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Irish Uses.

kingdom, more particularly in the south of England,
and even on the Continent."
About the same time an attempt was made to attain
ritual uniformity in Ireland. There the varieties of Use
seem to have been greater than in this country, and to
have differed more completely from the Roman model,
not only in such points as those before mentioned, the
time of keeping Easter and the tonsure, but also in the
Liturgy of S. Patrick, called Cursus Scotorum.” The
differences at least were regarded as so important that
the Danes of Dublin, who were gradually converted
about the early part of the eleventh century, received
their bishops from England; * and Gilbert, Bishop of
Limerick (1090), speaks of some of the native Uses as
schismatical delusions.” This zealous prelate had set
himself to bring the Irish Church into exact conformity
with the Roman ; while his old friend Anselm, of Can-
terbury, was labouring to subject the English Church to

1. It was used a good deal in France, and was long in use in the diocese of Lisbon: Arbuthnott Missal, Pref. pp. lix. sq. It was taken into Scotland by Herbert, bishop of Glasgow (1147–1164): ib. p. lxiii. It is remarkable that we do not hear of a Use of Canterbury. In France the force of national custom long maintained the Gallican Use against the centralizing tendency of the Court of Rome. But ultramontane influence at last prevailed with Pope Pius IX.; and the old Service Books of the French dioceses have (circa 1860) been changed for the entire Roman Ritual.

* “Episcopis, presbyteris totius Hiberniae, infimus praesulum Gillebertus Lunicensis in Christo salutem. Rogatu, necnon et praecepto multorum ex vobis, carissimi, canonicalem consuetudinem in dicendis horis et peragendo totius ecclesiastici ordinis officio scribere conatus sum, non praesumptivo, sed vestrae cupiens piissimae servire jussioni; ut diversi et schismatici illi ordines, quibus Hibernia pene tota delusa est, uni Catholico et Romano cedant officio. Quid enim magis indecens aut schismaticum dici poterit, quam doctissimum unius ordinis in alterius ecclesia idiotam et laicum fieri” Prolog. Gil

* Lanigan's Ecclesiastical Hist, of berti Lunicensis Episc. De Usu Eccle

Ireland, Iv. p. 367, quoted in Pre-
face to Arbuthnott Missal, p. vii.

* Robertson, Church Hist. II. p.

siastico. See Ussher, Keligion of the Ancient Irish, chap. Iv. (in Cambr. ed. of Answer to a jesuit, p. 548), Opp. IV. 274, ed. Elrington.

the papal authority. This effort was continued in the

next century by Malachy

O'Morgair, who prevailed

upon a national synod, assembled at Holmpatrick (II48), to petition the Pope for palls” for the Archbishops of

Armagh and Cashel.

And in 1152 the synod met at

Kells to receive the papal legate Paparo, with four palls, for Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam, and to adopt the Roman missal in its then improved state.”

1 The use of this ornament of Archbishops seems to have been introduced about the fifth or sixth century from the East: Maskell, Mon. Rit. III. p. cxxxv. Since the eighth century it has been steadily employed by the Popes to extend and support their authority, and to obtain revenues by the grant of it: ib. p. cxxxix. note. For, until the Pall is received, Archbishops in

communion with Rome cannot exercise jurisdiction as Metropolitans; they may not ordain clerks, or consecrate bishops, or dedicate churches (authorities in DuCange). This vestment is made of the white wool of two lambs which have been offered and blessed on St. Agnes' day. See Dr. F. G. Lee's Glossary, s. v. PALLIUM. * Mant, Hist, of the Church of Ireland, I. pp. 4 sqq.


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[A.D. Iooo-1548.] *ool 1. THE Church-Books used in the Anglo-Saxon period are Books. enumerated in the 21st of the Canons called Archbishop Ælfric's

Books men: |(circ. Ioof). “Habebit etiam presbyter quilibet, priusquam ordi#:#;" natuS fuerit, arma ad opus spirituale pertinentia, videlicet codices r£4/ric, sacros, id est, psalterium, epistolarum librum, et librum evange.

liorum, librum missalem, libros canticorum, librum manualem, seu enchiridion, gerim" [numerale, in Wilkins], passionalem, poenitentialem, et lectionarium.” The books used in the Anglo-Norman period are enumerated among the things which the parishioners were bound to provide for the service of their church, in the fourth of the Constitutions of Archbishop Winchelsey, published in a synod at Merton (circ. 1300): ‘. . . legenda, antiphonarium, gra

in the Constitutions of

Winchelsey, - - - dale, psalterium, troperium, ordinale, missale, manuale,” . . . . In addition to these, Quivil, Bishop of Exeter (1287), had ordered ‘venitare, hymnare, et collectare.” For the time immediately preceding the Reformation we find these named in the preface and in the to a Portiforium secundum usum Sarum (1544), as church-books #...} which might be printed only by Richard Grafton and Edward VIII. Whitchurch:-‘the Masse booke, the Graile, the Hympnal, the

Antyphoner, the Processyonall, the Manuel, the Porteaus, and the

1 The compotus, or calendar, with its calculations of Easter, &c. Arithmetic is rim-craft. Maitland, Dark Ages, p. 29; Thorpe, Biogr. Brit. Literaria, I. p. 71.

