with a lively imagination; was passionately fond of pleasure, and had a great taste for literature.


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He appears to have possessed considerable facility in extempore composition, and he did not hesitate to devote much of his time to the unclerical pursuit of a song writer. His compositions were generally sprightly, and always pleasing, excepting in one or two instances when he indulged a satirical mood at the expense of the Count de Clermont-Tonnère and others, and narrowly escaped severe chastisement for his ill-timed witticisms. After living a life of pleasure, he withdrew, towards the end of his days, among the Fathers of the Doctrine Chrétienne, where he died on the 10th of January, 1779. His conversion was brought about by the Abbé Gauthier, who had been sent for to Voltaire on his deathbed, and was chaplain to the Incurables. This circumstance gave rise to the following epigram :

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"Voltaire et Lattaignant, par avis de famille,
Au même confesseur ont fait le même aveu.
En tel cas il importe peu

Que ce soit à Gauthier, que ce soit à Garguille ;
Mais Gauthier cependant me paroît mieux trouvé;
L'honneur de deux cures semblables
A bon droit étoit reservé
Au chapelain des Incurables."


L'Attaignant's works are, 1. " Bertholde à la Ville, Opéra Comique, en un acte; tout en Vaudevilles." Paris, 1754, 8vo. This was written in conjunction with two other authors. It was reprinted at the Hague in 1760, 12mo., and at Amsterdam in 1770, 12mo. 2. "Le Bouquet du Roi, Opéra Comique, en un acte ; en Vaudevilles." Paris, 1752 and 1753, 8vo., and at the Hague in 1753, 8vo., written in conjunction with Vadé and Fleury. 3. "Cantiques Spirituels." Paris, 1762, 12mo.



Correspondance Poétique et Morale entre l'Abbé Lattaignant et R." 1788, 8vo. 5.

10. ..

Epître à M. L. P. sur ma Retraite." Paris, 1769, 8vo. 6. "Pièces dérobées à un Ami, ou Poésies." 2 vols. Paris, 1750, 12mo. 7. "Poesies, contenant tout ce qui a paru sous le titre de Pièces Dérobées,' avec des Augmentations, Annotations, &c." 4 vols., collected and published by the Abbé de la Porte. London and Paris, 1757, 12mo. 8. Chansons et autres Poésies Posthumes, suivies de particularités singulières de la vie de Madame de C**." Paris, 1779, 12mo. 9. "Réflexions Nocturnes, par M. L. D. L. T." Paris, 1769, 8vo. Le Rossignol, Opéra Comique, en un acte, en Vaudevilles," 1753, 8vo., and Paris, 1766, 8vo. 11. " Thémiréides; ou Recueil d'Airs," 8vo. 12. "Choix de ses Poésies, précédé d'une Notice," Paris, 1810, 18mo. (Sabatier de Castres, Les trois siècles de la Litterature Française," Lattaignant;" Dictionnaire Universel, 9th edition; Quérard, La France Littéraire.) J. W. J. ATTAIGNANT, PIERRE, a printer at Paris, in the sixteenth century, appears to have been the first Frenchman who used musical types. His earliest musical publication was a set of motets by various authors, for four or five voices, which appeared in

1527. Nineteen similar works were produced by Attaignant between this year and 1536, forming altogether the largest existing collection of the compositions of the early French masters. He also published eleven books of French songs for four voices, and a further collection of motets. He was living in 1543, as his name appears to a "Livre de Danceries à six parties," but in 1556 he must have been dead, as his widow in this year published several books. He writes his name Attaignant, Attaingnant, and AtteigSome of the works which he printed are in the Bibliothèque du Roi, but they are now very rare. (Fétis, Biographie Universelle des Musiciens.) E. T.


