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o The Prayer for the High Court of Parliament was com

posed most probably by Laud, when bishop of St.
David's. It first appeared in an ‘Order of Fasting, in
1625, and again in 1628 in a special form of Prayer
‘necessary to be used in these dangerous times of war.”
In these early forms it is almost verbally like the present
Prayer, only somewhat longer: it also contains the words
‘most religious and gracious king,” which have been
commonly supposed to have been introduced as a com-
pliment to Charles II. In 1661 the Prayer was inserted
in a special form for a Fast-day on the 12th of June, and
again in the following January ; and at the same time it
was placed by the Convocation in the Book of Common
The composition of the Prayer for all Conditions of
Men has been ascribed to Bishop Sanderson. It was,
however, most probably composed by Dr. Peter Gun-
ning, Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, and suc-
cessively bishop of Chichester and Ely. In its original
shape it is supposed to have been longer, and to have
brought into one prayer the petitions for the King,
Royal Family, Clergy, &c., which are scattered through
several Collects.” The Convocation, however, retained
the Collects; and therefore threw out the corresponding
clauses in this general Prayer, without altering the word
finally, which seems to be needlessly introduced in so
short a form. Before this, no general intercessory prayer

* Sovereigns are mentioned as Dominions was substituted for KingedgeBéarraro, kal triarátarot in the doms by an Order of Council of Anaphora of St. Basil's Liturgy: January 1, 1801. Neale, Eastern Church, p. 595. * See the objections to short Col

* Cardwell, Conferences, p. 233, lects raised by the Dissenters at the note; Lathbury, Hist, of Convoc. Savoy Conference, Cardwell, Cons:

p. 301 sq.; Clay, Prayer Book pp. 308 sq.; above, p. 117. Illustrated, Pref. p. xxv. The word

occurred in the Service, except on those mornings when occasional - - . Pr the Litany was said. royerPraise is an essential part of Divine worship. Hence |zzano.

we retain, throughout the Services, Doxologies, Psalms, and Canticles. But these do not include that particular thanksgiving for extraordinary deliverances, or indeed for daily mercies, which is due to the Author and Giver of all good things. Hence some particular thanksgivings' were annexed to the Litany, at the revision of the Prayer Book after the Hampton Court Conference, by order of James I., under the title of “An enlargement of thanksgiving for diverse benefits, by way of explanation.” These were thanksgivings for Rain, for Fair Weather, for Plenty, for Peace and Victory, and for Deliverance from the Plague in two forms.” At the last revision, after the restoration of the Monarchy, another special form of thanksgiving was added, for Restoring Publick Peace at Home.* Its language must have been felt to be strikingly appropriate, when read with the restored Common Prayer, after such a period of outrage and sedition. At the same time the Convocation accepted a form of General Thanksgiving, composed by Bishop Reynolds,” which rendered the book more perfect

* “The English ritual, I believe, is the only one which contains special thanksgivings for the mercies of God, others having confined themselves to general expressions of gratitude on all such occasions. It has therefore, in the present case, improved on the ancient customs of the Christian Church, instead of being in any way inconsistent with them.”— Palmer, Orig. Lit. I. p. 307. See Hooker, Accl. Pol. V. 43.

* See above, pp. 91 sq.

* Cardwell, Conf. pp. 222 sq.

* Probably Cosin's composition: Blunt, Annotated Prayer Book, p. 67.

* “A form of General Thanksgiving was prepared by the Bishop of Norwich on the 14th of December. It is frequently stated that the General Thanksgiving was composed by Sanderson; but it is clear from the proceedings of the Upper House that it was prepared by Bishop Reynolds.”—Lathbury, Hist, of Convoc. p. 289. See also Cardwell, Conferences, p. 372, note; Joyce, English Synods, p. 716.

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•ool by making the Thanksgivings correspond with the


* In the American Prayer Book the Prayer for all conditions of Men and the General Thanksgiving are inserted in their place in the Morning and Evening Prayer. The Occasional Prayers and Thanksgivings include additional forms, For a Sick Person, For a Sick Child, For a Person or Persons going to Sea, For a Person under Affliction, For Malefactors after Condemnation, and A Prayer to

be used at the Meetings of Convocation; also A Thanksgiving of Women after Childbirth, For Recovery from Sickmess, and For a Safe Return from Sea. The Prayer for the Parliament becomes, with a slight alteration, A Prayer for Congress. In the Prayers For Fair Weather and In time of ..Sickness the references to the Old Testament are omitted.



