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, Ephesine. From the latter was derived the Spanish, or
Book OF COMMON PRAYER.
SERPICE-BOOKS OF THE AEAVGZASH CHURCH BEFORAE
THE Liturgies of the mediaeval Western Church appears
to be derived from two models, the Roman and the
Mozarabic Liturgy,” and also the Gallican, which conveyed the Ephesine Use to the original British Church.” Of the Daily Offices, in their earliest forms, the leading characteristics appear to have been the same in the East and in the West : and hence, in the reconstruction of the Western Ritual, which is supposed to have taken place about the fifth century, Eastern improvements and details were received with great facility. The ordinary service of the British Church in this early period most probably
* Neale, Essays on Liturgiology and Rome, , § Ix. Lit. of Gaul, § XI. Church History, pp. 125 sqq. Lit. of Britain and Ireland. See * See Palmer, Antiquities of the also the Preface, by Bishop Forbes, English Ritual, ‘Dissertation on to the Arbuthnott Missal, Burnt
Primitive Liturgies,’ $ VI. Lit. of island, 1864.
consisted of psalms, hymns, and canticles, sung partly at
* See Freeman, Principles of Di- been founded by S. Comgall, circ. vine Service, I. pp. 234 sqq. 550.
* See Stillingfleet, Antiquities of * Beda, Hist. Eccl. I. 27: ‘Britthe British Churches; Soames, Ang- taniarum omnes episcopos tuæ fraSux. Church, “Introduction;' Carte, ternitati committimus, ut, indocti Hist, of England, I. 183. doceantur, infirmi persuasione ro
* The great monastery of Bangor, borentur, perversi auctoritate cora seaport in the County Down, had rigantur.”
Use, since the ritual customs* of the Gallican Church tJges.
differed from the Roman ? Upon this question he sought Gregory's decision, who allowed him to choose either the Roman or the Gallican form, or to select what he thought most suitable from the various forms used in the Catholic Church.° The result was that Augustine followed the principle upon which the Rituals of the European churches had been remodelled; and introduced into England a form of Liturgy founded on the Roman model, with ordinary Daily Offices derived from the southern French churches,* thus giving to the English Church its own national Use. Certain it is that the entire Roman Ritual was never used, although attempts
were made to force it upon
i Cf. S. Augustin. Epist. LIv. ad januarium, § 2 : * Alii jejunant sabbato, alii non ; alii quotidie communicant corpori et sanguini Domini, alii certis diebus accipiunt; alibi nullus dies prætermittitur quo non offeratur, alibi sabbato tantum et dominico, alibi tantum dominico— totum hoc genus rerum liberas habet observationes.'
3 Beda, Hist. I. 27 : * II. Interrogatio Augustini. Cum una sit fides, cur sunt ecclesiarum diversæ consuetudines, et altera consuetudo missarum in sancta Romana ecclesia, atque altera in Galliarum tenetur ? I Respondit Gregorius papa. Novit fraternitas tua Romanæ ecclesiæ consuetudinem, in qua se meminit nutritam. Sed mihi placet, sive in Romana, sive in Galiarum, seu in qualibet ecclesia aliquid invenisti quod plus omnipotenti Deo possit placere, sollicite eligas, et in Anglorum ecclesia, quæ adhuc ad fidem nova est, institutione præcipua, quæ de multis ecclesiis colligere potuisti, infundas. Non enim pro locis res, sed pro bonis rebus loca amanda sunt. Ex singulis ergo quibusque ecclesiis, quae pia,
the Anglo-Saxon Church;*
quæ religiosa, quæ recta sunt elige,
and although the influence of Augustine's successors'
anni natalitia sanctorum uno eodem-
their Order, or introduced distinct varieties. Bernard had special usages at Clairvaux in Hymns, Suffrages, Processions, recitation of the Creed, Alleluya, and Gloria, ‘contra omnem ecclesiae morem:’ Abaelardi Opera, Epist. V. p. 249. Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter (1339), drew up a body of Statutes for his newly-founded collegiate church of St. Mary at Ottery: in the 7th he orders the Divine office on certain occasions to be performed ‘secundum ordinale et consuetudinarium quae eis fecimus et extraximus ex Exoniae et Sarum usibus.” Oliver, Monast. Exon. p. 268. An order relating to Barking monastery in Essex about 1390 is preserved in Dugdale, Monast. Anglic. I. 437, note k . . . . ‘quod conventus praedictus tres modos diversos habeat sui servitii dicendi: primo, horas suas dicat secundum regulam Sancti Benedicti; Psalterium suum secundum cursum Curie Romanae; missam vero secundum usum ecclesiae Sancti Pauli Lon. doniarum.” This Cursus A&omanæ
The most remarkable of these was the Use of Sarum. Uses It was a reformation of the Ritual, based upon the É.
earlier English and Norman customs, especially of
Rouen, and arranged about
Salisbury and Chancellor of England. He rebuilt his cathedral, collected together clergy distinguished for learning and skill in chanting, and took much pains to regulate the ecclesiastical offices; so that his church became a model for others, and his ‘custom-book” was wholly or partially followed in various parts” of the
Curie was a shortened service: Azevedo, De Div. Off. Exercit. Ix. p. 33: “Officium Curiae contractum erat, et mutationibus obnoxium, ob varias et continuas occupationes Summi Pontificis, et Cardinalium, aliorumque Prælatorum, qui ei in sacello diu noctuque interesse solebant.” It may be mentioned in connexion with this short ‘Cursus R. Curiae,’ that thereformed Roman Breviary (1536), containing more Scripture than ‘the Roman,’ is withal much shorter, and is entitled “Breviarium Romanae Curiae.” The Use of St. Paul's in London continued until 1414, in which year, ‘ Oct. 15, Richard Clif. ford, then Bishop of London, by the consent of the dean and chapter, ordained that from the first day of December following, beginning then at Vespers, the solemn celebration of Divine service therein, which before that time had been according to a peculiar form anciently used, and called Usus Sancti Pauli, should thenceforth be conformable to that of the church of Salisbury, for all Canonical Hours, both night and day.' Dugdale, Hist. of St. Paul's, p. 24. See Maskell, Ancient Liturgy, Preface, chap. IV., and examples of differences of Use, ib. p. xv. E. g. Fourth Sunday in Advent: comparing the Missals of York and Sarum, the
Io85 by Osmund, Bishop of
Psalm, the Offortory, and the Postcommunion are different ; the Hereford differed from the Sarum only in the Postcommunion, which was the same as in the York. The Epistles and Gospels appointed for Wednesdays and Fridays are very often different. 1 Brompton's Chron. (in Twysden's Scriptores x.) col. 977 : ‘Hic composuit librum ordinalem ecclesiastici officii quem Consuetudinarium vocant, quofere tota nunc [circ. 1200] Anglia, Wallia, et Hibernia utitur.” * Among the many foreigners who were appointed to bishoprics and abbacies was Thurstan, Abbot of Glastonbury (1083). He attempted to compel his monks to use a style of chanting invented by William of Fescamp. The chroniclers (Simeon of Durham, Scriptores X. col. 212 ; John Brompton, ib. 978; AngloSaxon Chronicle, ad an. IoS3) give a piteous description of the tumult and bloodshed that ensued; for armed soldiers drove the monks from the chapter, and slew many of them in the church. It is supposed that this outrage drew the attention of Osmund to the varieties of Use, and led him to revise the ritual upon the occasion of opening his new cathedral. Palmer, Orig. Zit.