ATTAJI' or ATHA'JI' NEWA'LI'ZA'DE, the son of Athallah Newálí, the instructor of Sultan Mohammed III., was a Turkish poet, and the contemporary of Attájí Newí-záde, with whom he is often confounded, although he is far inferior to the celebrated son of Newí. Attájí Newálí-záde was born at Constantinople in the middle of the tenth century A.H. (the sixteenth of our æra), and died in A.H. 1027 (A.D. 1617), after having discharged the offices of secretary to the Mufti, and judge, during a period of thirty years. His best poem is an elegy on the death of Sultan Mohammed III. His "diwán" is not printed. (Hammer, Geschichte der Osmanischen Dichtkunst, vol. iii. pp. 162-164.) W. P. ATTA'JI' or ATHA'JI' NEWI-ZA'DE, the son of Newí, who was the chief instructor of Sultan Mürád III., was born at Constantinople in A.H. 991 (A.D. 1583), and studied divinity and law at first under his father, and afterwards under other distinguished professors. In his twenty-fifth year he was appointed Professor of Law at the college called Jánbázíye, and soon afterwards he became judge at Lofje. He subsequently held the same office in several considerable towns on the Danube and in Thessaly. He died at Constantinople in A.H. 1045 (A.D. 1635), with the reputation of being the most distinguished writer and poet of his time. His principal works are:-1. "Shakáíkü-n'ümáníyet" ("Collection of Anemones"). This is a Turkish continuation of the Arabic work composed by Tásh-kö'prí-záde, which is a collection of biographies of the most distinguished divines and lawyers from the beginning of the Turkish empire down to the beginning of the reign of Sultan Selím II.; it was translated into Turkish by Mejdí. Attájí continued this work in Turkish till the end of the reign of Sultan Mürád IV. A beautiful MS. of this work (one volume of 434 pages in folio) is in the imperial library at Vienna. 2. " Sohbetu-l-ébkyár" ("Conversations of Virgins"), a poem on the principal moral, social, and religious duties of men and women of all ranks, finished in A.H. 1035 (A.D. 1625). The author severely blames


the propensities of his countrymen to unnatural pleasures, and from this poem, compared with so many others on similar subjects, we may conclude that the moral corruption of the higher classes in Turkey has not been effected without a long struggle against purer principles. 3. "Heft Khuan" ("The Sevenfold Dish"). This is a didactic poem, in which seven divine men speak in seven sections on divine love, and its influence on men manifested by inspiration. The author adopted the Persian title, in allusion to the ancient Persian custom of eating twice a year, on holy days, a dish composed of seven different things: this dish is now called 'Ashurá, and the people eat it on the 10th of Moharram. The " Heft Khúán" is of no great value. 4. "Nefhata-l-ézhár" ("The Breath of Flowers"), a poem on the ascent to heaven and other miraculous acts of Mohammed. 5. "Sáki-náme' ("The Cupbearer's Book"), a poem on the art of drinking, of eating opium, of love, and other sensual pleasures. 6." Diwán," a collection of lyric poems, among which there is a beautiful poem on the night, which is the first in a series of" Mirájiyeler," or poems on the ascent of Mohammed. The works of Attaji have never been printed. German translations of many passages, and of whole poems, are given in the sources cited below. (Hammer, Geschichte der Osmanischen Dichtkunst, vol. iii. pp. 244-283; Chabert, Látifí, Lebensbeschreibungen Türkischer Dichter.) W. P. ATTALA, SAINT, second abbot of the monastery of Bobbio, in Italy, on the Trebbia, an affluent of the Po. The monastery was founded by St. Columban, or Columbanus, on whose death (A.D. 614) Attala was chosen abbot. He was a Burgundian of noble family, and embraced the monastic life at Lirins, or Lerins, on the coast of Provence; but being dissatisfied with the lax discipline of the monastery there, he removed to the Abbey of Luxeuil, in Franche Comté, where St. Columban was then abbot. St. Columban received Attala among his immediate followers, and probably took him with him to Bobbio. After Attala's elevation to the abbacy at Pobbio, discontents broke out among the monks, and some withdrew; but the death of three or four of the malcontents, soon after their secession, being regarded as a divine judgment, the rest returned and submitted. Jonas, the disciple and biographer of Attala, has recorded several miracles as wrought by him. He received what he conceived to be a divine, though somewhat ambiguous, warning of his death fifty days before it occurred; and he occupied the interval in strengthening the walls and renewing the roof of the abbey, and repairing its furniture. He died of fever, apparently about the time anticipated by him, on the 10th March, but in what year is not known. (Life of St. Attala, by Jonas, in the

