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(Life of Lord Keeper North, p. 184, 4to. edit.) “State Trials,” vol. xiii. p. 1380, it is stated He was, however, too consistent in his prin- that Sir Robert Atkyns openly appeared and ciples, as well as too independent in character argued for the defendant as counsel,“ although and circumstances, to submit to the abject he was at that time resident in the country, subserviency which the court at that time re- and had so entirely retired from the profesquired from the judges; and soon after he sion, that he was obliged to borrow a gown left the Bench, a committee of the House to appear in court.” In the contemporary of Commons, appointed to inquire into cer- reports of the proceedings, however, Pollextain judicial misdemeanours of Sir William fen and Jones are mentioned as the defenScroggs, notice “an ill representation which dant's counsel, and Sir Robert Atkyns is not had been made by the Lord Chief Justice to named. It is improbable, therefore, that he the King of some expressions Atkyns had actually delivered his argument, although he used in favour of the right of petitioning.” formally composed it for the occasion, and (Commons' Journals, December 23, 1680.) afterwards published it. The argument is a

In the year 1682 Sir Robert Atkyns re- laborious piece of legal reasoning, clearly signed his office of recorder of Bristol, in arranged, and displaying great historical reconsequence of his being involved in an search, and a careful and acute examination alleged irregular civic election in that city, of the various authorities on the subject. It which led to his being indicted and found was published by himself in 1689, under the guilty of a riot and conspiracy, The whole title of “The Power, Jurisdiction, and Priviproceeding obviously originated in the vio- lege of Parliamen and the Antiquity of the lent party-spirit of the time, inflamed by a House of Commons, asserted;" and was rerecent parliamentary election for Bristol, at published after his death among his “ Parliawhich Sir Robert Atkyns had been proposed mentary and Political Tracts." (apparently against his will) as a candidate. In the reign of James II. Atkyns composed He succeeded in arresting the judgment in another legal argument, which was suggested the Court of King's Bench, where he argued by the case of Sir Edward Hales, and was his own case with great moderation and skill; directed against the king's prerogative of but by the advice of Chief Justice Pemberton, dispensing with penal statutes, which had and his brother, Sir Edward Atkyns, who was been asserted in that case. a baron of the Exchequer, he resigned his re- It is not recorded in any of the histories of cordership—which was, in fact, the object of the Revolution in 1688 that Sir Robert Atkyns the prosecution. (Modern Reports, vol. iii. took any prominent part in the promotion of p. 3.)

that event. Nevertheless, his character and Upon quitting the bench, in 1680, Sir Ro- opinions, as well as his political associations bert Atkyns withdrew from all public occu- and the marks of distinction afterwards bepation to his seat in Gloucestershire, where stowed upon him by the new government, he lived for several years in great seclusion ; afford a strong presumption that he was not and “ keeping no correspondence" (as he an inactive spectator of the change. In himself says in one of his letters) about pub- April, 1689, he was appointed chief baron of lic affairs. There is no doubt, however, that the Exchequer, Sir John Holt being at the at this time he was privy to the consultations same time made lord chief justice, and Sir and designs of the popular party; and, in Henry Pollexfen chief justice of the Com1683, he was applied to for his opinion re- mon Pleas. In the same year he was chosen specting the management of the defence of speaker of the House of Lords, and continued Lord Russell

. He readily gave his advice to hold that office until the great seal was on this occasion ; and, in the letter which given to Lord Somers in 1693. In the course contained it, censures in strong terms the of the following year he signified his intention doctrine of constructive treason, and expresses of retiring from public life; the immediate his sympathy for the unfortunate gentlemen cause of this determination being disappointwho were then under prosecution. After the ment in his desire to obtain the office of masRevolution he published two tracts, entitled a ter of the rolls, which was given to Sir Tho“ Defence of Lord Russell's Innocency,” in mas Trevor. Attempts were made to induce which he argues against the sufficiency of the him to continue in his office of lord chief evidence for the prosecution, and the validity baron until certain difficulties respecting the of the indictment. Both these tracts, and choice of his successor were removed; but he also his letter of advice respecting Lord Rus- persisted in his determination, and retired to sell's defence, are published among his “Par- his seat at Sapperton, near Cirencester, where liamentary and Political Tracts."

