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General Introductory Rubrics.


lantes formulas. Post Completorium dicatur sola oratio, Fidelium animae per Dei misericordiam in pace requiescant. Amen.

An important observation applies to these Services, however beautifully constructed, that they never were congregational. In their origin, and in their use, they were monastic. The history of the English Church tells of ceaseless endeavours to make them in practice, what they were in theory, the ritual of the whole body of the faithful. But the sevenfold nature of the scheme on which they were framed, and withal their unvernacular shape, forbad the possibility of any such use of them." * We now pass to our own living Services, which retain the earlier elements of Psalmody, Scripture, responsive Canticles, Versicles, and Collects, and also deliver these to the people in their own tongue, and in the most ancient form of a twofold Daily Worship.


The Order for Morning and Evening Prayer daily to be said and zased throughout the Year.

These two Rubrics were placed as general directions for the whole Public Service in 1552. They give rise to many questions, about which there has always been a difference of opinion and of practice.

(1) Are the Clergy bound to say the Daily Service 2 In 1549 the direction was limited to those who ministered in any church : but in 1552 the Common Prayer was directly substituted for the Breviary, by the order, that all Priests and Deacons should be bound to say daily the Morning and Evening Prayer, either privately or openly, except they were letted by preaching, studying of divinity, or by some other urgent cause;’ and pro

* See Freeman, Principles, i. pp. 275 sqq.

vision continued to be made for the Public Service by
the further order, that “Curates being at home, and not
being otherwise reasonably letted, should say the same in
their parish church or chapel.’ And this is our present
order for the continual maintenance of the Public Daily
Prayer by Curates, “being at home, and moto otherwise
reasonably hindered;’ and for the private saying of the
same prayers by all Priests and Deacons who have not
joined a public congregation, and are not hindered by
‘sickness, or some other urgent cause.’
Directions concerning the Litany, and a part of the
Communion Service, were also given in 1549, that the
Litany should be said or sung upon Wednesdays and
Fridays, and after the Litany the Communion Service
should be begun (though there were none to communicate
with the priest), and read until after the Offertory, con-
cluding with a collect and the blessing. And the same
part of the Communion Service was directed to be used
on “all other days whensoever the people be customably
assembled to pray in the church, and none disposed to
communicate.' The only change in this respect made
in 1552 was the omission of the Communion Service
except on holydays. Although, however, the rubric is
strictly in favour of Daily Service, yet the evidence as
to the practice before, as well as after the Reformation,
tends to show that it has not been by any means in
general use in ordinary parish churches. And, indeed,
the rule, as interpreted by its imposers, appears to be
fully satisfied by Service in such churches on Sundays
and holydays, and their eves, with the Litany also on
Wednesdays and Fridays."
*See Robertson, How to conform such days as are appointed to be
to the Liturgy, 2d ed. pp. 14 and 41 kept holy by the Book of Common

sqq. Canon xiv. (1604), “The Prayer, and their eves.” Common Prayer shall be said...upon

Genesal Introductory Rubrics.

Aitant valays. General Introductory Rubrics.

Prayers to be said in the accustomed A/ace of the Church, Chapel, or Chancel.

The accustomed place.

(2) In what part of the church should the Morning and Evening Prayer be said 2 To settle this question was the original intention of the first of these Rubrics. In 1549 the simple direction was given, ‘The priest being in the quire shall begin with a loud voice. . . .” But great diversity arose in the manner of ministration ; the more ardent reformers being anxious to change every custom of the mediaeval Service: hence, not only did some lay aside the vestments worn by the priest, but they left the accustomed place of reading the prayers. And this was not treated as an unimportant matter; for we find Bucer calling it antichristian' to say Service in the choir; and opinions of the same class were constantly gaining ground throughout the reign of Edward VI. Accordingly, in the new Prayer Book of 1552, this portion of the old preface was placed as a General Introductory Rubric, with the title prefixed, ‘The Order where Morning and Evening Prayer shall be used and said:” and the first rubric directed it to be “used in such place of the church, chapel, or chancel, and the minister shall so turn him as the people may best hear. And if there be any controversy therein, the matter shall be referred to the ordinary. . . .” In 1559 this was altered to ‘the accustomed place . . . except it shall be otherwise determined by the ordinary.’ The effect of the altered rubric was a permission to retain the customs of 1549, since on Elizabeth's accession the old usages were in force, and the accustomed place of Service was the chancel: such therefore was to continue, unless the ordinary should appoint otherwise” for the better accommodation of the

* Buceri Script. Angl. p. 457.

