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This was probably the original form according to rogo. which the British Church celebrated the Holy Eu

charist. It doubtless provided Augustine with some particulars which he grafted upon the Roman, in compiling the Liturgy" to be used in the Church of the Anglo-Saxons. The Norman invasion brought with it a nearer approximation to the ritual customs of Rome; but it did not seek to effect an entire conformity. And Bishop Osmund of Salisbury (1087), in framing his revised Liturgy,” worked upon the forms which he found in use, with the full idea that each diocese had a certain independence, and that exact uniformity of ritual is not necessary in order to ensure agreement in Catholic truth. This famous Liturgy is given as presenting the Eucharistic Office which was used by the mediaeval English Church, until the second year of the reign of

Edward VI.”

Church. Hist. (Bohn's ed.) III. 369.
See The Ancient Liturgies of the Gal-
lican Church, Burntisland edition, by
Rev. G. H. Forbes.
* The few liturgical documents
which are extant seem to show that
the permission of Gregory the Great
(above, p. 3), to select an Office from
orthodox Liturgies, was acted upon
by Augustine. This would gradually
spread through the dioceses, receiv-
ing partial alterations perhaps in
each : so that “the Eucharistical
Offices of the Anglo-Saxon Church
may have been for many years dis-
tinguished from each other by very

important variations.” Maskell, An

cient Liturgy, Pref. p. lvii.

* The extent of Bishop Osmund's revision may be seen by comparing his Missal of the Use of Sarum with the Missal which belonged to Robert, Abbot of Jumièges and Archbishop of Canterbury (IOSo), which is preserved in the Public Library at Rouen.

* See Maskell, Ancient Ziturgy of the Church of England, where the Sarum Liturgy is compared with those of the Use of Bangor, York, and Hereford, and also with the Ordinary and Canon of the Roman Church. See an Exposition of the Mass in Soames, Hist. Ref. Ed. VI. pp. 252–270.

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o 1Migga SECT. II.-Ordinarium et Canon Missa,' secundum Usum 8cclesiae Acclesiae Sarisburdensis. Sarisb. onosovo Ad missam dicemdam dum sacerdos induit se sacris vestibus dicat. Missão. hymnum : Veni creator Spiritus. Emitte Spiritum tuum. Et renovabis faciem terrae. Oratio. Deus cui omne cor patet et omnis voluntas loquitur, et quem nullum latet secretum: purifica per infusionem Sancti Spiritus !cogitationes cordis nostri; ut perfecte te diligere et digne laudare mereamur. Per Christum. Deinde sequatur Antiph. Introibo ad altare. Ps. Judica me Deus. Deinde dicitur Antiph. Introibo ad altare Dei, ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem mean. Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison. Pater noster. Ave Maria. Introitus. Płis finitis et Officio 2 missae inchoato, cum post Officium Gloria

Patri incipitur: accedat sacerdos cum suis ministris ad gradum altaris, et dicatiose confessionem, diacomo assistente a dextris, et sub

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which no consecration was made,
but the priest communicated of the
oblation which had been consecrated
on a previous day: in the Latin
Church, this was limited to Good
Friday. Missa sicca, if it was at
any time permitted, was a part only
of the Service, without consecration,
and without communion: the Missa
nautica, or navalis, was of this sort,
and was allowed “tempore naviga-
tionis, quando scilicet ob periculum
effusionis non licebat celebrare.’ See
Maskell, Ancient Liturgy, “Addit.
note,’ pp. 146 sqq.
* Officium, an Anthem varying
with the day, or with the Mass, also
called Introitus. For the First Sun-
day in Advent it was:—‘Ad televavi
animam mean: Deus meus, in te
confido, non erubescam, neque irri-
deant me inimici mei: etenim uni-
versi quite expectant non confun-
dentur. P. Vias tuas, Domine,
demonstra mihi, et semitas tuas edoce
me. Repetalur Officium: Ad tele-
vavi. Et posteadicatur: Gloria Patri.
Quo dicto iterum repetatur Officium
ut prius.' Miss. Sar. col. 1. The
triple repetition of the Antiphon
seems to have been abolished at
Rome about 1480.