be spent the remainder of his life. He died Upon the occasion of the prosecution of in the year 1709, at the age of eighty-eight Sir William Williams, in 1684, for having, years. as Speaker of the House of Commons, and by Early in life Sir Robert Atkyns married order of the House, directed Dangerfield's the daughter of Sir George Clerk of Walford, “ Narrative” to be printed, Sir Robert Atkyns in Northamptonshire, by whom he had no composed an elaborate argument for the de- | issue. By his second wife, who was a daughter fence. In the account of this case in Howell's of Sir Thomas Dacres of Cheshunt, in Hert

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fordshire, he had an only son (the subject of | etiam est Epistola ad bonas litteras hortathe next article) to whom his large estates in toria.” Basil, 1528, 8vo. and Hanau, 1611, Gloucestershire descended. (Biographia Bri- 8vo. This poem has passed through many tannica ; Penny Cyclopædia, art.“ Atkyns, other editions, and is inserted in Freher's Sir Robert;" Lincoln's Inn Registers ; Par- “Germanicarum rerum Scriptores," Frankliamentary History.)

D. J. fort, 1624, iii. 232, and Strassburg, 1717, iii. ATKYNS, SIR ROBERT, Knight, was 4. “ Nemo Evangelicus; Epicedion de the only son of the subject of the last article. obitu Frobenii, typographorum principis — He was born in 1646; and was knighted by Motwpia, hoc est, superbia,” Basil, 1528, 8vo. Charles II. when he visited Bristol a few The Nemo Evangelicus is a poem against the years after the Restoration. He was re- Reformers. It was reprinted the same year turned to the House of Commons as member with the “ Nemo” of Ulrich Hutten. for Cirencester in the Oxford Parliament, in “Querela Missæ- Liber Epigrammatum,” March, 1680—1; and afterwards, in 1685, | Basil, 1529, 8vo. (Athena Rauracæ, 334; represented the county of Gloucester in the Biographie Universelle, edit. 1843; Saxius, only parliament holden by James II. He Onomasticon Literarium, iv. 606; Hendreich, died in 1711, two years after the death of his Pandecta Brandenburgica.) J. W. J. father. Sir Robert Atkyns, the younger, was ATROMETUS. (ÆSCHINES.] not a prominent public character; and he is ATROMETUS. (AMOMETUS.] only distinguished as the author of a History ATROʻPATES ('Atporátns), a Persian of Gloucestershire, which he compiled with satrap, probably of Media, commanded a much labour and care, but which was not large division of the Persian forces at the published until the year after his death. A battle of Gaugamela, or, as it is generally second edition of this work was published called, of Arbela, B.C. 331. On the death of in 1769. (Biographia Britannica ; Wood, King Darius, Alexander appointed him to the Athena (ronienses.)

D. J. satrapy of Media, and his daughter afterATOSSA. [Darius.]

wards married Perdiccas, at the famous ATROCIA'ÑUS, JOANNES, a Latin nuptials of Susa, B.c. 324. [ALEXANDER III. poet, philologist, and botanist, was a native of MACEDONIA.] After Alexander's death, of Germany, and born towards the end of Perdiccas continued Atropates in the sathe fifteenth century. Weiss (art. Atro- trapy of Media, or, as Justin (xii. 5) says, cianus, Biographie Universelle) asserts that gave him the satrapy of the Greater Media. Herzog (Athene Rauracæ) has confounded The northern part of this country was called Atrocianus with J. Acronius or Acron, pro- Media Atropatene, in consequence of Atropafessor of medicine and mathematics at Basle, tes having formed an independent kingdom making them one person. Herzog has been there, which existed till the time of Strabo followed in his account by Adelung and (xi. p. 523). There was a story that Atromodern medical biographers, all of whom pates once presented Alexander with a hunmay have been misled by the skill of Atro- dred Amazons, but Arrian asserts his discianus as a botanist, and his intimate con- belief of the tale, which, as he says, is not nection with the most celebrated physicians mentioned by the most trustworthy writers of his day. He was well versed in the of the life of Alexander. (Diodorus Siculus, learned languages, and was engaged for xviii. 4; Arrian, Anabasis, iii. 8, iv. 18. vii. some time as a schoolmaster at Fribourg. 4, 13.)

R. W-n. From Fribourg he went to Basle, which city ATSYLL, RICHARD, an English artist he quitted on the establishment there of the of whom Vertue found a record, as graver, reformed religion; and, in 1530, he was at or seal engraver to Henry VIII., for which Colmar. Beyond this nothing appears to be office he received a salary of twenty pounds known respecting him. His works are:- per annum. (Walpole, Anecdotes of Paint1. “ Æmilius Macer de herbarum virtutibus, ing, &c.)