* The Romanizers naturally expected that this would be done : Scot, bp. of Chester, in his speech in Parliament against the Bill for the I.iturgy (1559), mentions ‘praying

towards the East,’ as one of the old practices that would be set aside by the English Book of Prayer. Cardwell, Conferences, p. I Io. Some seem to have made alterations without waiting for the direction of the

people. Some bishops used the authority which was given to them, and caused a seat to be made in the body of great churches, where the minister might sit or stand, and say the whole of the Divine Service; or, in smaller churches, a convenient seat outside the chancel door.” This in turn became the general custom ; and the Canons (1604) direct a convenient seat to be made for the minister to read Service in, “in such place of every church as the bishop of the diocese, or ecclesiastical ordinary of the place, shall think meet for the largeness or straitness of the same, so as the people may be most edified.” The Canon thus fixes the meaning of the rubric, which was retained at the last revision (1662), as a sufficient guide to the minister, all mention of Puritan innovations being omitted, and the final direction being left in the hands of the bishop of the diocese. (3) What should be the dress of the minister At the end of the Book of 1549 was placed the chapter, now forming a part of the Introduction, “Of Ceremonies,’ with certain notes for the more plain explication and decent ministration of things contained in this book. The ornaments of the ministers are here mentioned, which are referred to in our present rubric, as sanctioned by Parliament in the second year” of Edward VI. “In the saying or singing of Matins and Evensong, Baptizing and Burying, the minister in parish churches, and chapels annexed to the same, shall use a surplice. And in all cathedral churches and colleges, the archdeacons,

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General Introductory Rubrics.

Reading Aew.


The Directions of the First Book of Edward VI. Jor Ministers,

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deans, provosts, masters, prebendaries, and fellows, being graduates, may use in the quire, beside their surplices, such hood as pertaineth to their several degrees which they have taken in any University within this realm. But in all other places, every minister shall be at liberty to use any surplice or no. It is also seemly that graduates, when they do preach, shall use such hoods as pertaineth to their several degrees. And whensoever the bishop shall celebrate the Holy Communion in the church, or execute any other public ministration, he shall have upon him, beside his rochette," a surplice or albe,” and a cope” or vestment,” and also his pastoral staff in

* The word rochette cannot perhaps be traced further back than the thirteenth century. The chief difference between this garment and the surplice formerly was, that its sleeves were narrower. In the time of Henry VIII. and Edward VI. the bishops wore a scarlet chimere over the rochette, which in the time of Elizabeth was changed for the black satin chimere used at present. Palmer, Orig. Lit. II. p. 318.

2 The albe, alba, camisia, linea, was a kind of long tunic reaching to the feet, and generally bound with a girdle of the same. It was worn by the bishop, priests, and deacons in ministering the Communion ; and, instead of it, a bishop might wear a surplice (ibid. p. 315), a vestment differing from the albe only in having wider sleeves : the name, superpelliceum, is found about the twelfth century. Ib. p. 32O.

* The cope was an ancient garment under the names capa, cappa, pallium, pluviale, &c. Being intended for use in the open air, it had a cowl, and in process of time was entirely open in front. It was used in processions or litanies, and on solemn occasions in morning and evening prayers; by the bishop, except in celebrating the

his hand, or else borne or holden by his chaplain.'


Eucharist, ordination, and other oc-
casions, when he used the vestment;
and by priests, if they did not use
the vestment, at the Eucharist. The
Injunctions of Elizabeth (1564) di-
rected the principal minister in col-
legiate churches to use a cope at
Communion with gospeller and
epistler agreeably: and this direc-
tion was renewed in the Canons
(1604). Ibid. p. 312.
* The vestment, or chasuble, called
in the Western Churches casula,
Alaneta, paenula, amphibalum, &c.,
and in the Eastern paiváAeov or
©evdAtov, has been used in the
Christian Church from a period of
remote antiquity. It was a garment
reaching from the neck nearly to the
feet, with only an aperture for the
head. The Latins afterwards divided
it at the sides for convenience; (but
the small, opensided chasuble was
not used in England:—Rock, Church
of our Fathers, I. p. 323.) It was
much ornamented, and of various
colours. This vestment, or a cope,
was appointed by the first English
ritual to be worn by bishops in all
public ministrations, and by priests
in celebrating the Eucharist. Palmer,
p. 3O9.

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