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of them all. This is a great concession; and it surely is the business of Christians who are sincere in their profession, to doubt the purity of that "glory," and the rectitude of that "heroic character," which it is acknowledged that their Great Instructor never in any shape countenanced, and often obliquely condemned.

The rational and immortal being, who raises the edifice of his fame on simple bravery, has chosen but an unworthy and a frail foundation. Separate bravery from motives and purposes, and what will remain but that which is possessed by a mastiff or a game-cock? All just, all rational, and we will venture to affirm, all permanent reputation, refers to the mind or to virtue; and what connexion has animal power or animal hardihood with intellect or goodness? I do not decry courage. I know that He who was better acquainted than we are with the nature and worth of human actions, attached much value to courage, but he attached none to bravery. Courage he recommended by his precepts, and enforced by his example: bravery he never recommended at all. The wisdom of this distinction, and its accordance with the principles of his religion are

plain. Bravery requires the existence of many of those dispositions which he disallowed. Animosity, resentment, the desire of retaliation, the disposition to injure and destroy, all this is necessary to bravery; but all this is incompatible with Christianity. The courage which Christianity requires, is to bravery what fortitude is to daring-an effort of the mind rather than of the spirits. It is a calm, steady determinateness of purpose, that will not be diverted by solicitation or awed by fear. Behold, I go bound in the spirit unto Jerusalem, not knowing the things that shall befall me there, save that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, saying, that bonds and afflictions abide me. But none of these things move me; neither count I my life dear unto myself.” What resemblance has bravery to courage like this? This courage is a virtue, and a virtue which it is difficult to acquire or to practise; and we have therefore heedlessly or ingeniously transferred its praise to another quality, which is inferior in its nature and easier to acquire, in order that we may obtain the reputation of virtue at a cheap rate. That simple bravery implies much merit, it will be difficult to show-at least if it be meritorious, we


think it will not always be easy, in awarding the honours of a battle, to determine the preponderance of virtue between the soldier and the horse which carries him.

It will perhaps be asked, what then are the duties of a subject who believes that all war is incompatible with his religion, but whose governors engage in a war and demand his service? We answer explicitly, it is his duty mildly and temperately yet firmly to refuse to serve. There are some persons who, without any determinate process of reasoning, appear to conclude that responsibility for national measures attaches solely to those who direct them; that it is the business of governments to consider what is good for the community, and that in these cases, the duty of the subject is merged in the will of the sovereign. Considerations like these are, I believe, often voluntarily permitted to become opiates of the conscience. I have no part, it is said, in the counsels of the government, and am not therefore responsible for its crimes. We are not indeed responsible for the crimes of our rulers, but we are responsible for our own; and the crimes of our rulers are our own, if, whilst we

believe them to be crimes, we promote them by our co-operation.

We think then, that it is the business of every man who believes that war is inconsistent with our religion, respectfully, yet steadfastly to refuse to engage in it. Let such as these remember that an honourable and an awful duty is laid upon them. It is upon their fidelity so far as human agency is concerned, that the cause of peace is suspended. Let them then be willing to avow their opinions, and to defend them. Neither let them be contented with words, if more than words, if suffering also, is required. It is only by the unyielding perseverance of good that corruption can be extirpated. If you believe that Jesus Christ has prohibited slaughter, let not the opinion or the commands of a world induce you to join in it. By this "steady and determinate pursuit of virtue," the benediction which attaches to those who hear the sayings of God and do them, will rest upon you, and the time will come when even the world will honour you as contributors to the work of human reformation.



WHILE We contemplate the declining sun, while we weep over the bier of nature, and hear the winds of winter desolating the earth; what is it that this annual revolution teaches even the infant mind? Is it that the powers of nature have failed, and the world waxeth old, and that the night of existence is approaching? No! it is that the reign of gloom and desolation will pass, that spring will return, and that nature will reassume her robe of beauty. In the multitude of years that have gone before us, this mighty resurrection has been annually accomplished. To our fathers, and the ancient time before them, the yearly beneficence of heaven has been renewed, and while the night of winter has sunk in heaviness, joy has uniformly attended the morning of spring.

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