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the enemies of my country. These are my ftatues. These are the henours I boast of; not left me by inheritance, as theirs; but earned by toil, by abftinence, by valour, amidst clouds of duft and seas of blood ; scenes of action, where thofe effeminate Patricians, who endeavour, by indirect means, to depreciate me in your esteem, have never dared to show their faces.
FLATTERY TO ALEXANDER. If the king were present, Cleon, there would be no need of my answering to what you have just proposed. He would. himself reprove you for endeavouring to draw him into an imitation of fsreign absurdities, and for bringing envy upon him by such unmanly fiattery. As he is absent, I take upon me to tell you, in his name, that no praile is lasting, but what is rational; and that you do what you can to lesen his glory, insiead of adding to it. Heroes have never, among us, been deified, till after their death. And whatever may be your way of thinking, Cleon, for my part, I wish the king may not, for many years to come, obtain that bonour. You have mentioned, as precedents of what you propose, Hercules and Bacchus
Do you imagine, Cleon, that they were deilied over a cup of wine ? And are you and I qualified to make gods? Is the king, cur fovereign, to receive bis divinity from you and me, who are his subjects ? First try your power, whether you can make a king. It is furely easer to make a king shan a god! to give an earthly dominion, than a throne in Heaven. I only with, that the gods may have heard, without ovence, the arrogant proposal you have made of adding one to their number; and that they may still be so propitious to us, as to grant the continuance of that succef; to our affairs, with which they have hitherto favoured us. For my part,
not alhamed of my country; nor do I approve of our adopting the rites of foreign nations, or learning from them how we ought to reverence our kings. To receive laws, or rules of Condutt, from them, what is it, bụt to confess ourseives inferior to them ?
ALEXANDER. If your person were as gigantic as your desires, the world would not contain you. Your right hand would touch the east, and your left the west, at the same time. You grasp at more than you are equal to. From Europe you reach Asia: from Afia you lay hold on Europe. And if you should conquer all mankind, you feem disposed to wage war with woods and snows, with rivers and wild beasts, and to attempt to fubdue nature; But have you considered the usual course of things ? Have you reflected that great trees are many years in growing to their height, and are cut down in an hour. It is fonlish to think of the fruit only, without confidering the height you have to climb, 10 come at it. Take care left, while you strive to teach the top, you fall to the ground with the branches you have laid hoid on. The lion, when deal!, is devoured by ravens; and rust consumes the bardness of iron. There is nothing fo strong, hut it is in danger from what is weak. It will therefore be your wisdom to take care how you venture beyond your reach. Belides, what have you to do with the Scythians, or the Scythians with
you ? We have never invaded Macedon : why should you attack Scythia? We inhabit vast deserts, and pathless woods, where we do not want to hear of the name of Alexander. We are not disposed to submit to slaverys and we have no ambition to tyrannize over any nation. That you may understand the genius of the Scythians, we present you with a yoke of oxen, an arrow, and a goblet.
We use these refpectively in our commerce with friends and with foes. We give to our friends the corn, which we raise by the labour of our oxen. With the goblet we join with them in pouring drink offerings to the gods, and with arrows we attack our enemies. We have conquered those who have attempted to tyrannizę over us in our own coun. try, and likewise the kings of the Medes and Persians, when they made unjuft war upon us; and we have opened to our-. felves a way into Egypt. You pretend to be the puni!her of robbers; and are youself the general robber of mankind. You have taken Lydia: you have seized Syria: you are malterof Persia: you have subdued the Bactrians; and attacked India. All this will not satisfy you, unless you lay your greedy and insatiable hands upon our flocks and our herds. How imprudent is your conduct! You grasp at riches, the poffeffion of which only increases your avarice. You increase your hunger by what should produce fasiety; so that the more you have, the more you desire. But have you forgot how long the conquest of the Bactrians detained you? While you were fubduing them, the Sogdians revolted. Your victories ferve no other purpose, than to find you employment by producing new wars. For the business of every conquest is twofold; to win, and to preserve. And though you may be the greatest of warriors, you must expect that the natiuns you conquer will endeavour to shake off the yoke as fast as podible. For what people chooses to be under fureign domi. nion ? If you will cross the Tanais, you may travel over Scythia, and observe how extensive a territory we inhabit. But to conquer us is quite another bafiness. Your
is loaded with the cumbrous spoils of many nations. You will find the poverty of the Scythians, at one time, too niinble tour your pursuit; and at another time, when you think we are fied far enough from you, you will have us surprise you in your camp:
For the Scythians attack with no less vigour ban they fly. Vliy should we put you in mind of the vait
ness of the country you will have to conquer ! 'The deserts of Scythia are commonly talked of in Greece'; and all the world knows, that our delight is to dwell at large, and not in towns or plantations. It will therefore be your wisdom to keep with strict attention what you have gained. Catching at more you may lose what you have. We have a pro. verbial saying in Scythia, That Fortune has no feet, and is furnished only with hands, to distribute her capricious favours; and with fins, to elude the grasp of those to whom she has been bountiful. You give yourself out to be a god, the son of Jupiter flammon. It suits the character of a god to bestow favours on mortals; not to deprive them of what good they have. But if you are no god, reflect on the precarious condition of humanity. You will thus show more wis. dom, than by dweiling on those subjects which have puffed up your pride, and made you forget yourself. You see how little you are likely to gain by attempting the conquest of Scythia. On the other hand, you may, if you please, have in as a valuable alliance We command the borders of both Europe and Asia. There is nothing between us and Bactria, but the river Tanais; and our territory extends to Thrace, which, as we have heard, borders on Macedon. If you
decline attacking as in a hostile manner, you may have our friendship. Nations which have never been at war are on an equal fouting. But it is in yain, that confidence is reposed in a conquered people. There can be no sincere friendship between the oppreffor and the oppressed. Even in peace, the latter think themselves entitled to the rights of war against the former. We will, if you think good, enter into a treaty with you, according to our manner, which is, not by figning, fealing, and taking the gods to witnefs, is is the Grecian cuftom; but by doing actual services. The Scythians are not used to promise ; but to perform without promising. And they think an appeal to the gods superfluous; for that thofe who have no regard for the efteem of
men, will not hesitate to offend the gods by perjury. You may therefore confider with yourself, whether you had better have a people of such a character, and so fitnated as to have it in their power either to serve you, or to annoy you, according as you treat them, for allies, or for enemies.
GALGACUS THE GENERAL OF THE CALEDONII
HIS ARMY, TO
THEM TO ACTION
WHEN I reflect on the causes of the war, and the cir. cumitances of our situation, I feel a strong persuasion that our united efforts on the present day will prove the begin. ning of universal.liberty to Britain. For none of us are hitherto de based by Navery; and we have no prospect of a secure retreat behind us, either by land or fea, whilft the Roman fleet hovers around. Thus the use of which is at all times honourable to the brave, here offers the only safety even to cowards. In all the battles which have yet been fought with various success against the Romans, the resources of hope and aid were in our hands; for we, the nubleft inhabitants of Britain, and therefore stationed in its deepest recesses, far from the view of servile shores, have prelerved even our eyes unpolluted by the contact of fub. jection. We, at the farthest limits both of land and liberiy, have been defended to this day by the obscurity of our firu. ation and of our fame. The extremity of Britain is now disclosed; and whatever is unknown becomes an object of importance. But there is no nation beyond us; nothing but waves and rocks; and the Romans are before us. The årrogance of these invaders it will be in vain to encounter hy obfequiousness and submiffion. These plunderers of the 'world, after exhaufting the land by their devaftations, are