R. N. W. jam primum emaculatior, tersiorque in lucem ATTA, TITUS QU'INTIUS, a Roman editus. Præterea Strabi Galli, poetæ et dramatic poet, is said by Eusebius to have theologi clarissimi, Hortulus vernātissimus; died in the third year of the 174th Olympiad, uterque scholiis Joānis Atrociani illustratus.” that is in the year B.C. 82, and to have Basil, 1527, 8vo. 2. “ Æmilius Macer de been buried on the Prænestine Way, two herbarum virtutibus, cum Joannis Atrociani miles from the city. He was a writer of comentariis longe utilissimis et nūquam antea “ Comediæ Togatæ,” or Comedies repreimpressis. Ad hæc: Strabi Galli Hortulus senting Roman characters and manners; vernantissimus." Fribourg, 1530, 8vo. This and his name is frequently mentioned by commentary must not be confounded with the the Latin writers. Horace refers to his Scholia published in 1527; the commentary works in that tone of dissatisfaction with is confined to the Æmilius Macer: and is which his courtly taste taught him to regard fuller and altogether different from the most of the early monuments of Roman letScholia. 3. “ Elegia de bello rustico, ann. ters. Gellius, Isidorus, and others, furnish 1525, in Germania exorto; præterea ejusdem the names of the following comedies, as writEpigrammata aliquot selectiora ; præmissa | ten by Atta :-“ Matertera," Satyri,” “ Conciliator," “ Ædiles," Tiro Profici. He appears to have possessed considerable scens.” The very insignificant fragments of facility in extempore composition, and he did his works which can be collected are given not hesitate to devote much of his time to by Bothe, “ Poetæ Scenici Latini.” Festus the unclerical pursuit of a song writer. His says that his name of Atta was derived from compositions were generally sprightly, and a lameness in his feet, to which Horace like- | always pleasing, excepting in one or two inwise has been wrongly thought to make stances when he indulged a satirical mood at allusion. (Eusebius, Chronicorum Liber Pos- the expense of the Count de Clermont-Tonterior ; Horace, Epistolarum, lib. ii. 1, v. 79; nère and others, and narrowly escaped severe Gellius, lib. i. cap. 9; Festus, Attæ ; Vos-chastisement for his ill-timed witticisms. sius, De Poetis Latinis ; Crinitus, De Poetis After living a life of pleasure, he withdrew, Latinis, lib. ii. cap. 23.)

W. S. towards the end of his days, among the FaATTAGI'NUS ('Attavivos), a Theban thers of the Doctrine Chrétienne, where he who, with his fellow-citizen Timegenides, died on the 10th of January, 1779. His contook a leading part in inducing the Thebans version was brought about by the Abbé Gauto join Xerxes when he invaded Greece, thier, who had been sent for to Voltaire on B.C. 480. A short time before the battle of his deathbed, and was chaplain to the IncurPlatæa, when the Persians under Mardonius ables. This circumstance gave rise to the were encamped in Bæotia, Attaginus in- | following epigram :vited Mardonius and fifty Persians of the “ Voltaire et Lattaignant, par avis de famille, highest rank to a grand entertainment at Au même confesseur ont fait le même aveu. Thebes; and he invited fifty Thebans to En tel cas il importe peu meet them. Among the guests there was

Que ce soit à Gauthier, que ce soit à Garguille ;

Mais Gauthier ce pendant me paroît mieux trouvé ; also one Thersander of Orchomenus, from

