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the danger to which human thought in its earlier stages was exposed“ lay not in the poverty of language, but in its superabundant wealth."*

What theories concerning man's original-mental and moral, a3 well as physical-condition Mr. Cox may hold we cannot imagine. He denies Mr. Gladstone's proposition that man was blessed with an early theological revelation, and evidently believes in a progressive movement of the race; but the mere fact of progress implies a prior low or debased condition; and, as we have already seen, Mr. Cox admits that the prominent characteristic of that early age was savagery. We know but little of these early centuries, for no written records have come down to us-relics consisting almost exclusively of warlike or other implements; we are compelled, therefore, to fall back upon analogy. Do our poor and ignorant population speak in such poetical terms of the death of the shortlived sun, of the blue sky veiling the earth, of the violet-tinted clouds, of marriages and loves among the phenomena of nature ? do they speak of the clouds as cows, or of the dawn as a being of keen eyes and piercing vision? We know they do not; such poetry, and it is real poetry, is the product, not of savage untutored life, but of education and of thought. These early races, whose common speech is said to bave been so figurative, have been likened by Mr. Cox himself to children; but children do not possess, even now, with the inherited accumulated tendencies to cultivation of centuries, such wonderful power of analogy as we are asked to believe dwelt in our first ancestors.

To us the cost of the question seems to be this—What was the condition of the primal race? If man is but a developed ape, we cannot assume that on the threshold of manhood he was endowed by his Maker (none the less so because man could "boast” such an ancestry!) with all those powers of mind and will which the popular belief ascribes to him; neither may we assume him to have been so endowed, even supposing he had been created from nothing. The Mosaic account we must put out of mind, if for no other reason, for this—that we have no warrant of its authority. We cannot well admit the truth of one particular without admitting the truth of all other particulars contained therein; the belief in one entails belief in all. It is more reasonable to conclude that man, who has ever been the most interesting study to himself and to his fellowman, had, even in those remote times, asked himself the questions, What am I? Whence came I? Whither go I? His seekings after truth seem to have been accepted by Christendom as the very finding of it! No; we think man appeared first on this earth little better than a * Vol. 1., p. 425.

+ Ibid, p. 39.

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beast. We do not forget the disputes now waging on this point; but we think those have the best of it who hold that man has risen and is rising. At first language consisted of but few terms, Mr. Cox's opinion notwithstanding; and so far from revelling in wealth, the same terms were used for different objects. Mr. Cox even admits in a foot-note that “the mind of that early time, as ex

а hibited to us in their language, is childish or infantile, but not brutish.” Education, being mostly a matter of experience, man could not then have possessed. No doubt his wants were few and easily supplied; and wealth of language would have been a burden Tather than a source of delight to him. It is as a nation rises in the scale of being that her vocabulary is enlarged; new discoveries and the greater subtlety of thought compel to word-creation. This is fully borne out by history ; the earliest languages have by far the fewest words; one old sort is often the parent of fifty modern words.

But it is more particularly with the primal family's mental and moral condition we have to do now. Dr. Döllinger believes that man in his primeval innocence (?) was enabled to conceive of the Deity as a pure, spiritual, supernatural, and infinite Being, digtinct from the world, and exalted above it; that man lost this conception, and the yearning for something in its place led to the deification of external nature, the worship of the elements coming first. Mr. Cox thinks that the Being who placed man in the world would not have left him wholly to himself, though he admits this does not determine the amount of knowledge imparted to him.t Dr. Döllinger's view we cannot accept-it is but the Mosaic narrative in other words. Nor can we go with Mr. Cox if he means that man's Creator supernaturally revealed anything to him. Man, as man, ever had those powers of mind and will he now has, and yet most useful inventions—inventions which we, who are accustomed to them, cannot imagine any doing without-have been brought to light within the last two or three hundred years only. Man has to find out for himself all that he requires, not even excepting the idea of God Himself. We cannot write down a general statement of what God is ; each one of us, by communion with Him, has to solve the problem for himself.

Mr. Cox should see this, for after saying that human nature recoils instinctively from any notion that the Creator would leave man entirely to himself, he adds—"Nations have been found, and still exist, whose languages contain not a single word expressive of divinity, and into whose mind the idea of God or of any religion seems never to have entered.”

Vol. I., p. 19, note. “Brutish;” does Mr. Cox refer to the style or to the matter?

+ Vol. I., p. 9.



Author of " Sermons from the Studio,” “ The Sculptor of Bruges," Gc.

CHAPTER VII.-SIR HARRY VANE. In the beginning of September there was a great stir in Hull, because of a letter received by the Mayor from Lord Strafford, wherein he said that the King had directed a regiment of foot soldiers to come to this town, under the command of Sir Thomas Glenham, who was thereupon to be appointed governor. The Mayor was indignant at having his authority set at nought without any apology; and he told his Lordship curtly, that, by virtue of his office, he was rightful governor of Hull, and he did not see how there could be two governors at the same time. Already soldiers were plentiful enough in the town, there being a guard night and day on the walls; the Hessle gate was quite closed up, and an enormous chain was drawn every night across the mouth of the haven,