Acta Sanctorum, by Bollandus and others,
10th March.)
J. C. M.
ATTALIATES, MICHAEL (Mixanλ div. p. 93, ed. Harles.)
'ATTαλeiάTηs) was pro-consul and judge (åvoú-
πατος καὶ κριτής) under the Emperor Michael
Ducas, who reigned at Constantinople from
1071 to 1078. Of the personal history of
Attaliates nothing is known beyond the facts
of his having filled these offices, and compiled,
at the command of the emperor, a popular
compendium of law. This treatise is con-
tained in the second volume of the "Juris
Græco-Romani Libri Duo" of Leunclavius,
published by Freher. Its title is: Mixana
Ανθυπάτου καὶ Κριτοῦ, τοῦ ̓Ατταλειάτου,
ποίημα νομικὸν ἤτοι πραγματικὴ πονηθεῖσα
κατὰ κέλευσιν τοῦ βασιλέως Μιχαὴλ τοῦ Δουκά
("A Legal Work, or Pragmatical Treatise,
of Michael Attaliates, the Pro-Consul and
Judge, compiled by order of the Emperor
Michael the Duke"). It consists of a preface
(which contains a brief outline of the history
of the Roman law), ninety-five titles, and
six Novella of the Emperor Leo. There is
little to remark on the arrangement, except
the insertion of a title "On the Supreme
Trinity; the Catholic Faith; and the Prohi-
bition to dispute publicly on these Mysteries
and Heresies" (vii. 3), between the title
"On Things" (i. 2) and that "On Obliga-
tions and Actions" (vii. 4). In the dedica-
tion to the emperor (pòs Tòv auтокpáтopа
Mixana), Attaliates professes to have aimed
at brevity and perspicuity, and the use of
popular phraseology (Kowoλegia). (Leun-
clavius, Juris Graco-Romani tam Canonici
quam Civilis Tomi Duo; Jöcher, Allgemeines
W. W.
ATTALUS (ATTαλos), one of the officers
of Alexander the Great. He commanded
the Agrianians, and distinguished himself at
the battles of Issus and Gaugamela, and in the
pursuit of Bessus and his confederates, when
they carried off Darius, the Persian king, as
a prisoner. (Arrian, Anabasis, ii. 9, iii. 12,
J. C. M.
ÁTTALUS, a mathematician, who edited
the "Phænomena" of Aratus, and subjoined
to it a commentary, in which he professed to
reconcile the statements of the poem with the
facts, or supposed facts, of the sciences of
which it treats. Hipparchus, who frequently
quotes him, charges him with having, with
one or two exceptions, followed Aratus in
his errors; but elsewhere, in a passage sup-
posed to refer to Attalus, he describes him
as the most careful of the expounders of the
poem. If this passage refers to Attalus, he
was a contemporary of Hipparchus, who was
living between B.C. 162 and 128. Vossius and
Fabricius, with other moderns, call Attalus
a Rhodian; but we have not been able to
trace any mention of his country in Hippar-
chus, who is, as far as we know, the chief or
only ancient authority respecting him. (Hip-
parchus, Commentary on the Phanomena of



Aratus; Vossius, De Scientiis Mathematicis, cap. xxxiii. § 21; Fabricius, Biblioth. Græc. J. C. M. A'TTALUS, a stoic philosopher in the time of the Roman emperors, Augustus and Tiberius. The year and place of his birth are not known; but his name indicates that he was of Greek origin: perhaps the same thing is indicated by an expression of Lucius Annæus Seneca the philosopher, that "he joined the subtile acuteness of a Greek to the learning of the Etruscans." He is mentioned by Marcus Annæus Seneca, the father of Lucius, as the most acute and eloquent of the philosophers of his day. He was introduced as one of the speakers in the second of the "Suasoria" of Marcus Seneca, but the passage is lost, and the fact of his being introduced is known only from the critique of Seneca at the close of the piece. Lucius Seneca was a pupil of Attalus, and tells us that his master was not only willing but desirous to impart instruction; indeed Attalus appears to have exercised considerable influence over the mind of his pupil. "We were the first," says Seneca, " to enter the lecture-room, and the last to leave it. We also drew him into discussion in his walks." "Certainly I, when I heard Attalus discoursing on the vices, the mistakes, the evils of life, have often pitied the human race, and considered him as raised aloft, far above the highest eminence of humanity. He himself said that he was a king; but it seemed to me that he was more than a king, since it was his prerogative to pass judgment on those who were kings. When, too, he began to recommend poverty, and to point out how everything which exceeded the limits of necessity was an unnecessary burden and heavy to be borne, I often wished I could have quitted his lecture-room a poor man," &c. (Epistola 108.)


Seneca has quoted in his epistles many of the sayings of Attalus. They are commonly sensible and just, and in almost every case illustrated by a comparison. In fact, judging from the quotations of Seneca, liveliness of illustration was one of the most marked characteristics of Attalus. This may serve as a specimen. "There is a pleasure in the memory of departed friends, which may be compared to apples that have an agreeable roughness, or to wine of too great age, the very bitterness of which has a charm; but in which, after a time, all that was unpleasant is lost, and unmingled sweetness remains." (Epistola 63.)

Attalus wrote or discoursed on thunder, regarded as ominous; and laid down a number of rules by which its ominous character might be discriminated: a summary of these rules is given by Lucius Seneca in his Naturales Quæstiones." Attalus was banished by the influence of Sejanus. Nothing is known of him subsequently. Fabricius thinks it


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