L'honneur de deux cures semblables whom Herodotus had an account of a con

A bon droit étoit reservé versation which Thersander had with one Au chapelain des Incurables." of the Persians who could speak Greek. L'Attaignant's works are, 1. “ Bertholde à This is an instance in which the historian la Ville, Opéra Comique, en un acte; tout en has, apparently without design, informed us Vaudevilles.” Paris, 1754, 8vo. This was writof one of the direct sources of his informa- ten in conjunction with two other authors. It tion about the events of this great cam- was reprinted at the Hague in 1760, 12mo., paign. Thersander was an eye-witness of and at Amsterdam in 1770, 12mo. 2. “ Le that which Herodotus reports. After the Bouquet du Roi, Opera Comique, en un acte; defeat of the Persians at Platæa (B.C. 479), en Vaudevilles.” Paris, 1752 and 1753, 8vo., Pausanias, at the head of the confederate and at the Hague in 1753, 8vo., written in Greeks, besieged Thebes, with the view conjunction with Vadé and Fleury. 3. “ Canof compelling the Thebans to surrender tiques Spirituels.” Paris, 1762, 12mo. 4. Attaginus and Timegenides, with the rest “Correspondance Poétique et Morale entre who had favoured the Persians. After twenty | l'Abbé Lattaignant et R.” 1788, 8vo. 5. days' siege, Timegenides, with other The- “ Epître à M. L. P. sur ma Retraite.” Paris, bans, and the children of Attaginus, were 1769, 8vo. 6. “ Pièces dérobées à un Ami, surrendered to the combined forces. Atta- ou Poésies.” 2 vols. Paris, 1750, 12mo. ginus made his escape. Pausanias set his “ Poésies, contenant tout ce qui a paru sous children at liberty, saying that they were le titre de • Pièces Dérobées,' avec des Augnot to be blamed for their father's fault. mentations, Annotations, &c.” 4 vols., colThe rest of the prisoners expected to save lected and published by the Abbé de la Porte. their lives by a judicious distribution of London and Paris, 1757, 12mo. 8. Chanbribes, but Pausanias, suspecting their de- sons et autres Poésies Posthumes, suivies de sign, disbanded the confederate army, and, particularités singulières de la vie de Madame taking the Thebans to Corinth, put them all de C**.” Paris, 1779, 12mo. 9.“ Réflexions to death. Athenæus mentions the feast of Nocturnes, par M. L. D. L. T.” Paris, 1769, Attaginus, but the name is written Autamnus 8vo. 10. “Le Rossignol, Opéra Comique, in the last edition of Athenæus. The addi. en un acte, en Vaudevilles," 1753, 8vo., and tion of the choice things which were served Paris, 1766, 8vo. 11. “ Thémiréides; ou up on the occasion is an excusable invention Recueil d'Airs,” 8vo. 12. “ Choix de ses of Athenæus. (Herodotus, ix. 15, 86, &c. ; | Poésies, précédé d'une Notice,” Paris, 1810, Pausanias, vii. 10; Athenæus, iv. p. 148.) 18mo. (Sabatier de Castres, Les trois siècles

G. L. de la Litterature Française, “ Lattaignant;" ATTAIGNANT, GABRIEL CHARLES Dictionnaire Universel, 9th edition ; QuéDE L', or LATTAIGNANT, a canon of rard, La France Littéraire.) J. W.J. Reims, was born at Paris in the year 1697. ATTAIGNANT, PIERRE, a printer at To his post of canon he united the office of Paris, in the sixteenth century, appears to “ Conseiller Clerc” to the parliament of have been the first Frenchman who used Paris. He was endowed by nature with a musical types. His earliest musical publilively imagination; was passionately fond of cation was a set of motets by various authors, pleasure, and had a great taste for literature. I for four or five voices, which appeared in

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1527. Nineteen similar works were pro- | the propensities of his countrymen to unnaduced by Attaignant between this year and tural pleasures, and from this poem, com1536, forming altogether the largest existing pared with so many others on similar subcollection of the compositions of the early jects, we may conclude that the moral corFrench masters. He also published eleven ruption of the higher classes in Turkey has books of French songs for four voices, and a not been effected without a long struggle further collection of motets. He was living against purer principles. 3. “ Heft Khuan" in 1543, as his name appears to a “ Livre (“ The Sevenfold Dísh”). This is a didactic de Danceries à six parties,” but in 1556 he poem, in which seven divine men speak in must have been dead, as his widow in this seven sections on divine love, and its influyear published several books. He writes his ence on men manifested by inspiration. The name Attaignant, Attaingnant, and Atteig- author adopted the Persian titie, in allusion nant. Some of the works which he printed to the ancient Persian custom of eating twice are in the Bibliothèque du Roi, but they are a year, on holy days, a dish composed of now very rare. (Fétis, Biographie Univer- seven different things: this dish is now selle des Musiciens.)

