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gists, tend to confirm what is here said, in opposition to the universal popular opiniou. Dr. Watson proved, that even the lightest wood will sink when floated in water, till it is thoroughly saturated with moisture. When trees, therefore, fall in the water of bogs they soon become thus saturated, when the chemical process of bituminization commences, by which the original colour of the vegetable matter is converted into a deep brown. Sometimes the texture is changed, as in the process of putrefaction, the substance called peat being the result; but in the case of trees, the original fibre of the wood is most frequently preserved, at the same time the whole is imbued with the bituminous matter, and this being always very inflammable, similar to pine and fir-wood, it has given rise to the opinion that it is actually fir. There can be no doubt, that fir may be found under these circumstances in countries where pine-forests grow; but in Derbyshire, Cheshire, and Walmer Forest, the existence of fir in the recent bog-formations, must be very problematical. The subject, however, still requires more minute investigation than it has hitherto received.

PRESERVATION OF TREES IN WINTER.-In ironfounderies, such as the foundry for cannon at Munich, it is customary to stir the melted metal with a branch of green oak, and notwithstanding the great heat of the metal, the green wood is not affected deeper than about the twentieth part of an inch. This striking fact is explained from the non-conducting power of the sap, and upon the same principle it is that the bodies and branches of trees, not having the covering of snow which the roots have, are protected from the operation of cold, by their sap increasing in spissitude, and of course in non-conducting capacity, as the winter approaches. On similar principles, we may account for the preservation of various kinds of fruit.

RULES FOR THE WEATHER.-A wet summer is always followed by a frosty winter, but it happens occasionally that the cold extends no farther. Two remarkable instances of this occurred in 1807—8, and 1813– 14. With these exceptions, every frosty winter has been followed by a cold summer.

The true cause of cold, or rather the direct cause, is to be found in the winter excess of west-wind-every winter, with excess of west-wind, being followed by a cold summer; and if there is no cold before or during a first excess, then a second excess of west-wind in winter occasions a still colder summer than the first. It also appears by repeated experience, that cold does not extend to more than two years at a time.

Again, if the winter excess of east-wind be great in the first instance, the winter will be mild, and followed by mild summers; while the summer excess of east-wind is itself in the first instance always mild, but uniformly followed by cold winters and cold summers, which continues more or less for one or two years, according to circumstances.-Muckenzie, --Syst. of the Weather.

INDEX

то

TIME'S TELESCOP E.

For 1832.

The letters after each line denote the Part referred to—as r, Remarkable

Days—a, Astronomical Occurrences—n, Notes of a Naturalist.

of, 6. Singing of, during Thun-
Abernethy, J. memoir of, 51,r.

der, 68, Flight of, 82, Migra-
Adelaide, Queen, 85, 92, r.

tion to the Moon, 95, n.
Advent Sunday, 104, “.

Bituminized Fossil Wood, nature of,
All Fool's Day, 48, r.

97, n.
All Saints, 99,r.

Blight, 'Errors respecting, 53, n.
All Souls, 99, r.

Bloomfield, G. memoir of, 17, r,
Annunciation, 42, r.

Bolivar, Simon, memoir of, 106, r.
Ant Eaters, Tongue of, 72, n.

Bowles, Rev. W. L. poem by,
Ants, Industry of, 38, n.

41, r.
April, described, 48, r.

Brown, M. memoir of, 67, 7.
Arthur, Prince, his Death, 96, r.

Browne, M. A. poem by, 57, n.
Ascension Day, 65, r.

Bunyan, John, birth place of, 87, r.
Ash-Wednesday, 39, r.

Butler, Rev. W. memoir of, 71, 7.
August described, 83, r.

Byron, Lord, 16, r.
Augusta Sophia, Princess, 101, r.

Cambridge, Duke of, 35, r.

Candlemass Day, 22, r.
Beech Tree, Characteristics of, Carnival, 7, r.
75, n.

Carolan, Turlogh, memoir of, 43, r.
Bees, Solitary, 24, Memory of,25,n. Elegy on the Death of, 47, r.
Beevor, Miss, poems by, 60, r. Carpenter, Thomas, memoir of, 111,r.
62, 85, n.

Carrington, N. T.memoir of, 89, r.
Bill, Henry, memoir of, 102, r. Carter, G. R. Poems by, 69, r.
Berry, Admiral, memoir of, 29, r. 55, n.
Bethlehem, Star of, a poem, 17, a. | Cat which caught Swallows, 48, n.
Biela, Comet of, 31, 139, a. Chaffinch, Migration of the, 83, n.
Birds, Winter Song, 5, Migration | Charles the First, 20, r.

42, r.

Charles the Second, 65, r.

Evening air, 58, n.
Chiff Chaff, 26, n.

Evergreens, 96, n.
Christie, James, memoir of, 24, r.
Christmas Day, 109, Carol, 109,

F.
Boxes, origin of, 110, Custom Fall of the Leaf, 84, n.

in Isle of Man, 111, r. Fear, effects of betraying, 78, n.
Churton, Archdeacon, memoir of, February described, 22, r.

Flowers, a poem, 54, n.
Clutterbuck, R. memoir of, 64, r. 1 Flowers, Use of Corolla in, 73, n.
Circumcision, 1,r.

Fossil Charcoal, 39, n.
Clouds, Radiated, 29, Arched, 43. Fouque, Baroness de La Motte,

Indicating Rain, 150, Net memoir of, 82, r.
work, 77, n.

Fruits, 77, n.
Colours in Domestic Animals, Furlong, T. poem by, 47, r.

