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VIII.1 (June II, 1544) in its present form, and very | vol.,
nearly in its present words. All the other parts of
Divine Service continued to be celebrated according to
the several books and Uses which have been noticed.
On the accession of Edward VI. (Jan. 28, 1547), the first
measure tending towards reformation was a provision for
scriptural instruction of the people, that should be inde-
pendent of the opinions of the parish priests, by the
publication of the First Book of Homilies, to be read
in the churches on Sunday, and a translation of the
Paraphrase of Erasmus on the Gospels and Acts of the
1 A King's Letter (23 Aug. 1543) desired general rogations and processions to be made, on the occasion of continual rains; and the Archbishop, in his mandate, refers to other troubles:—‘Saevientis pestis rigore et bellorum tumultibus, quibus orbis Christianus inpraesentiarum, proh dolor! undique aestuat:” Wilkins, III.868. The objection to the use of Latin prayers was, however,
felt in the slackness of the people to . . . .
attend the procession. The King says in his Letter authorizing the English Litany (Wilkins, III. 869), ‘Forasmuch as heretofore the people, partly for lacke of goode instruction and callynge, partly for that they understode no parte of suche prayers or suffrages as were used to be songe and sayde, have used to come very slackely to the procession, when the same have been commanded heretofore.’ This Litany has been reprinted by Mr. Clay for the Parker Society, as an Appendix to the volume of Private Prayers of the Reign of Q. Blizabeth. An exhortation unto prayer was prefixed, ‘thought meet by the king's majesty, and his clergy, to be read to the people in every church afore processions.’ See Mr. Clay's Preface, p. xxiii. It seems that Cranmer continued his work by examining the different Litanies and processional services that he could
find, and made a selection of some
proper Litanies for festivals, which,
however, were not taken into use.
The letter sent with the book to
the King (Cranmer, Works, II. 412,
ed. Park. Soc.) shows the method
in which he compiled, or revised, the
prayers, and also mentions the musical
notation, which now had to be trans-
ferred from the Latin to English
words: “ . . . . I have translated
certain processions to be used
upon festival days . . . . I was con-
strained to use more than the liberty
of a translator; for in some pro-
cessions I have altered divers words;
in some I have added part; in some
taken part away; some I have left
out whole, either for by cause the
matter appeared to me to be little to
purpose, or by cause the days be not
with us festival days; and some pro-
cessions I have added whole . . . .
If your grace command some devout
and solemn note to be made there-
unto (as is to the procession which
your majesty hath already set forth in
English), I trust it will much stir the
hearts of all men unto devotion . . .”
Oct. 7. [This Letter is referred to
1543 in State Papers of Henry VIII.
vol. I. p. 760. But the allusion to
the English Litany already set forth
makes it more probably written in
rooter |Apostles, to be studied by the clergy, and to be set up *::::: * in the churches together with the great Bible." Injunc
tions and Articles of Enquiry were also issued with a
royal Visitation in September, which renewed the orders'
of Henry against Superstition and the pope; and besides
one chapter of the New Testament to be read at Matins,
and at Evensong one chapter of the Old Testament, on
every Sunday and holiday, the significant direction was
now added, that the Epistle and Gospel at high mass
should be in English.”
In issuing these injunctions, the royal Council acted
under the authority of the late king's will, and the
statutes which empowered the advisers of Edward during
his minority to direct ecclesiastical affairs by proclama-
tion.” But changes were aimed at which went far
beyond the intention of those statutes, and which there-
fore awaited the meeting of Parliament and Convocation
in the beginning of November (1547). Among other
matters of ecclesiastical law, the Lower House of Con-
vocation now turned their attention to reforms in the
Church Service, which had been for some time in contem-
plation, and approved a proposition, introduced by the
Archbishop, for administering the Communion in both
kinds.” This change was accepted by the Parliament;
and under their authority" certain bishops and divines,
associated with Cranmer, were assembled at Windsor,
in January 1548* The first publication of these com-
missioners was ‘The Order of the Communion.’ This
was not a full Communion Office, but an addition of an
English form of communion for the people to the Latin
mass. In preparing those portions which did not exist
in the Latin office, the book commonly known as
Hermann's ‘Consultation” was mainly followed. The
particular points of resemblance will be noticed in their
place: here it is enough to observe that the idea and
the subject-matter of the Exhortation, the Confession,
and the Comfortable Words, are due to that source.
This Order of Communion restored the cup to the laity,
and turned “the Mass’ into ‘the Communion:’ it was
also a step towards the adoption of “a tongue under-
standed of the people’ in the most solemn Office of the
The book was issued with a proclamation (March 8);
and letters were sent (March 13) from the Council to the
bishops, requiring them to distribute it through their
respective dioceses in time for the curates to instruct and
advise themselves for the ministration of the Communion,
according to its order, at Easter (April 1); and to direct
prove the proposition made the last session, of taking the Lord's body in both kinds, nullo reclamante.' Strype, Cranmer, II. 4. The discontinuance of the original practice of administering the Eucharist in both kinds was one effect of the belief in transubstantiation : ‘semper enim et ubique ab ecclesiae primordiis usque ad saeculum XII. sub specie panis et vini communicarunt fideles.” Bona, Rerum Liturgic. lib. ii. c. xviii. § 1. Hardwick, Middle Age, p. 325; Gieseler, Eccles. Hist. III. § 77 (translated in
Clark's Foreign Theol. Library),
vol. III. p. 313).
1. Stat. 1 Edw. VI. c. 1, passed
both Houses Dec. 20: two Acts
being joined together, it was inti-
tuled, “An Act against such as shall
unreverently speak against the sacra
ment of the body and blood of Christ,
commonly called the Sacrament of
the Altar, and for the receiving there-
of in both kinds.’ Strype, Eccles.