E. T. called 'Ashurá, and the people eat it on the ATTA'JI' or ATHA'JI' NEWA'LI'- 10th of Moharram. The “Heft Khúán” is ZA'DE, the son of Athallah Newálí, the in- of no great value. 4. “ Nef hata-l-ézhár" structor of Sultan Mohammed III., was a “ The Breath of Flowers”), a poem on the Turkish poet, and the contemporary of At- ascent to heaven and other miraculous tájí Newí-záde, with whom he is often con- acts of Mohammed. 5. “ Saki-náme' (“The founded, although he is far inferior to the Cupbearer's Book”), a poem on the art of celebrated son of Newí. Attájí Newáli-záde drinking, of eating opium, of love, and other was born at Constantinople in the middle of sensual pleasures. 6.“ Diwán," a collection the tenth century A.H. (the sixteenth of our of lyric poems, among which there is a beauæra), and died in A.H. 1027 (A.D. 1617), after tiful poem on the night, which is the first in having discharged the offices of secretary to a series of Mirájiyeler," or poems on the the Mufti

, and judge, during a period of ascent of Mohammed. The works of Attaji thirty years. His best poem is an elegy on have never been printed. German translathe death of Sultan Mohammed III. His tions of many passages, and of whole poems, “ diwán” is not printed. (Hammer, Ge- are given in the sources cited below. (Hamschichte der Osmanischen Dichtkunst, vol. iji. mer, Geschichte der Osmanischen Dichikunst, pp. 162–164.)

W. P. vol. iii. pp. 244—283; Chabert, Latifi, ATTA'JI' or ATHA'JI' NEWI'-ZA'DE, Lebensbeschreibungen Türkischer Dichter.) the son of Newí, who was the chief instruc

W.P. tor of Sultan Mürád III., was born at Con- A'TTALA, SAINT, second ablot of the stantinople in A.H. 991 (A.D. 1583), and stu- monastery of Bobbio, in Italy, on the Trebbia, died divinity and law at first under his fa- an affluent of the Po. The monastery was ther, and afterwards under other distinguished founded by St. Columban, or Columbanus, on professors. In his twenty-fifth year he was whose death (A.D. 614) Attala was chosen appointed Professor of Law at the college abbot. He was a Burgundian of noble family, called Jánbázíye, and soon afterwards he be- and embraced the monastic life at Lirins, or came judge at Lofje. He subsequently held Lerins, on the coast of Provence; but being the same office in several considerable towns dissatisfied with the lax discipline of the on the Danube and in Thessaly. He died monastery there, he removed to the Abbey of at Constantinople in A.H. 1045 (A.D. 1635), Luxeuil, in Franche Comté, where St. Columwith the reputation of being the most distin- ban was then abbot. St. Columban received guished writer and poet of his time. His Attala among his immediate followers, and principal works are:-1. “ Shakäikü-n'ü- probably took him with him to Bobbio. After mániyet” (“ Collection of Anemones”). This Attala's elevation to the abbacy at Pobbio, is a Turkish continuation of the Arabic work discontents broke out among the monks, and composed by Tásh-kö'prí-záde, which is a some withdrew ; but the death of three or collection of biographies of the most distin- four of the malcontents, soon after their secesguished divines and lawyers from the begin- sion, being regarded as a divine judgment, ning of the Turkish empire down to the begin- the rest returned and submitted. Jonas, the ning of the reign of Sultan Selim II.; it was disciple and biographer of Attala, has retranslated into Turkish by Mejdí. Attájí corded several miracles as wrought by him. continued this work in Turkish till the end He received what he conceived to be a divine, of the reign of Sultan Mürád IV. A beau-though somewhat ambiguous, warning of his tiful MS. of this work (one volume of 434 death fifty days before it occurred; and he ocpages in folio) is in the imperial library at cupied the interval in strengthening the walls Vienna. 2. Sóhbetu-l-ébkyár” (“ Conver- and renewing the roof of the abbey, and resations of Virgins"), a poem on the principal pairing its furniture. He died of fever, moral, social, and religious duties of men and apparently about the time anticipated by him, women of all ranks, finished in A.H. 1035 on the 10th March, but in what year is not (A.D. 1625). The author severely blames | known. (Life of St. Attala, by Jonas, in the

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Acta Sanctorum, by Bollandus and others, Aratus ; Vossius, De Scientiis Mathematicis, 10th March.)