Ten days later came another letter from the Earl, in which he courteously begged the Mayor to admit Sir Thomas. But at the same time came a communication from the Colonel, who was still at York, urging the Aldermen to support their Mayor in his most reasonable and lawful protest. This they did, and sent to inform the haughty nobleman of their resolution. On the 20th of September a despatch arrived from Court, intimating that His Majesty would pay the town a visit in person in less than a fortnight, and requesting the Mayor to make suitable preparation for his reception. The King was now evidently displeased with his “ right loyal subjects" iu Hull, and they were in no mood to rejoice at the prospect of seeing him. The Colonel again prayed the authorities to do their duty and fear nothing-adding, nobly, that he and Sir William Lister would bear all the expenses of entertaining the King and his train. He told them also that there was little doubt of the King granting their rights, when Lord Strafford was not at his elbow. But the majority of the people were alarmed, and loudly called upon the Mayor to yield. Much against his own judgment, he at last reluctantly consented, consoling himself in some degree by saying that perhaps, after all, the King would have obliged him to submit.

In a few days Sir Thomas Glenham appeared at the gates with a

thousand men, and received the keys of the town and castle. Of course, no more was heard of a royal visit.

Colonel Lister returned home in October. He was deeply grieved at the Mayor's concession, for he saw, in those comparatively small acts of tyranny and lawlessness, the steps by which Charles was advancing towards despotism. The King, having been defeated in most of his schemes, had been compelled to summon another Parliament, which was appointed to assemble on the third of Novem. ber. Sir Harry Vane was chosen, without any seeking of his, to serve again for Hall, with Mr. Pelbam, and was requested to visit the town and attend a meeting at the Town Hall, on his way to London from his northern home at Raby Castle.

The meeting was to be held on the last day of October, and there was quite a holiday in Hull. Many ladies went early to secure seats in the little gallery, amongst whom were Alice and Dorothy, under the care of good Dame Crowle. About ten o'clock the hall became densely crowded, the officers from the garrison mingling with the civilians; and just as Trinity clock struck the Mayor entered, in bis robes, followed by the Aldermen, the membersVane and Pelham-and several other gentlemen of influence, including Colonel and Sir William Lister. The latter looked up

at Alice, and kissed his glove; he had learned many gallantries at Court, and indeed the young Knigbt's manners were much improved by his short stay in York, and more suited to his rank and quality. Master Barnard, the Mayor, spoke first, but Alice, for one, heard little of what he was saying, being too much taken up with gazing at Sir Harry. His was a remarkable face, and well worth

. a study; when he spoke a bright light came into his eyes, illuminating every feature as by an inspiration ; his thoughts were clearly and quietly uttered, for he wished every townsman plainly to understand what were the principles of their representative at this momentous crisis, and he wished also to explain to the unin. formed something of their individual duties and privileges as Englishmen.

Once during the address two or three of Glenham's officers called out “Republican!" but it angered the people, who cried, “Order," and “Turn out the military.” Vane took small notice of the disturbances, going on in the same strain as before, and long afterwards his words rung in his listeners' ears, and perhaps influenced their after conduct. Deny,” said he, “that there are any fundamental, irrepealable laws, and who can be secure as to life, liberty, or estate? And here I affirm that the whole aim of my actions shall be to preserve the ancient, well-constituted Government of England on its own basis, and primitive, righteous foundation, Our rights are not destroyed, but their exercise is laid for awhile



A mercy he didn't


asleep, till the season comes for their revival and restoration." These words came from Vane's heart, and were carried out afterwards in his daily life.

Mr. Pelbam rose next, but he should have spoken before his friend. He seemed conscious of this, and did not say much, though all knew him to be a true lover of the constitution.

When Alice descended the gallery stairs she found her father waiting for her, to say that Sir Henry Vane would pay them a short visit after the Mayor's banquet. “Then we must prepare the great parlour,” said Alice, deeply impressed with the intended honour.

No, no," said the Colonel. “The Knight is coming to talk of grave matters. Move some of the litter from the library, and I will receive him there."

As Alice anticipated, this arrangement did not please Janet at all.

To think of a great gentleman coming-that lives in a big castle of his own, as fine as the King's palace, folks say—and we not to use the best room. He will be supposing we have no better place than the library, which is mostly like a lumber chamber.

Master, bless bim! was born without a notion of order. happen to be a woman."

“But we can put the room in order, Janet; and you know how well you made it appear when the Earl of Newport stayed here last year.”

This could not be denied, and all the time she was grumbling Alice knew that Janet would do what her father wished to the very letter, and would have been very angry if any one else had called the library ill names. To gratify her pride in the family, Alice put on her best satin gown, and wore some of her mother's jewels, that now seldom saw the light. The glitter of the diamonds brought back the housekeeper's good humour, and she ordered a fire to be lighted in the little ante room for the young lady's own use.

The meeting had excited Alice so much that she could settle to nothing, and was glad to hear Ann Marvel's voice in the hall.

As she opened the ante-room door Ann had just come into collision with Janet, whom she had nearly upset in her impatience.

• Bless me, child,” exclaimed the old woman. “I ask your pardon," said Ann.

“And well you may,” replied Janet shortly; for Ann was not favoured like her brother.

“Isn't she a cross woman, Alice? I wonder how you can bear her,” said poor Ann, when the door of the little room was shut.

“Oh, she is really good; it is only her manner. You must not mind it; she has something to vex her to-day.”

“Does she ever speak so to you?” asked Ann, seating herself on Alice's lap.


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