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MORNING PLEASURES.—Whoever is found in bed after six o'clock, from May-day till Michaelmas, cannot, in any conscience, expect to be free from some ailment or other, dependent on relaxed nerves, stuffed lungs, disordered bile, or impaired digestion. Nothing can be done-absolutely nothing-if you do not rise earlyexcept drugging you with draughts-a luxury which the indolent morning-sleeper must prepare himself to purchase dearly. We give him joy of his choice-bid him good-bye, and springing out into the sunny air, we gather health from every breeze, and become young again among the glittering May-dew and the laugbing May-flowers. “What a luxury do the sons of sloth lose!” says Harvey, in his flowery Reflections on a Flower Garden, “ little, ah! little is the sluggard sensible how great a pleasure he foregoes for the poorest of all animal gratifications.” Be persuaded; make an effort to shake off the pernicious habit. “ Go forth,” as King Solomon says, “ to the fields— lodge in the villages,-get up early to the vineyards”-mark the budding flowers listen to the joyous birds-in a word, cultivate morning pleasures, and health and vigour will most certainly follow.
ARCHED CLOUDS. — The names which have been given to different species of clouds by Mr. Luke Howard, are now pretty generally known and adopted in meteorological journals; but though the author (naturally enough, no doubt,) deprecates the attempts which have been made to substitute English terms for his Latin ones; there can be little question that his learned nomenclature
has retarded the popularity of the science. If this be - the fact, as it indeed appears to be, it will be preferable
to adopt such English terms as may be more intelligible to the general reader.
The species of cloud, therefore, which is called CIRRUS by Mr. Howard, may be conveniently termed the wanecloud, being the thinnest, lightest, and highest of all the clouds, as if the accumulated vapour, which composes the lower and denser clouds, had waned away by its distance and elevation. The different forms which the wane-cloud assumes in consequence of atmospheric changes, may be equally designated by English as by Latin terms. The modification which we shall notice at present is called, by the peasants in Kent, wind-reels, from the notion that the streaks lie in the direction of the wind. That the current of the wind may have some influence in the arrangement of those streaks of wanecloud is not improbable; but that some portions of the cloud are not influenced by the wind is proved by the streaks which may often be observed to cross the main lines at various angles,-in some instances, indeed, so regularly as to make a part of the sky look like net-work.
A very beautiful instance of the wind-reel fell under our observation on the 20th of May. The wind was N.W. light warm, and there had been a succession of dry weather for many days,-a circumstance which is popularly, supposed to influence the formation of such clouds ;-with some justice, perbaps, as they seem to be frequently the forerunners of rain—the first nucleus, as it were, of the gathering rain-cloud. One of the streaks spanned the entire visible horizon from N. W. to S. E. in an uninterrupted and nearly uniform arch, about the usual dimensions of a rainbow, though not so well defined. This arched cloud was accompanied hy
others conterminous with it, and nearly parallel with respect to the direction of their component streaks. These appeared to verge to a point,--but might be a common optical deception, depending on the laws of perspective,-at least, this is the received opinion of meteorologists respecting arched clouds. We are disposed, however, to think that the phenomenon cannot be always referred to optical deception; for we have more than once observed arched clouds, in various positions and directions with regard to the eye, which they could not have appeared in according to this supposition.
We continued to observe and admire those arched lines of cloud for several hours, namely, from noon till between four and five in the evening, and what was remarkable, though there was a light, but steady, breeze of wind in the direction of the arched lines, the form of the cloud remained nearly stationary and uniform in its outline. Now, are we to infer from this that a thin light stream of vapour spread over the whole extent of the horizon, and acted upon for four or five hours by a breeze of wind, would neither be evaporated nor moved from its position? The affirmative would be the natural inference; but Professor Daniell, in his excellent Essays on Meteorology, has endeavoured to account for the apparent stationary phenomena of clouds in so very ingenious and satisfactory a manner, that we hesitate not to adopt his explanation.
"The apparent permanency,” says Mr. Daniell, “ and stationary aspect of a cloud is often an optical deception, arising from the solution of moisture on one side of a given point, as it is precipitated on the other. No phenomenon is more common amongst mountains, or upon hills by the sea-side than clouds upon the summits which appear to be perfectly immoveable, although a strong wind is blowing upon them at the time. That this should be the real state of the case, is clearly impossible, as so attenuated a body as constitutes the substances of the clouds, must obey the impulse of the air. The real fact is, that the vapour which is wafted by the wind is precipitated by the cold contact of the mountain, and is urged forward on its course till borne beyond the influence which caused its condensation, it is again exhaled, and disappears. A slight inspection and consideration of the phenomena will be sufficient to convince any one of the correctness of this explanation. Reasoning from analogy, we may conclude, that the process which thus proceeds, under our eyes, upon the summits of the hills, likewise takes place on either side of the planes of precipitation in the heights of the atmosphere :—the vapour is continually condensed,-as continually re-dissolved in the act of precipitation, and the cloud appears to be unchanged and stationary.”—p. 124.
According to the electro-chemical theory of the formation of clouds, however, it would be affirmed that the cloud was really stationary and unchanged, in consequence of the equilibrium of the electrical influence produced by the primary developement of the cloud, from the union of the constituent principles of water previ. ously existing in the gaseous state. It is barely possible to apply the ingenious reasoning of Mr. Daniell to this theory, and to suppose that, while the mist or vapour constituting the cloud is forming upon one side, the water is simultaneously decomposed on the other side.
We are still too much in the dark with respect to the principles that regulate atmospherical phenomena, to decide upon the precise effects of electricity; but supposing the theory alluded to has some foundation in nature, we may be tempted to proceed a step further, and connect it with the nearly allied influence of magnetism. Indeed, without some such power acting upon the light and moveable streaks, and tufts of vapour, which form what we call wane-clouds, (cirrus, HOWARD). We cannot devise any satisfactory explanation of the appearances which may so frequently be observed ; for if the wind were the sole agent in determining their forms and positions, they ougbt always to stream in the direction of its current, as we see is uniformly the case in the analagous instance of smoke. In the case of waneclouds, however, they as frequently appear to cross or lie obliquely to the current of the wind which blows in the plane of their stratification as the contrary; and sometimes they may be seen in positions simultaneously so dissimilar, that it seems difficult to refer the direction of any particular tuft or streak to any known agent. As an instance of this, a few days after the occurrence of the preceding arched wane-cloud, we observed a wane-cloud with the wind, which was easterly, in the general direction of the streaks, but shorter crossing streaks occurred almost at right angles to the current of the wind, while there were long streams extending over half the visible horizon, divaricating very considerably from the parallelism of the line which marked the direction of the wind. Might it not be, that some at least, if not all, of the lines of cloud were in a position corresponding with the what mathematicians call the