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Primitive
Liturgies.

The Christian Serzlice in the second century.

Christian times we may gather so much concerning this form," as to allow that the various Churches, which were sounded by the Apostles, had each a Service for the Eucharist; and that these Liturgies, while differing it may be in some particulars, all agreed in their main features. The earliest extant account of the Sunday Service is contained in the following passage of Justin Martyr's Apology (140). We find what we should expect from the traces that are scattered through the Apostolical writings, that this Service included the reading of the Gospels or the Prophets; a sermon ; a Litany, in which all joined ; then the Eucharist, in which the presiding minister offered up a prayer, the people answering

heartily Amen.

panied with almsgiving.

Next followed the distribution of the consecrated elements; the Service being always accom

justin Martyr’s account of the Sunday Service.

lowing successive appellations of this Service:—Breaking of Bread (A. D. 33), Acts ii. 42: Communion, kotwavía (57), from St. Paul's account of the effect of the Service, which is the communion of the body and blood of Christ, I Cor. x. 16: Lord’s Supper, Kupuaköv Šestvov (57), because instituted by our Lord at Supper, and succeeding the Jewish Paschal supper; it does not appear, however, that the text (I Cor. xi. 20) was interpreted absolutely of the Eucharist before the end of the fourth century; and at the end of the seventh century Lord's Supper had not become a familiar name for the Eucharist, but rather denoted the supper, or lovefeast, agape, which accompanied it, or our Lord's own supper with His disciples, or the supper which preceded the Eucharist on Maundy Thursday: Oblation, trpoor?opé (96), Clem. Rom. Epist. I. c. 40: Sacra| ment (104), Plin. Apist. x. 97: Eucha

Tà roi i\tov Aeyopiévi, juépg Távrov karū tróMetc is dypowc pievövrww in airó avvé\evouc yiveral, kai āTopvmpovešuara

rist (IoT), Ignat. Epist. ad Smyrn. c. 7, 8; ad Philadelph. c. 4: Sacrifice, 6vata (150), Just. M. Dial. pp. 344 sq. : Commemoration, Memorial, &váovmous, uvium (150), ibid. p. 345: Passover (249), Orig. cont. Cels. lib. v.III. p. 759, ed. Bened. : Mass, Missa (385), from the usual form of dismission, Ite, missa est; Ambros. Apist. I. 20, ad Marcellin. p. 9ol, ed. Bened. It was also called by the Latins Collecta (see Freeman, 1. pp. I45 sq.), Dominicum, Agenda; and by the Greeks, Mystagogia, Synaxis, Telete, Anaphora: see Maskell, Ancient Liturgy, p. 146.

1 “In the early Fathers we are not to expect a full account of the Liturgy: the Church used much reserve in speaking of its sacraments and ordinances amongst catechumens and infidels, only imparting the nature and method of them to converts about to be baptized.” Blunt, Introd. Zect. p. 17, note.

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* Justin Mart. AAol. Major, sub fin. Opp. p. 98 (ed. Colon. 1686). See also the description of the Service at the reception of converts, ibid. p. 97. * “This seems very probable, because, in the persecutions under Diocletian and his associates, though a strict inquiry was made after the books of Scripture, and other things belonging to the Church, which were often delivered up by the traditores to be burnt, yet we never read of any ritual books, or books of Divine Service, delivered up among them.” Renaudot, in Bingham, XIII. v. § 3. * See Bingham, XIII. ch. v. * See Zhe Ancient Liturgy of the Church of Jerusalem, being the Liturgy of St. 7ames freed from all later

Additions and Interpolations," &c.
Lond. I744: Zhe Ziturgies of S.
A/aré, S. James, S. Clement, S.
Chrysostom, S. Basil, ed. by Dr.
Nease; and Liturgies Eastern and
Western, with Introduction, Notes,
and Glossary, by Hammond, Oxf.
1878.
* The Greek ritual books contain
also the Liturgy of St. Basil, which
is used on Sundays in Lent (except
Palm Sunday), Maundy. Thursday,
Easter Eve, the Vigils of Christmas
and Epiphany, and Jan. 1, the Feast
of St. Basil: Neale, Pref. p. xvi.;
and the Liturgy of the Preconsecrated,
which is used on every day of Lent,
except Saturdays, Sundays, the An-
nunciation, and Maundy Thursday :
ib. p. xxxiii. note. -

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used to cover the Paten, to prevent Neale, Liturgies, p. 170. the Veil (8wkokáAvuua) from dis

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