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beginning of the fourteenth century, who first fixed its
celebration to this Sunday."
The Jews, living among idolatrous nations, were espe-
cially enjoined to remember the unity of God: hence
the mystery of the Trinity was not clearly delivered to
them. Yet portions of the Old Testament receive their
full interpretation from this doctrine, and arotherefore
read on Trinity Sunday:-the song of the Seraphim;
the appearance of Jehovah to Abraham, when three men
stood by him, and the work of the Word of God, and of
the Spirit of God in creation, and the phrase, Let us make
man. In the Lessons from the New Testament, the
vision is read of the Eternal One, the seven Spirits
before His throne, and Jesus Christ, the Saviour and the
Judge: St. Paul's seven unities—one body, one Spirit,
one hope, one Lord, one faith, one baptism—one God
and Father of all: and the baptism of Jesus, with the
testimony of the voice from heaven, and the descent of
the Holy Ghost upon the beloved Son. The Epistle
and Gospel are the same that were read in the old
Offices on the Octave of Pentecost, the last day of the
more solemn time of baptism, to which the Gospel
refers. Yet they are well suited to the festival, under
its more modern name of Trinity Sunday: for the three
Persons of the Godhead are mentioned in the Gospel;
and the portion appointed for the Epistle contains the
Hymn of the Angels, with its threefold ascription of
praise to God.
The Collect is continued from the old Offices:—

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui dedisti famulis tuis in confessione verae fidei aeternae Trinitatis gloriam agnoscere, et in

1 In the twelfth century the feast and by others on the Sunday next of Trinity was kept by some Churches before Advent. See Guericke, pp. on the Octave of Whitsun Day, 160 sq.

potentia majestatis adorare Unitatem: quaesumus ut ejusdem fidei firmitate ab omnibus semper muniamur adversis.”

The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels for the Sundays after Trinity are taken in the order in which they stood in the Sarum Missal. The Gospels are selected from the parables, miracles, and conversations of our Lord : the Epistles are a series of exhortations to the practice of Christian virtues, and after the first five Sundays are taken in order from St. Paul's Epistles.”

The following are the originals of these Collects:–

Deus, in te sperantium fortitudo adesto propitius invocationibus nostris; et quia sine te nihil potest mortalis infirmitas, praesta auxilium gratiae tuat, ut in exeguendis mandatis tuis et voluntate tibi et actione placeamus.”

Sancti nominis tui, Domine, timorem pariter et amorem fac nos habere perpetuum ; quia nunquam tua gubernatione destituis, quos in soliditate tuæ dilectionis instituis.”

Deprecationem nostram, quaesumus, Domine, benignus exaudi; et quibus supplicandi praestas affectum, tribue defensionis auxilium.

Protector in te sperantium Deus, sine quo nihil est validum, nihil sanctum; multiplica super nos misericordiam tuam, ut te rectore, te duce, sic transeamus per bona temporalia ut non amit

tanus aeterna.

Da nobis, quaesumus, Domine, ut et mundi cursus pacifice nobis tuo ordine dirigatur, et ecclesia tua tranquilla devotione laetetur.

* Miss. Sar. In die Sanctae Trinitatis, col. 45 I.

* One exception to this course occurs at the 18th Sunday, which Wheatly supposes to have been often one of the Dominica zacantes, or Sundays following the Ember days, which had no proper Office because of the ordinations that were held at those times. And when an

cessary in ordained teachers, that
they should be enriched in all utter-
ance and in all knowledge; and the
Gospel, relating how our Lord si-
lenced the most learned of the Jews
by His questions and answers, teaches
how false opinions are to be con-

futed by the right understanding of

Scripture.

* Miss. Sar. Dominica i. post

Epistle and Gospel were appointed festum Sanctae Trinitatis, col. 459.

for this Sunday, they were adapted one such solemnity. The Epistle mentions the spiritual gifts of a Christian, which are especially ne

* Our present Collect was composed in 1661, instead of a translation of the Latin.

