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tione docuisti; da nobis, quaesumus, ut qui ejus hodie conversionem colimus, per ejus ad te exempla gradiamur."

Deus, qui beatum Marcum evangelistam tuum evangelicae praedicationis gratia sublimasti : tribue, quaesumus, ejus nos semper et eruditione perficere et oratione defendi.

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui hujus diei venerandam sanctamgue lastitiam in beati Bartholomei Apostoli tui festivitate tribuisti: da ecclesiae tuas, quaesumus, et amare quod credidit, et praedicare quod docuit.”

The Collect for St. Andrew's Day, composed in 1549, referred to the sufferings of his death:* this was changed in 1552 for an entirely new Collect, making mention of his ready obedience to the calling of Christ. The Prayer Book in 1549 also retained a Collect in commemoration of St. Mary Magdalene." The feast of St. john the Baptist differs from the other festivals, in commemorating his birth. It is the only nativity, besides that of Jesus Christ Himself, that is kept by the Church. The reason for this difference appears to be, that the birth of the Baptist was foretold by an angel, and brought to pass after an uncommon manner. He was also the forerunner of our Blessed Lord, and by preaching

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shall come unto us for thy sake, as
things profitable for us toward the
obtaining of everlasting life: through
Jesus Christ our Lord.’ This festival
is traced to the fourth century.
* ‘Merciful Father, give us grace
that we never presume to sin through
the example of any creature; but if
it shall chance us at any time to
offend thy divine majesty, that then
we may truly repent, and lament
the same, after the example of Mary
Magdalene, and by lively faith obtain
remission of all our sins: through
the only merits of thy Son our
Saviour Christ.’ The earliest extant
mention of this festival is in the 26th
canon of the Council of Toulouse
(1229) Guericke, p. 193, note.

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* |repentance prepared the way for the publishing of the — ||Gospel.” #y The mediaeval Church held seven festivals in honour Mary. of the Virgin Mary.” The two oldest of these are founded

on the Gospel history, and are pure expressions of reverence for her who is blessed among women, if indeed they may not also be regarded as festivals of our Lord Himself. The reformers of our Offices accordingly retained these two Commemorations. The Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary" (March 25) was observed probably as early as the fifth century: and soon afterwards, at latest in the sixth century, the feast of the Purification of St. Mary the Virgin" (Feb. 2) was held by the Western Church, while the Eastern had a corresponding festival, differing chiefly in name, commemorating the Presen

* This festival has been observed since the fourth or fifth century: Guericke, p. 186.

2 The festival of the Assumption (Aug. 15) grew out of a legend of the fifth century, but was not received by the Latin Church before the ninth century. The festival of the Visitation (July 2) was not known before the fourteenth century; a commemoration of the Virgin's Mativity (Sept. 8) was observed in the East at the close of the seventh century, but not introduced into the West till long afterwards; and the Presentation of Mary (Nov. 21) was observed in the East since the eighth century, but is not clearly traced in the Latin Church before the fourteenth century. The feast of the Conception, resting upon the notion that the Virgin was not sanctificata, but sancta, and which began to be received about the twelfth century, was fixed to Dec. 8 by the Council of Basle (1439), which also sanctioned the doctrine of the immaculate conception, as ‘a pious opinion.” This is now an article of faith in the Church of

Rome, having been defined by the
Pope (Dec. 8, 1854), by the Bull
“Ineffabilis Deus,' that “the blessed
Virgin Mary, at the first instant of
her conception, by a singular privi-
lege and grace of the omnipotent
God, in virtue of the merits of Jesus
Christ the Saviour of mankind, was
preserved immaculate from all stain
of original sin.”. See Guericke, pp.
190 sqq.; Hardwick, Middle Age,
pp. IOO, 328, 454; Gieseler, Eccles.
Asist. (in Clark's Theol. Library), III.
Pp. 339 sqq. and V. pp. 64 sqq.;
Milman, Latin Christianity, vi. pp.
239 Sqq. -
* Festum Annuntiationis, incar-
nationis, conceptionis Christi, j rod
evayyexiouot, juépa, juépa dowaar-
goń, annuntiatio dominica. Cf. Bing-
ham, Antiq. XX. 8, § 4.
* Festum Purificationis Maria.
This was substituted for the heathen
Februaria, or Lupercalia, and cele-
brated with processions with wax-
tapers: hence it was called Candle-
mass, or Fostum Camdelarum size
luminum. Guericke, p. 192, note:
cf. Bingham, XX. 8, § 5.

tation of Christ in the Temple." The Collects for these days were taken from the Missal:—

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, majestatem tuam supplices exoramus, ut sicut unigenitus Filius tuus hodierna die cum nostra: carnis substantia in templo est praesentatus, ita nos facias purificatis tibi mentibus praesentari. Per eundem.”

Gratiam tuam, quaesumus, Domine, mentibus nostris infunde; ut qui angelo nuntiante Christi Filii tui incarnationem cognovimus, per passionem ejus et crucem ad resurrectionis gloriam perducamur. Per eundem.”