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ricordia ejus. Confiteor. Misereatur. Absolutionem.* Deinde
dicat sacerdos : Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini. Qui fecit
cœlum et terram. Sit nomen Domini benedictum. Ex hoc, nunc,
et usque in sæculum. Oremus.
Deinde finitis precibus, sacerdos deosculetur diacomum, et postea
subdiaconum, ita dicems: Habete osculum pacis et dilectionis : ut
apti sitis sacrosancto altari ad perficiendum officia divina.
His itaque peractis, ceroferarii camdelabra cum cereis ad gradum
altaris dimittamt : deinde accedat sacerdos ad altare, et dicat im
medio altaris tacita voce imc/imatoque corpore et jumctis mamibus :
Oremus. Aufer a nobis Domine cunctas iniquitates nostras: ut ad-
sancta Sanctorum puris mentibus mereamur introire. Per Chris-
tum. Tumc erigat se sacerdos et osculetur altare, et hoc im medio,
et signet se im facie sua, ita dicems: In nomine Patris, et Filii, et
Spiritus Sancti. Amen.
Deinde pomat diacomus thus in thuribulam, et dicat prius sacer-
doti: Benedicite. Et sacerdos dicat : Dominus. Ab ipso sancti-
ficetur in cujus honore cremabitur. In nomine Patris, etc. Tumc
diacomus ei thuribulum tradems deosculetur mamum ejus : et ipse
sacerdos thuríficet medium altaris, et utrumque cormu altaris, primo
in dextera, secumdo im simistra parte, et imterim im medio. Deimde
ab ipso diacomo ipse sacerdos thuríficetar: et postea Textum mimis-
terio subdiacomi sacerdos deosculetur.
Tumc accedamt ministri ad altare ordimatim : primo ceroferarii
duo pariter incedemtes ; deimde thuríbularii; post subdiacomus ;
exinde diacomus ; post eum sacerdos. . . . Quo facto sacerdos et sua
mimistri in sedibus paratis se recipiamt, et expectemt usque ad Gloria
in excelsis, quod imcipiatur semper in medio altaris quamdocumque
dicitur. -
Gloria in excelsis Deo. Et in terra pax hominibus bonæ volun-
tatis. Laudamus te, Benedicimus te, Adoramus te, Glorificamus te.
Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus,
Rex coelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite Jesu
Christe. Domine Deus, agnus Dei, Filius Patris. Qui tollis pec-
cata mundi, miserere nobis. Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe depre-
cationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis.
Quoniam tu solus sanctus, Tu solus Dominus, Tu solus altissimus,
Jesu Christe, cum Sancto Spiritu, in gloria Dei Patris. Amen.*

* See above, p. 194. polated (or farsed) with phrases in * This Hymn was sömetimes inter- honour of the Virgin : e g. * Quo

Missa Ecclesiae Sarisb.

Collecta.

Epistola.

Gradale.

Segventia.

. . . . His peractis, factoque signaculo crucis in facie sua, vertat se sacerdos ad populum, elevatisgue aliquantulum brachiis, functisque manibus, dicat: Dominus vobiscum. Chorus respondeat: Et cum spiritu tuo. Et iterum revertat se sacerdos ad altare, et dicat: Oremus. Deinde dicitur Oratio. Et si aliqua memoria habenda est, iterum dicat sacerdos, Oremus, ut supra. Et quando sunt plures collecta dicenda, tunc omnes orationes quae seguuntur sub uno Per Dominum, et uno Oremus dicuntur: ita tamen quod septenarium numerum ea cedere non debeat secundum usum ecclesiae Saro Post introitum missae unus ceroferariorum panem, vinum, et aguam, qua ad Eucharistia ministrationem disponuntur, deferat: reliquus vero pelvim cum agua et manutergio portet. Incepta vero ultima oratione ante epistolam, subdiaconus per medium chori ad legendum Epistolam in pulpitum accedat. Quando epistola legitur, duo pueri in super pelliceis facta inclinatione ad altare ante gradum chori in pulpitum per medium chori ad Gradale incipiendum se praeparent, et suum versum cantandum. Dum versus gradalis canitur, duo de superiori gradu ad Alleluya cantandum cappassericas se induant, et ad pulpitum per medium chori accedant. Sequatur Alleluya. Finito Alleluya, seguatur Sequentia.” In fine alleluia, vel se

niam tu solus sanctus: Mariam
Sanctificans. Tu solus Dominus :
Mariam gubernans. Tu solus altis-
simus: Mariam Coronans.' Maskell,
Anc. Lit. p. 26; Daniel, Thesaur.
Aymnolog. II. p. 273 Other Church
Proses were treated in the same
way.
Notandum quod in omnibus do-
minicis et in festis cum regimine chori

