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Devotional Books for the Laity. Marshall's Primer.
18. Use was made of this well-known name in the time of Henry VIII. to attempt the circulation of a similar book, but with alterations showing a great advance in reformed doctrines. Thus Marshall published a Prymer before 1530," in which he omitted the Litany, because of the invocations of saints which it contained, and a second edition in 1535,” in which he inserts the Litany with its invocations, but with a warning against their very possible abuse. This book contains the offices for the hours of prayer: but a considerable portion of the volume is occupied with an exposition of Psalm li., and a harmony of the Gospel narrative of our Saviour's Passion. It has also a doctrinal instruction in the form of a dialogue between a father and his child. It contains the Dirge and Commendations: but with an admonition and warning prefixed against prayer for the dead, and showing the true meaning of the Psalms and Lessons read in that service. This book was strictly suppressed.”
19. In 1539, Hilsey, Bishop of Rochester, published a book more nearly resembling the Primer, and with some authority.” This was intended to introduce as much doctrinal improvement as the King's Vicegerent in ecclesiastical matters could venture upon. It has ‘the form of bidding of the beads, by the King's commandment,” and ‘the Abrogation of the Holydays.” Many of the psalms, anthems, lessons, and hymns, are changed for others of more plain sentence: also a great number of the saints invoked in the Litany are omitted, according to the Injunctions of 1536. Prayer for the dead is retained in the bidding of the beads and
1 Burton, Three Primers put forth * This was entitled ‘The Man
in the Reign of Henry VIII. (Oxf.
Prayer-Book, p. 4.
ual of Prayers, or the Primer in English, set out at length, whose contents the Reader by the Prologue next after the Kalendar shall soon perceive, and therein shall see briefly the order of the whole Book. Set forth by John, late Bishop of Rochester, at the commandment of the . right honourable lord Thomas Crumwell, lord Privy Seal, Vicegerent to the King's Highness.’ Burton, Three Primers, pp. 305—436.
* This was carefully ordered by Henry, to omit all mention of the Pope, and to teach the people that the king was the supreme head immediately under God of the spiritualty and temporalty of the Church of Mongland.
in the ‘Dirige;’ but the Lessons of this service are changed for others, declaring the miserable state of man's life, the condition of the dead, and the general resurrection. It contains “an instruction of the manner of hearing of the mass,’ opposing the doctrine of the sacramentaries. The book follows three main divisions, faith, prayer (the Hours, with the xv. Oes, the vii. and the xv. Psalms, and the Litany, &c.), and works, concluding after passages of Scripture upon the relative duties, with an extract from 2 Pet. ii., headed, “The bishop of Rome with his adherences, destroyers of all estates.” This with all preceding Primers was superseded in 1545 by “The Primer set forth by the King's Majesty, and his Clergy, to be taught, learned, and read; and none
other to be used throughout all his dominions.”
1 These were fifteen meditations on Christ's Passion, each beginning with ‘O Jesu,” “O blessed Jesu,’ &c. composed and said daily by St. Bridget before the crucifix in St. Paul's church at Rome: Hortulus anima, p. 175. They occur in the larger Prymers: Maskell, Mon. Aoit. II. xli. and 255. Marshall rejected them as superstitious, and they were not placed in K. Henry's Primer (1545). Bishop Hilsey retained them in their usual P. before the vii. Psalms and the
itany, with an admonition prefixed: “The xv. prayers following, called commonly the xv. Oes, are set forth
in divers Latin primers; with goodly
2 * Three Primers, pp. 437
[A.D. 1547 4 C H A P T E R II. THE PRA VER-BOOK ZAV THE REIGN OF EDWARD VI. [A.D. 1547–1553.] + *::::: IN the latter years of the reign of Henry VIII., as the *W* | Bible was made more accessible, the desire for some
reformation of the public Services was widely felt Archbishop Hermann of Cologne was, in 1536, urging a revision of the Breviary, by purging out false or doubtful legends; and in the same year, or perhaps in I535, Cardinal Quignon published a reformed Breviary;” the chief feature of which was the introduction of Scripture in longer and continuous portions. This work was sanctioned by Pope Clement VII.; was recommended, though not formally enjoined, by Pope Paul III., and was extensively used for forty years. In England also revised editions of the Sarum Breviary (1516 and 1531)* and of the Missal (1533) appeared. In 1534 the Convocation petitioned” Henry to authorize an English version of the Bible; and in 1536, in a Proclamation for Uniformity in Religion,” the King, though maintaining