The feast of St. Michael and all Angels, commemorating the ministry of the holy angels to the heirs of salvation, originated in some provincial festivals which were introduced between the third and ninth centuries, and which were then combined into one common celebration on the 29th September.” Its observance was not enjoined upon the Greek Church before the twelfth century.”

Our Collect is taken from the Missal:—

Deus, qui miro ordine angelorum ministeria hominumque dispensas; concede propitius ut a quibus tibi ministrantibus in coelo semper assistitur, ab his in terra vita nostra muniatur. Per dominum."

* Festum occursus, éopti) tis Jirávrms, jiratavro Our Prayer Book retains both commemorations, calling the festival, The Presentation of Christ in the Temple, commonly called, The Purification of Saint Mary the Virgin.

* Missal. Sar. In purificatione beatae Maria Virginis, col. 703. The Epistle was, Lectio Malachiae, iii. [1–4], and the Gospel, Luc. ii. [22–32]. In 1549 no Epistle was appointed, but ‘the same that is appointed for the Sunday’ was to be read; and the Gospel was, Luc. ii. [22–27]. The ancient Lection from Malachi was re-appointed for the

Fpistle' in 1662, and the Gospel
extended to the 40th verse.
8 Missal. Sar. In annunciatione
beatae Maria Postcommunio, col. 730.
* The Council of Mayence (813)
ordered the dedicatio Sancti Michaelis
to be observed among the Church
festivals: Concil. Mogunt, can. 36;
Mansi, XIV. 73.
* Guericke, pp. 194 sq.
* Missal. Sar. In festo Sancti
Michaelis Archangeli. The Epistle
was Rev. i. 1–5. This was changed
in 1549 for the portion from Rev.
xii. which had been read for the
Epistle in die Sancti Michaelis in
monte Tumba (Oct. 16).

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*:::::to At first each Church celebrated the memorial of its an.,,. own martyrs; but afterwards some few became the

objects of commemoration by the whole Church. In the Greek communion a festival in honour of the whole army of Martyrs was kept on the Octave of Pentecost." In the course of time the idea of Martyr and Saint became very naturally identified: and when the Roman Pantheon was given to the Christians by the Emperor Phocas (610), and converted into a Church of St. Mary and All Saints, Boniface IV. instituted a festival of All Saints;” which, however, did not long continue. It was renewed, and celebrated at Rome in the eighth century, on the Ist of November, and was made a festival of the universal Church by Pope Gregory IV. (834).” The power of canonization, assumed by the Popes towards the end of the tenth century,” increased the number of saints, till the frequency of Church Holy Days became most inconvenient. These celebrations were removed from the reformed Offices; but All Saints' Day was retained in commemoration of all the known and unknown departed Christian worthies, and of the communion of the Church triumphant with the Church as yet militant on earth.

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SECT. I.-Primitive Liturgies.

THE traces of the form of worship used by the Christian converts, which we find in the New Testament, refer to the Eucharist, as being emphatically the Christian Service.” Hence naturally arose the ecclesiastical use of the word Liturgy,” to designate the form employed by the Church in celebrating that Office which was called the Mass by the mediaeval and the Latin Church, but which we now call the Lord's Supper and the Holy


* The description of the earliest converts (Acts ii. 42, foray 8% trpookaprepoßvres ātāaxfi toy droorróAov, kal to koivovíq, kal Tf kAáael too. §prov, kal tass trpoo’evXals) is supposed to contain a summary of the several and successive parts of the primitive Service:–instruction from the word of the Apostles, and from the Scriptures; the charitable contributions (cf. I Cor. xvi. 2; Rom. xv. 26, &c.); the Eucharist; and the prayers. Comp, also I Cor. x. 16, referring to the consecration of the bread and wine; and I Cor. xiv. 16, to the use of the word Amen by the people after the Eucharistical prayer offered by the minister. See Professor Blunt's Introd. Lecture, pp. 16 sq.; and Parish Priest, Lect. ix.


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From the scanty remains of very early

denotes any public service, religious
or secular. In the LXX. translation
it is used for the ministry of the
Levites (e. g. I Chron. xxvi. 30, eis
trāorav A. Kupfov); in the New Testa-
ment, for the ministry of prophets
and teachers (Acts xiii. 2, where see
Wordsworth's note; cf. Trench,
Synonyms of the New Test. I. $xxxv.);
and in ecclesiastical writers, for any
sacred function, and, in an especial
and strict sense, for the Eucharistic
Office. Strictly this should be of
Avaruk) Astroupysa. See Bingham,
Antiq. XIII. I. Thus we speak of
the Liturgies of St. James, St. Mark,
St. Chrysostom, &c., for the Service
used in celebrating the Lord's Supper
in the Churches of Antioch, Alex-
andria, Constantinople, &c.
* Dr. Waterland (Doctr. of the
Eucharist, ch. I.) adduces the fol-

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Traces of the
Service inc
the Now

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