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of Moscow. The agriculturist and the grazier, scowled at the same bright stranger, for parching their lands and drowning their flocks. Heedless of the fears or fancies of man, the comet held on its sublime course, though in France it had the credit of improving the vintage,-the produce of that year being called the “comet wine," -one class alone deriving a cheering influence from its presence-the rosy bachannal, wbo hailed the splendid visitant, for sending wines, brilliant as its nucleus, and sparkling as its tail. It is calculated that this comet will return in the year 6048.
THE COMET OF 1831. The comet that appeared in January of 1831, was supposed to be that of 1770, for which, however, there was not the least foundation,-not even in period; on the supposition, that its orbit remained unaltered, and that it had duly returạed every 5 years, 210 days, but invisible from defectiveness of light, it would not have completed its eleventh revolution till early in the year 1832. The comet of 1831 was seen by Mr. Herapath, on the 7th of January, at 6 in the morning. The tail was then perpendicular to the horizon, inclining towards the south, and of a white colour, apparently between 1° and 2o long. The head was of the same colour as the tail, but far more splendid ; it appeared to equal in light, stars of the second magnitude, while it exceeded them in size.
January, 7 days, 6 hrs. 30 min. A.M. Right ascension, 17 hrs. 36 min. 44 sec. South declination, 120 33'. An observation by Sir James South, about 48 hours afterwards gives,-right ascension, 17 hrs. 27 min. 57 sec. South declination, 12° 1' 12'. A succession of unfavourable weather, for several days after these observations, prevented the comet from being seen ; the following were the observations at Deptford :
January, 26 days, 4 hrs. 15 min. to 6 brs. 15 min. (Wednesday morning). The comet was a little west of a line connecting d, e, and g in Opbiucus, and nearly equally distant from and . It had a pale nebulous appearance, was of an irregular circular form; no starlike nucleus, though a tendency to condensation was perceptible towards its centre. On the disappearance of the moon, and before the morning twilight interrupted the observations, an extremely diluted tail was suspected, extending in a westerly direction.
28th day, 6 hrs. morning. Notwithstanding the full moon, the comet was distinctly seen with the telescope; its central light was more sharp and twinkling than on the 26th. It formed the summit of an isosceles triangle, with 8 and ε in Ophiuchus,—the comet west of the stars.
The mind contemplates with astonishment the very lengthened periods assigned to some of these erratic bodies; the imagination travels back to those epochs, when they were seen by our ancestors with superstitious awe, or devout religious feeling. This idea enters especially into our views as inhabitants of this rolling world, so frequently the witnesses of the visits of these mysterious pilgrims of space, whose periods may be said on a large scale to measure the cares, joys, and destinies of the human family. The comet of Halley ;—this may, it is probable, be seen in the year 1835, by the Octogenarian, who witnessed it in the year 1759 with childish
curiosity and terror. What a contrast is at once presented to the mind, the beauty and simplicity of infancy, and the querulousness and decrepitude of age. A flourishing, populous, extensive empire witnesses one of these splendid bodies shaking its tresses as it passes onwards to the realms of space; it completes its revolution of centuries, it returns,--the empire has decayed, the name scarcely remembered, it exists only on the page of history. A comet proceeds on its awful course of thousands of years, and glancing by a bright and beautiful world, visits realms beyond the reach of thought; it wheels its car homewards, and misses this bright and beautiful world from the system, or meets only with its chaotic and scattered fragments !
Though vast to the finite mind—these numbers, periods, and distances,—what are they, but a drop in the ocean of infinity !--a point in the abyss of eternal duration! Or the vast scale of eternity and the broad region of interminable extent, what are thousands of years, and millions of wandering bodies—but the duration of the splendour of a dew-drop before it is exhaled! There is time for all these movements in the countless ages of eternity, and there is space for all these revolutions in the ample dominions of the universe of God.
OF THE SUN'S RISING AND SETTING, RIGHT ASCENSION,
DECLINATION, AND EQUATION OF TIME.
SOLAR PHENOMENA. The sun enters Sagittarius at 24 min. after 6 of the morning of the 22nd of this month.
Phases of the Moon.
First Quarter, 30th ...... 58 ........... Noon. Conjunctions of the Moon with the Planets and Stars. November 1st, with Uranus.......... at 4 morning.
1st, ... O in Capricornus ... 7 night.
2 morning. 28th, .... Uranus.