Mem. Æd. VI. I. 8.
* Clay, Prayer-Book Illustrated, p.
* See Appendix, $ 3.
The Ordero/ the Commurtion (1548).
Partly taken from Hermann's Contsultation.
The Mass changed into the Comtmunion,
Disaffection of the clergy.
their clergy to use “such good, gentle, and charitable
instruction of their simple and unlearned parishioners,
that there might be one uniform manner quietly used in
all parts of the realm.” However, some of the bishops
were backward in directing the use of the new form ;
and many parish priests were so far from instructing
their parishioners for their good satisfaction in the
matter, that they laboured to excite them against it,
and declared in their sermons that the real intention of
the Government was to lay a tax of half-a-crown upon
every marriage, christening, and burial.” To remedy
these disorders, all preaching was forbidden by a pro-
clamation” (April 24), except under licence from the
King, the Lord Protector, or the Archbishop of Canter-
bury, and afterwards was more strictly prohibited by
another proclamation* (Sept. 23), that the people might
be ‘the more ready with thankful obedience to receive
a most quiet, godly, and uniform order to be had
throughout the realm.”
The “Order of the Communion' had been published
with all possible speed, and was meant only to serve
1 Foxe, Acts and Mon. v. 719.
For an account of the Latin transla-
tions of the “Order of Communion,”
and of the First Prayer-Book, see the
Appendix to chap. III. § I.
* The people had this notion in
Henry's time, when parish registers
were ordered to be kept. This order
was renewed in the Injunctions (1547).
* Cardwell, Doc. Ann. x*.
4 /bid. XIII.
* Besides the opposition of the
papists, the council had to control
the innovations of the reformers.
Strype (Eccles. Mem. Ed. VI. bk. I.
ch. II) says that “several preachers
and laymen . . . had or themselves
begun changes in their parish-
churches, laying aside the old rites
and orders, and had brought in new
ones, according to their own judgments and opinions. . . .” Compare the Proclamation prefixed to ‘The Order of the Communion’ (1548), showing that some enterprised to run before authority: and the Act of Uniformity (1549), stating that, besides the old uses, divers forms and fashions were used in cathedral and parish-churches, concerning Matins and Evensong, the Holy Communion, and the administration of other sacraments of the Church : Clay, P. B. Illustrated, pp. 185, 189. See also Lathbury, Hist. Convoc. pp. 135 sqq. and Hist, of P. B. p. 21. A book, which must have been printed in 1548, seems to have been intended for an Order of Matrimony.
until a more complete book could be prepared. The divines assembled at Windsor, therefore, continued their deliberations," and before the end of the year, with the sanction of Convocation,” presented ‘The Book of Common Prayer’ to the King, to be by him laid before Parliament. The main discussion turned upon the manner of Christ's presence in the Eucharist;" and before the book passed the Commons, a public disputation * was held upon this subject, with the apparent intention of laying open the arguments which had caused the bishops and divines to retain or to alter the old Services.” After this, the book was readily accepted
1 Heylin (Hist. Ref: 2 Ed. VI.
§ 17) says that these bishops and Š
divines were ordered to assemble on
the 1st of September, and that the
reason of the publication of the Book
of Common Prayer was the difficulty
of restraining the preachers. Com-
munion in both kinds was fully sanc-
tioned; but the form in which it was
to be administered had only the
authority of a proclamation: hence it
was advised that a public Liturgy
should be drawn, and confirmed by
Parliament. . . Strype(Eccles. Mem.
Ed. VI. I. I.1) says that the com-
missioners met again in May 1548;
which is more probable, if indeed
they had ceased to act. It never
could have been the intention to re-
tain so incongruous a service as the
English ‘Order of Communion’ in
connexion with the Latin Mass.
2 The King's Message to the
Devonshire rebels says that the
Book of Common Prayer was “by
the whole clergy agreed ' (Foxe,
Acts and Mon. v. 734). In a letter
preserved in Bonner's Register (ibid.
p. 726) the King states distinctly that
the book was approved or set forth
by the bishops and all other learned
men ‘of this our realm in their
synods and convocations provincial.’
See Lathbury, Hist, 3 Convoc. p.
138; Clay, P. B. Illustrated, Pref.
* See Hardwick, Middle Age, pp.
178 sqq.; Reformation, pp. 166 sqq.,
pp. 224 sqq. Cf. Hallam, Consti-
tutional Hist, of England, I. pp. 121
* Treherne's Zetter to Bullinger,
Dec. 31 : “Habita est Londini de-
cimo nono Calendas Januarii, ni
fallor, disputatio repleixaplotsas in
consessu omnium pene procerum to-
tius Angliae. Decertatum est acriter
inter episcopos. Cantuariensis praeter
omnium exspectationem sententiam
vestram de hoc negotio apertissime,
constantissime doctissimeque de-
fendit . . . Nunquam splendidiorem
victoriam veritas apud nos reportavit.
Video plane actum de Lutheranismo,
cum qui prius habiti sunt summi ac
pene soli illius fautores, nostri toti
facti Sunt.’ Orig. Lett. CLII. (Park.
Soc.) King Edward calls it in his
journal, ‘a notable disputation of
the Sacrament in the Parliament-
house.’ This was Dec. 14, and the
Book was read the first time in the
Commons on Wednesday, Dec. 19,
and in the Lords on the following day.
* See Collier, Eccl. Hist. v. pp.
240 sq.; Hardwick, Reformation,
pp. 212 sqq.; Soames, Hist, Æes. Ed.
VI, pp. 241 sqq.
Prayer-Book approved by
onvocation and Parliament.