1 Synod of Cologne (1536), Art. 2.
2 * Breziarium Romande Curiae, ex sacra et canonica Scriptura, necmon Sanctorum historiis summa vigilantia decerptis, accurate digestum.” A second edition was printed in 1537. This reformer's name was Fernandez de Quiñones, of a noble family in Leon, a Franciscan, and Cardinal
Presbyter of the title of Holy Cross.
Neale, Essays on Liturgiology, p. 3.
See Freeman, Principles of Divine
Service, I. p. 343; II. p. 102: Seager,
Portisor. Sarisb. Fascic. I. p. vii.
that he is not compelled by God's Word to set forth the go Scripture in English, yet ‘of his own goodness is pleased soon
to allow his lay subjects to have and read the same in convenient places and times.’ In this year Cromwell, the King's Vicar-General, issued Injunctions," which direct a Bible of the largest volume in English to be set up in some convenient place in every church, where it might be read, only without noise, or disturbance of any public Service, and without any disputation, or exposition.” In 1542, a proposal was laid before the Convocation by Cranmer, to amend the Service-books, and to discontinue the dressing of images and setting up lighted candles before them.” A new edition of the Sarum Breviary” was issued at this time, and it was further determined that no other Breviary should be used in the province of Canterbury.” At the meeting of Convocation in 1543, the Archbishop signified that it was the King's will that there should be a further reformation of the Servicebooks;" and it was ordered also that “every Sunday
1 Wilkins, Concil. III. 815.
* The order is repeated in a Proclamation (6 May, 1541), which fixes the price of the unbound Bible at ten shillings, or twelve shillings if well and sufficiently bound, trimmed, and clasped (Wilkins, III. 856; Strype, Cranmer, 1. 21). See an account of early English translations of the Bible in Joyce, England's Sacred Synods, PP. : sqq.; Hardwick, Reformation, p, 190.
* “Reverendissimus egit cum patribus de candelis et candelabris coram imaginibus fixis abolendis, necnon de portiferiis, missalibus, et aliis libris corrigendis et reformandis, acnominibus Romanorum pontificum et Thomae Becket diligentius ab omnibus presbyteris radendiset abolendis; atgue de quibusdam vestimentis sericis et aliis ornamentis ipsis statuis appositis; egitgue de Oratione Do
minica, Symbolo Apostolorum, et
In quo .
and holiday throughout the year, the curate of every parish church, after the Te Deum and Magnificat, should openly read to the people one chapter of the New Testament in English, without exposition ; and when the New Testament was read over, then to begin the Old.” Thus the first step was taken towards liturgical reformation by introducing the reading of Scripture in English into the Public Service of the Church : and this was done by the authority of the House of Bishops in Convocation, who had also received the proposal to correct the Service-Books. The way was thus prepared for the further substitution of English for Latin in the prayers. The first change in this respect was made in the Litany. This form of petition, used in solemn processions, had been in the hands of the people in their own tongue in the Primer, certainly for a hundred and fifty years; but in I544 it was revised by Cranmer, who, besides the old Litanies of the English Church, had also before him the Litany, formed from the same ancient model, which had been issued (1543) by Hermann, the Archbishop of Cologne.” The chief alteration consisted in the omission of the long string of invocations of saints, which had gradually been inserted in the Western Litanies; although Cranmer still retained three clauses, in which the prayers of the Virgin Mary, the angels, and the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, were desired. With this exception our English Litany was
set forth for public use
by command of Henry
legends, superstitious oraisons, col-
bishops of Sarum and Ely, taking