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Deus, qui diligentibus te bona invisibilia præparasti ; infunde cordibus riostris tui amoris affectum, ut te in omnibus et super omnia diligentes promissiones tuas, quæ omne desiderium superant, consequamur. Deus virtutum, cujus est totum quod est optimum; insere pectoribus nostris amorem tui nominis, et præsta in nobis religionis augmentum : ut quæ sunt bona nutrias, ac pietatis studio quæ sunt nutrita custodias. Deus, cujus providentia in sui dispositione non fallitur, te supplices exoramus, ut noxia cuncta submoveas, et omnia nobis profutura concedas.l Largire nobis, quæsumus, Domine, semper spiritum cogitandi quæ recta sunt propitius, et agendi ; ut qui sine te esse non possumus, secundum te vivere valeamus. Pateant aures misericordiæ tuæ, Domine, precibus supplicantium; et ut petentibus desiderata concedas, fac eos quæ tibi placita sunt postulare. Deus, qui omnipotentiam tuam parcendo maxime et miserando manifestas ; multiplica super nos gratiam tuam, ut ad tua promissa currentes coelestium bonorum facias esse consortes.* Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui abundantia pietatis tuæ et merita supplicum excedis et vota ; effunde super nos misericordiam tuam, ut dimittas quae conscientia metuit, et adjicias quod oratio non præsumit. Omnipotens et misericors Deus, de cujus munere venit ut tibi a fidelibus tuis digne et laudabiliter serviatur ; tribue nobis, quæsumus, ut ad promissiones tuas sine offensione curramus. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, da nobis fidei spei et caritatis augmentum ; et ut mereamur assequi quod promittis, fac nos amare quod præcipis. Custodi, Domine, quæsumus, ecclesiam tuam propitiatione perpetua : et quia sine te labitur humana mortalitas, tuis semper auxiliis et abstrahatur a noxiis, et ad salutaria dirigatur.* Ecclesiam tuam, quæsumus, Domine, miseratio continuata mundet et muniat; et quia sine te non potest salva consistere, tuo semper munere gubernetur. Tuae nos, Domine, quæsumus, gratia semper et præveniat et sequatur ; ac bonis operibus jugitur præstet esse intentos.

1 This Collect was simply trans- gracious promises, was inserted in lated until 1661. 1661.

2 The phrase, rummimg the way of * The Epistle was appointed in thy commamdmenti, may obtain t/y 1549, instead of Gal. v. 25—vi. Io.

Da, quæsumus, Domine, populo tuo diabolica vitare contagia, et te solum Deum pura mente sectari.'

Dirigat corda nostra, quæsumus, Domine, miserationis operatio, quia tibi sine te placere non possumus.*

Omnipotens et misericors Deus, universa nobis adversantia propitiatus exclude ; ut mente et corpore pariter expediti, quæ tua

sunt liberis mentibus exequamur.

Largire, quæsumus, Domine, fidelibus tuis indulgentiam placatus et pacem ; ut pariter ab omnibus mundentur offensis, et secura tibi

mente deserviant.

Familiam tuam, quæsumus, Domine, continua pietate custodi ; ut a cunctis adversitatibus te protegente sit libera, et in bonis actibus

tuo nomini sit devota.*

Deus, refugium nostrum et virtus, adesto piis ecclesiæ tuæ precibus, auctor ipse pietatis ; et præsta ut quod fideliter petimus

efficaciter consequamur.