J. C. M. cap. xxxiii. & 21; Fabricius, Biblioth. Græc. ATTALI'ATES, MICHAEL (Mixana iv. p. 93, ed. Harles.)

J. C. M. 'Attareátns) was pro-consul and judge (åvoú- A'TTALUS, a stoic philosopher in the Tatos kal kpitńs) under the Emperor Michael time of the Roman emperors, Augustus and Ducas, who reigned at Constantinople from Tiberius. The year and place of his birth 1071 to 1078. Of the personal history of are not known ; but his name indicates that Attaliates nothing is known beyond the facts he was of Greek origin : perhaps the same of his having filled these offices, and compiled, thing is indicated by an expression of Lucius at the command of the emperor, a popular Anneus Seneca the philosopher, that “he compendium of law. This treatise is con- joined the subtile acuteness of a Greek to the tained in the second volume of the “ Juris learning of the Etruscans.” He is mentioned Græco-Romani Libri Duo” of Leunclavius, by Marcus Annæus Seneca, the father of Lupublished by Freher. Its title is: Mixana cius, as the most acute and eloquent of the 'Ανθυπάτου και Κριτου, του Ατταλειάτου, | philosophers of his day. He was introduced ποίημα νομικόν ήτοι πραγματική πονηθείσα | as one of the speakers in the second of the κατά κέλευσιν του βασιλέως Μιχαήλ του Δουκά “ Suasoriæ" of Marcus Seneca, but the pas(" A Legal Work, or Pragmatical Treatise, sage is lost, and the fact of his being introof Michael Attaliates, the Pro-Consul and duced is known only from the critique of Judge, compiled by order of the Emperor Seneca at the close of the piece. Lucius SeMichael the Duke"). It consists of a preface neca was a pupil of Attalus, and tells us that (which contains a brief outline of the history his master was not only willing but desirous of the Roman law), ninety-five titles, and to impart instruction; indeed Attalus appears six Novellæ of the Emperor Leo. There is to have exercised considerable influence over little to remark on the arrangement, except the mind of his pupil. “ We were the first," the insertion of a title “On the Supreme says Seneca, “ to enter the lecture-room, and Trinity; the Catholic Faith; and the Prohi- the last to leave it. We also drew him into bition to dispute publicly on these Mysteries discussion in his walks.”

“ Certainly and Heresies” (vii. 3), between the title I, when I heard Attalus discoursing on the “ On Things” (i. 2) and that “On Obliga- vices, the mistakes, the evils of life, have tions and Actions” (vii. 4). In the dedica- often pitied the human race, and considered tion to the emperor (apòs tov avtokpáropa him as raised aloft, far above the highest Mixaha), Attaliates professes to have aimed eminence of humanity. He himself said that at brevity and perspicuity, and the use of he was a king; but it seemed to me that he popular phraseology (koivonela). (Leun- was more than a king, since it was his preclavius, Juris Graco - Romani tam Canonici rogative to pass judgment on those who were quam Civilis Tomi Duo; Jöcher, Allgemeines kings. When, too, he began to recommend Gelehrten-Lericon.)

W.W. poverty, and to point out how everything A’TTALUS (“Artados), one of the officers which exceeded the limits of necessity was of Alexander the Great. He commanded an unnecessary burden and heavy to be the Agrianians, and distinguished himself at borne, I often wished I could have quitted the battles of Issus and Gaugamela, and in the his lecture-room a poor man,” &c. (Epispursuit of Bessus and his confederates, when tola 108.) they carried off Darius, the Persian king, as Seneca has quoted in his epistles many of a prisoner. (Arrian, Anabasis, ii. 9, iii. 12, the sayings of Attalus. They are commonly 21.)

J. C. M. sensible and just, and in almost every case A'TTALUS, a mathematician, who edited illustrated by a comparison. In fact, judging the “ Phænomena" of Aratus, and subjoined from the quotations of Seneca, liveliness of to it a commentary, in which he professed to illustration was one of the most marked chareconcile the statements of the poem with the racteristics of Attalus. This may serve as a facts, or supposed facts, of the sciences of specimen. “ There is a pleasure in the which it treats. Hipparchus, who frequently memory of departed friends, which may be quotes him, charges him with having, with compared to apples that have an agrecable one or two exceptions, followed Aratus in roughness, or to wine of too great age, the his errors; but elsewhere, in a passage sup- very bitterness of which has a charm; but posed to refer to Attalus, he describes him in which, after a time, all that was unpleaas the most careful of the expounders of the sant is lost, and unmingled sweetness repoem. If this passage refers to Attalus, he mains." (Epistola 63.) was a contemporary of Hipparchus, who was Attalus wrote or discoursed on thunder, living between B.C. 162 and 128. Vossius and regarded as ominous; and laid down a numFabricius, with other moderns, call Attalus ber of rules by which its ominous character a Rhodian; but we have not been able to might be discriminated : a summary of these trace any mention of his country in Hippar- rules is given by Lucius Seneca in his “ Nachus, who is, as far as we know, the chief or turales Quæstiones.” Attalus was banished by only ancient authority respecting him. (Hip- the infiuence of Sejanus. Nothing is known parchus, Commentary on the Phenomena of of him subsequently. Fabricius thinks it

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