10, n.
Cometary Astronomy, 26, 37, 54,

71, 84, 98, 108, 125, 139, Garden, a poem, 40, n.
156, a.

Gloomy Weather, 86, n.
Complex Radiation, 36, n.

Gloucester, Duchess of, 56, r.
Constant, Benjamin, memoir of, Good Friday, 54, r.
105, r.

Goose, Solon, 70, n.
Conversion of St. Paul, 18, r. Gow, Nathaniel, memoir of, 14, r.
Cornua Ammonis, 89, n.

Greatorex, T. memoir of, 81, r.
Coronation, 92, r.
Corpus Christi, 70, r.

H.
Cumberland, Duke of, 68, r. Hall, Rev. R. memoir of, 33, r.
Cunningham, Allan, poem by, 10, r. Halley's Comet, 142, a.

Hamper, W. memoir of, 63, r.

Hardiman on the Powder Plot,
Davidson, Miss, poem by, 22, r.

100, r.
Darby, E. poem by, 40, n.

Herrings, migration of, 87, n.
De Courcy, his prowess displayed,

Hoar Frost and Thaw, 12. n.

Holy Cross, 93, r.
97, 1.
Deakin, H. C. poems by, 54, 91, n.

Holy Thursday, 65, r.
December, described, 104, r.

Homberg, Princess of, 64, r.
Diebitsch, Count, memoir of, 68, r.

Hop Fly, habits of, 67, n.

Hope, Thomas, memoir of, 25, r.
Dog Days, 64, n.
Drought, 72, n.

Humphries, J. memoir ot, 103, r.
Dundonald, Earl, memoir of, 74,r.

I. .

Innocents, 112, r.
E.

Insects, salubrity indicated by, 74, n.
Earth Worm, habits of, 18, n. Invention of the Cross, 63, r.
Easter Sunday, 55, r.

Italy, Revolution in, 8, r.
Edward, King of W. Saxons, 40, Ivy not injurious to Trees, 88, n.

70, r.
Edmund, King and Myrtyr, 102, r.
Eels, migration of, 52, n.

Jackson, J. memoir of, 66, r.
Elliston, R. W. memoir of, 77, 7. January explained, 1, r.
Encke Comet, 30, 125, a.

| Jesus, name of, 85, r.
Epiphany ; or, Twelfth Day, 7, r. Joddrell, R. P. memoir of, 19, r.

First Sunday after, 10, r. John, King, 96, r.

D.

K.

Jones, Captain, 56, r.

Newstead Abbey, a poem, 16, r.
June described, 66, r.

Newton, Sir J. birth-place of, 170,a.
July described, 74, r.

New Year's Day, 1, r.
Niebuhr, M. memoir of, 6, r.

Northcote. J. memoir of, 80,?.
Ken, the grave of, 41, r.

November described, 99, r.
Kennedy, W. poem by, 42, n.
Kreutzer, memoir of, 26, r.

0.

Oats, Winter, 88, n.
L.

October described, 95, r.
Lady Day, 42, r.

O'Donoghue, Vision of, 60, r,
Lammas Day, 83, r.

Orford, Earl of, 37, r.
Landon, Miss, poem by, 109, r. Orion, Nebula in, 167, a.
Land-rail, migration of, 61, n.
Leaf, Fall of, 84, n.

P.
Leasowes, thé, 28, r.

Palm Sunday, 50, r.
Light and Colors, 46, a.

Peahen Nest of, 59, n.
London Bridge, 83, r.

Persecution of supposed enemies,
London burnt, 88, r.

27, n.
Longest Day, 71, 7.

Plants, sloughing of, 76, seeded,
Low Sunday, 56, r.

79, n.

Plough, Monday, 11, r.
M,

Powder Plot, 100,r.
Mac Cabe's Elegy on Carolan, 47, r. Princes of York, 78, ".
Mackenzie, H. memoir of, 12, r. Purification of the Virgin, 22, r.
Magee, Archbishop, 85, r.
March described, 36,r.
May described, 58, May Day,ib. r. | Quadragesima Sunday, 40,r.
May Sweet May ! 42, n.

Quinquagesima Sunday, 38, r.
Memnon's Lyre, Hymn of, 78, a. Quick, John, memoir of, 50, r.
Mercury, Transit of, 60, a.
Mid Lent Sunday, 48, r.

R.
Midnight Musings, 85, n.

Rain, indicated by clouds, 59, n.
Midsummer Day, 71, r.

Regalia of England, 93, 9.
Migration of Birds, 6, 61, 81, 83, Richard the Third, 78, r.
95, n.

Richardson, S., his house, 76, r.
Migration of Eels, 52, n.

Robins, J. poem by, 35,r.
Migration of Willows, 81, n. Rock Blocks, 90, n.
Migration of Herrings, 87, n.

Rock Rose, 69, n.
Milton, John, 101,r.

Rogation Sunday, 65, r.
Moles, Ingenuity of, 16, n,

Roots, influence of soil on, 70, n.
Monroe, J. memoir of, 76, r. Roscoe, W. memoir of, 72, r.
Moon, migration of Birds to, 95, n. | Rose, Song of the, 62, n.
Morning Air, 27, n.
Morning Pleasures, 43, n.
Mosses, 15, n.

SAINTS, r.
Mountains, 14, Form and as | Agatha, 26
pect of, 80, n.

Agnes, 14
Mursey, Rev.W. poems by, 108, a. Alban, 69
40, n.

All Saints, 99.
N.

Alphege, 54
Nebula in Orion, 167, a.' | Ambrose, 49

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