Absolve, quæsumus, Domine, tuorum delicta populorum ; et a peccatorum nostrorum nexibus quæ pro nostra fragilitate contrax

imus tua benignitate liberemur.*

Excita, quæsumus, Domine, tuorum fidelium voluntates ; ut divini operis fructum propensius exequentes pietatis tuæ remedia

majora percipiant.*

• The phrase, to withstamd the temptatioms of the world, t/ie f/es/, a/zd the devi/, was inserted in 1661. * The words, thy Holy Spirit, were substituted in 1661 for * the working of thy mercy.' The Epistle, Eph. iv. 17—32, was appointed in 1549, ingd of the short portion, vv. 23 —28. * The beginning of the Epistle was added in I 549; it had commenced thus: * Fratres, confidimus in Domino Jesu, quia qui cepit in vobis opus bonum,' &c. Also the opening verse was prefixed to the Gospel, showing the occasion on which the parable was spoken. * The Epistle, Col. i. 3—12, was appointed in 1549, instead of vv. 9 —I I : also in the Gospel the story was completed by the addition of vv. 23—26. * Miss. Sar. Domimica proxima amite Adventum Domini, col. 533. 'I`he rubric, directing the use of this

Collect, Epistle, and Gospel always on the Sunday next before Advent, is simplified from that in the Sarum Missal, col. 536: Cum prolixum fuerit tempus inter inceptionem historiæ, Deus omnium, [i. e. the first Sunday after Trinity : see above, p. I95] et Adventum /)omini, Qfficium Dicit Dominus [i. e. the Introit for the Sunday next before Advent] per tres dominicas camtetur, ut supra motatum est. Cum vero breve fuerit tempus, semper proxima dominica ante Adventum Domini, si vacaverit, cantetur, quamdo de domimica agitur, Dicit Dominus, cum oratiome, Excita quæsumus Domine, Æpistola, Ecce dies veniunt, Ævangelium, Cum sublevasset. Si vero dominica mom vacaverit, tunc in a/iqua /eria camtetur. Caeterae vero dominicæ quæ remamserint in ferialibus diebus camtemtur.' The difficulty which used to be felt in deciding what first Lessons should be read on the 27th Sunday

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The Saints'
Days

Mew Collects composed.

The Lessons.

Conzersion of St. Paul.

The arrangement of the Collects follows the order of the old Missal: when the course for the Sundays and fixed festivals of the ecclesiastical year, beginning with Advent, has been completed, the Collects are given for those Saints' days, the position of which will continually vary with respect to the Sundays." The Commemorations of the Apostles,” and the Virgin Mary, and John the Baptist, have been selected from the number of real or fictitious saints, in whose honour proper Services were held ; and for these it was necessary to compose a series of almost entirely new Collects, since the old Collects were mainly prayers for the saints' intercession.” The Epistles and Gospels that had been read on these days were generally retained; and proper first Lessons appointed from the Books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, or from the Apocryphal Books of Ecclesiasticus and Wisdom. Only four chapters are now read from the Apocrypha on these days, For some few, which have their own proper history, second Lessons are appointed.

The following Collects were partially retained in the English Prayer Book:

Deus, qui universum mundum beati Pauli Apostoli tui praedica

after Trinity, is ended in the new
Lectionary by continuing the course
of Lessons from the Prophets to this
Sunday, and assigning to it the
Lessons for the Sunday next before
Advent. These are Eccles. xi., xii.;
Haggai ii. to v. Io; and Malachi
iii., iv. See the Rationale and notes
upon these chapters in A Companion
to the Lectionary, by Rev. W. Ben-
ham, Lond. I873.
1 This part of the Sarum Missal
was commonly headed with a pic-
ture of the crucifixion of St. Andrew,
and the title, ‘Incipit proprium festi-

zitatum Sanctorum secundum usumo
ecclesiae Sar. In vigilia Sancti
Andreae Apostoli,” col. 657.
* The oldest of the feasts of the
Apostles is that of St. Peter and St.
Paul, which was in use by the end
of the fourth century. The feasts of
the other Apostles are of later insti-
tution. Guericke, pp. 187 sq.
* “The opinion of praying to
saints got entrance, but had not the
full growth for an article of faith till
after 1335:’ see Twysden, Histor.
Vindication, ch. IX. § 2 I, pp. 214
sqq. (Camb. 1847).

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