« السابقةمتابعة »
gists, tend to confirm what is here said, in opposition to the universal popular opiniou. Dr. Watson proved, that even the lightest wood will sink when floated in water, till it is thoroughly saturated with moisture. When trees, therefore, fall in the water of bogs they soon become thus saturated, when the chemical process of bituminization commences, by which the original colour of the vegetable matter is converted into a deep brown. Sometimes the texture is changed, as in the process of putrefaction, the substance called peat being the result; but in the case of trees, the original fibre of the wood is most frequently preserved, at the same time the whole is imbued with the bituminous matter, and this being always very inflammable, similar to pine and fir-wood, it has given rise to the opinion that it is actually fir. There can be no doubt, that fir may be found under these circumstances in countries where pine-forests grow; but in Derbyshire, Cheshire, and Walmer Forest, the existence of fir in the recent bog-formations, must be very problematical. The subject, however, still requires more minute investigation than it has hitherto received.
PRESERVATION OF TREES IN WINTER.-In ironfounderies, such as the foundry for cannon at Munich, it is customary to stir the melted metal with a branch of green oak, and notwithstanding the great heat of the metal, the green wood is not affected deeper than about the twentieth part of an inch. This striking fact is explained from the non-conducting power of the sap, and upon the same principle it is that the bodies and branches of trees, not having the covering of snow which the roots have, are protected from the operation of cold, by their sap increasing in spissitude, and of course in non-conducting capacity, as the winter approaches. On similar principles, we may account for the preservation of various kinds of fruit.
RULES FOR THE WEATHER.-A wet summer is always followed by a frosty winter, but it happens occasionally that the cold extends no farther. Two remarkable instances of this occurred in 1807—8, and 1813– 14. With these exceptions, every frosty winter has been followed by a cold summer.
The true cause of cold, or rather the direct cause, is to be found in the winter excess of west-wind-every winter, with excess of west-wind, being followed by a cold summer; and if there is no cold before or during a first excess, then a second excess of west-wind in winter occasions a still colder summer than the first. It also appears by repeated experience, that cold does not extend to more than two years at a time.
Again, if the winter excess of east-wind be great in the first instance, the winter will be mild, and followed by mild summers; while the summer excess of east-wind is itself in the first instance always mild, but uniformly followed by cold winters and cold summers, which continues more or less for one or two years, according to circumstances.-Muckenzie, --Syst. of the Weather.
TIME'S TELESCOP E.
The letters after each line denote the Part referred to—as r, Remarkable
Days—a, Astronomical Occurrences—n, Notes of a Naturalist.
of, 6. Singing of, during Thun-
der, 68, Flight of, 82, Migra-
tion to the Moon, 95, n.
Bituminized Fossil Wood, nature of,
Blight, 'Errors respecting, 53, n.
Bloomfield, G. memoir of, 17, r,
Bolivar, Simon, memoir of, 106, r.
Bowles, Rev. W. L. poem by,
Brown, M. memoir of, 67, 7.
Browne, M. A. poem by, 57, n.
Bunyan, John, birth place of, 87, r.
Butler, Rev. W. memoir of, 71, 7.
Byron, Lord, 16, r.
Cambridge, Duke of, 35, r.
Candlemass Day, 22, r.
Carolan, Turlogh, memoir of, 43, r.
Carrington, N. T.memoir of, 89, r.
Charles the Second, 65, r.
Evening air, 58, n.
Evergreens, 96, n.
in Isle of Man, 111, r. Fear, effects of betraying, 78, n.
Flowers, a poem, 54, n.
Fossil Charcoal, 39, n.
Indicating Rain, 150, Net memoir of, 82, r.
Fruits, 77, n.
71, 84, 98, 108, 125, 139, Garden, a poem, 40, n.
Gloomy Weather, 86, n.
Gloucester, Duchess of, 56, r.
Goose, Solon, 70, n.
Greatorex, T. memoir of, 81, r.
Hamper, W. memoir of, 63, r.
Hardiman on the Powder Plot,
Herrings, migration of, 87, n.
Hoar Frost and Thaw, 12. n.
Holy Cross, 93, r.
Holy Thursday, 65, r.
Homberg, Princess of, 64, r.
Hop Fly, habits of, 67, n.
Hope, Thomas, memoir of, 25, r.
Humphries, J. memoir ot, 103, r.
Innocents, 112, r.
Insects, salubrity indicated by, 74, n.
Italy, Revolution in, 8, r.
Jackson, J. memoir of, 66, r.
| Jesus, name of, 85, r.
First Sunday after, 10, r. John, King, 96, r.
Jones, Captain, 56, r.
Newstead Abbey, a poem, 16, r.
Newton, Sir J. birth-place of, 170,a.
New Year's Day, 1, r.
Northcote. J. memoir of, 80,?.
November described, 99, r.
Oats, Winter, 88, n.
October described, 95, r.
O'Donoghue, Vision of, 60, r,
Orford, Earl of, 37, r.
Palm Sunday, 50, r.
Peahen Nest of, 59, n.
Persecution of supposed enemies,
Plants, sloughing of, 76, seeded,
Plough, Monday, 11, r.
Powder Plot, 100,r.
Quinquagesima Sunday, 38, r.
Rain, indicated by clouds, 59, n.
Regalia of England, 93, 9.
Richardson, S., his house, 76, r.
Robins, J. poem by, 35,r.
Rock Rose, 69, n.
Rogation Sunday, 65, r.
Roots, influence of soil on, 70, n.
All Saints, 99.