THIS part of the First Prayer Book of Edward VI." was entitled The Introits, Collects, Epistles, and Gospels, to be used at the celebration of the Lord's Supper and Holy Communion through the year: with proper Psalms and Lessons for divers Feasts and days. An Introit, or Psalm to be sung at or before the commencement of the Communion Office, was prefixed to each Collect. These were removed" at the revision in 1552; and the Proper Lessons were placed in the Calendar of Lessons.

The Epistles and Gospels are, with few exceptions, the same that had been appointed in the ancient Use of the English Church.” They form two series, which may be distinguished as doctrinal and practical. The

1. As a substitute for the Introit, in cathedrals, the hymn Tersanctus is generally sung by the choir : the ractice shows that the appropriate salm might have been advantageously retained. * It is said that Jerome was requested by Damasus, bishop of Rome (366–384)) to make a selection of Scriptures to be read in the public Service. There is such a compilation, published by Pamelius in Vol.

II. of Liturgicon Ecclesiæ Latinae, under the title, Divi Hieronymi presbyteri Comes sive Lectionarius. It contains Epistles and Gospels for Sundays and Festivals, and for Wednesdays and Fridays in the Epiphany, Easter, and Trinity seasons, agreeing very closely with the Sarum Use, but differing from the Roman. See Blunt, Annotated Prayer Book, p. 70.

Antiquit of $. y * Collects. The two 2arts of the Acclesiastical Pear.

Advent to

Trinity to Advent.

ecclesiastical year is divided into two parts. The first, from Advent to Trinity, is designed to commemorate the life of Christ on earth; and the several particulars of His life are celebrated in their order, His incarnation, nativity, circumcision, manifestation to the Gentiles ; His doctrine and miracles, His baptism, fasting, and temptation ; His agony, His cross, His death, His burial, His resurrection, His ascension ; and the mission of the Holy Ghost: the object of the Epistles and Gospels during this time is to remind us of the benefit which we receive from God the Father, through the mediation and atonement of God the Son, and through the ministration of God the Holy Ghost. Hence this part of the Church's course of teaching is fitly ended with the Commemoration of the Blessed Trinity. In the second part of the year, from Trinity to Advent, the portions of Scripture are selected with the view of instructing us

to lead our lives after our Lord's example.
The Collect” may be defined as a prayer for some

1 The Collect, or prayer, into which the priest collects the supplications of the people (Micrologus, iii.), or in

which the people pray “in the person

of holy chirche” (Mirrour of our Zadye, fol. lxxiii.), is (1) a liturgical prayer; (2) short; (3) containing one main petition; (4) consisting of one sentence; (5) asking through the merits of our Lord, or (6) ending with an ascription of praise to the Blessed Trinity. Neale, Essays on Liturgiology, p. 49; Blunt, Annotated Prayer Book, p. 69. The York Missal has a note upon the concluding phrases of the Collects:—‘Si dirigitur sermo ad Patrem absgue mentione Filii et Spiritus Sancti, sic sinietur Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium tuum : Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus: Per omnia

saecula sæculorum. Sivero de Spiritu Sancto fiat mentio, dicetur: In unitate ejusdem Spiritus Sancti Deus.

Si vero de Filio fiat mentio ante finalem partem, dicetur: Per eundem Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium. Si vero in fine fit mentio de Filio, dicetur: Qui tecum vivit et regnat. Si autem ad Filium. dirigitur oratio sine mentione Spiritus Sancti, dicetur: Qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre in unitate Spiritus

Sancti Deus. Siftat mentio de Spiritu

Sancto, dicetur: Qui cum Patre et

eodem Spiritu Sancto viviset regnas.

Item orationes ad Patrem in quibus mentionem de Trinitate facimus, sic

concludimus: In qua vivis et regnas. Illas autem quas ad ipsam Trinitatem dirigimus, sic finimus: Qui vivis et regnas Deus.’ Maskell, Ancient Liturgy, p. 30, note.

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