* Mansi, Concil. xix. 7oo; Wilkins, I. 252; Johnson's English Canons (ed. Ang-Cath Libr.), I. p.

394; cf. Thorpe's Ancient Laws,
II. 350, and for another list, AElfric's
Pastoral Epistle, ib. 384.
* Lyndwood, Provinciale, Lib. III.
Tit. 27, p. 251, ed. 1679; Wilkins,
II. 28o ; Johnson, II. p. 318.
* Synod. Exon, can. xii. Mansi,
XXIV. 800; Wilkins, II. 139.

Prymer both in latine and also in english.” And the statute
of 1549,” which ordered the old church-books to be abolished
and extinguished, described them under the names of ‘Anti-
phoners, Missals, Grayles, Processionals, Manuals, Legends, Pies,
Portuasses, Primers in Latin or English, Couchers, Journals,
and Ordinals.”
2. The Legenda contained the Lections read at the Matin
offices, whether taken from Scripture, homilies of the Fathers, or
lives of the Saints.” This describes the complete book, which
probably was more commonly used in the separate parts which are
mentioned by Du Cange:—Legenda, or Legendarius, containing
the Acts of the Saints; Lectionarius, containing the lections from
Scripture, said to be compiled by Jerome; Sermologus, discourses
of Popes and Fathers; Passionarius, the sufferings of the Martyrs
read on their festivals; Homiliarius, homilies of the Fathers; and
Bibliotheca, sometimes containing the four Gospels, sometimes the
whole Bible.”
3. The Antiphonarium contained the Antiphons sung in the
services of the Hours, arranged for the respective days and hours :
it gradually collected other portions, the Invitatories, Hymns,
Responses, Verses, Collects, and Little Chapters; i.e. the portions
sung in the service of the Canonical Hours.6
4. The Gradale, Graduale, or Graile, was the ‘Antiphonarium’
for the service of High Mass, containing the various Introits,
Offertories, Communions, Graduals, Tracts, Sequences, and other
parts of the Service to be sung by the choir, and was so called from
certain short phrases after the Epistle, sung “in gradibus,'—not the
steps of the Altar, but of the Pulpit, or Ambo, or Jubé, upon which
they were sung.”
5. The Psalterium, as a separate book according to the use of
particular churches, contained the Book of Psalms divided into
certain portions, so as to be sung through in the course of the
week in the service of the Hours.”
6. The Troperium contained the Sequences, and was required

1 Maskell, Mon. Rit. vol. 1. * Maskell, Dissertation, p. xxiii. “Dissert. on Service-Books,’ p. xvii. " Lyndwood. Maskell, p. xxvi. * Stat. 3 and 4 Ed. VI. c. 10. 7 Lyndwood. Maskell, p. xxxii. * For a full account of these old and Ancient Liturgy, Pref. p. viii.; church-books; see Mr. Maskell's p. 38, note. ‘Dissertation upon the Ancient * Maskell (Dissert. p. xxxvi.) gives Service-Books of the Church of the arrangement of the Psalms from England.’ Monumenta Ritualia, a ‘Psalterium cum Hymnis ad usum vol. I. pp. xxii. sqq. insignis ecclesiae Sarum et Ebora* Lyndwood, p. 251. censis.”

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The Pie.


The Sacra


only when the Gradale did not contain them. The Tropus was a
versicle sung before, and introducing the Introit. The Sequentia
was a long anthem, or Prose, following the Gradual with its verse.
Its origin was the prolongation of the last syllable of Alleluia in a
lengthened strain or neuma. The anthem added to the Gradual
was sometimes called a Tractus. The idea of the two anthems
being, that the Gradual was attached to the preceding Epistle;
and when several Epistles were read, each was followed by its
Gradual ; and then the Tract or the Sequence was introductory
to the Gospel, which immediately followed.” Notker, of St. Gall
(circ. 900), either first introduced, or improved the Sequence. At
the last revision of the Roman Missal under Pius the Fifth, all
were removed, except four Sequences.”
7. The Ordinale regulated the whole duty of the Canonical
Hours, and was generally known about the fifteenth century as the
Pica, or Pie.” The Priest by referring to this might learn, accord-
ing to the dominical letter, what festivals he was to observe, and
the proper office appointed throughout the year, at least so far as
any changes were required in the common office of the day. The
Consuetudinarium was a distinct book, being strictly that ‘in quo
Consuetudines Conventuales et Monasticae exaratae sunt.”
8. In the earlier ages of the Church the office of the Holy
Communion was contained usually in four volumes, viz. the An-
tiphoner, the Lectionary, the Book of the Gospels, and the Sacra-
mentary. This Antiphoner was afterwards called the Gradual;
and this Lectionary was the Book of the Epistles read at Mass,
being otherwise named the Epistolarium, Comes, and Apostolus.
The Evangelistarium, Evangeliarium, Tertus, or Tertevangelium,
contained the portions appointed to be read from the Gospels: if
the book contained all the four Gospels, it was called Evangelis-
tarium plenarium. The Sacramentary, Liber Sacramentorum,
sometimes Liber Mysteriorum, known in its successive stages or
editions as the Gelasian and Gregorian, contained the rites and

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