5. pro universali ecclesia: 6. pro pace:
7. una degeneralibus seriatim. No-
tandum est quod secundum usum
Sarum nunquam dicuntur ultra
septem Orationes ad missam, quia
Deus in Oratione Dominicali tantum
constituit septem petitiones. Miss.
Sar. col. 6
o Sequentia, or Tractus, or Tropus,
a Prose sung after Alleluya. For

per totum annum, hoc generaliter
observetur, ut ad missam tot dicantur
collectie quot dicebantur ad matutinas,
nisi in die Mativitatis Domini: ita
tamen guodad missam impar numerus
ipsarum collectarum semper custodia-
tur; nisi in hebdomada Nativitatis
Domini tantum. Miss. Sar. col. 4.
One common series of five collects
for ordinary days was: –1. de die:
2. de S. Maria: 3. de omnibus
Sanctis: 4. pro universali ecclesia:
5. pro pace. A series of seven col-
lects for ferial days in Lent was:-
1. dedie: 2. pro paenitentibus: 3. de
S. Maria: 4 de omnibus Sanctis:

the first Sunday in Advent it was:“Salus aeterna, Indeficiens mundi vita; Lux sempiterna, Et redemptio vere nostra: Condolens humana pe rire saecla Per tentantis numina: Non linquens excelsa Adiisti ima Propria clementia: Moxtua spontanea gratia assumens humana: Quae fuerant perdita Omnia salvasti terrea: Ferens mundo gaudia: Tu animas et Corpora Nostra Christe expia: Ut possideas lucida Nosmet habiticula: Adventu primo justifica, In secundo nosque libera: Ut cum facta luce magna Judicabis omnia: Compti stola incorrupta Nosmet tua Subse

quentiæ, vel tractus, diaconus antequam accedat ad evangelium
pronuntiamdum thuríficet medium altaris tantum.
Deinde accipiat textum, scilicet librum Evangeliorum, et humi-
lians se ad sacerdotem stamtem coram altari, versa facie ad meridiem
ita dicat: Jube domne * benedicere. Sacerdos respondeat: Do-
minus sit in corde tuo et ore tuo ad pronuntiandum sanctum
evangelium Dei. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti.
Amen. Et sic procedat diacomus per medium chori, ipsum textum
super simistram manum solemmiter gestando ad pulpitum* accedat,
thuribu/ario et ceroferario precedemtibus. . . . Et semper legatur
evangelium versus aquilomem. Cum autem inceperit evangelium,
post Dominus vobiscum, faciat sigmum crucis super librum, deinde
in sua fromte, et postea im pectore cum pollice. Evangelium Secun-
dum N.
Finito evangelio, incipiat sacerdos in medio altaris:
Credo in unum Deum.
Sequatur: Dominus vobiscum. Et Oremus.
Deinde dicitur Offertorium.* Post Qffertorium vero porrigat
diaconus sacerdoti calicem cum patema et sacríficio ; et osculetur
manum ejus utraque vice. Jpse vero accipiems ab eo calicem di/i-
genter pomat in loco suo debito super medium altare; et inclimato
parumper elevet calicem utraque mamu offèrems sacrìficium Domimo,
dicemdo hamc orationem :
Suscipe, sancta Trinitas, hanc oblationem * quam ego indignus
peccator offero in honore tuo, beatæ Mariæ, et omnium sanctorum
tuorum, pro peccatis €t offensionibus meis, et pro salute vivorum et

quamur mox vestigia Quocunque
visa.' The alliteration will be ob-
served: indeed the Sequence appears
to have originated in a prolongation
of thelast syllable of Alleluya, which
was called neuma, or pmeuma. *Sig-
nificat diutina protractio notarum
ipsius halleluia gaudium cœlestis pa-
triæ, quod est absque fine. Et fit
sine voce significativa, quia tale gau-
dium nulla lingua exprimere potest.'
De Ploue, 7ractatus Sacerdotalis,
p. 256, Lugd. 1547.
1 Dommus, or Domma, was used
in the Middle Ages as a title of
respect; Domimus being in strict-
ness applied to the Deity.
i * Thehigh place, where the Gospel
was read, was sometimes called the
jube from the preceding phrase. The

old Chancel-screen still existing in
É French churches is called the

δé.

8 “The verse is so called, which was sung just before the oblation of the elements by the priest. And it was at this time that anciently the people made their offerings.' Maskell, Amciemt Liturgy, pp. 53 sq. The Qffertorium for the First Sunday in Advent was :—* Ad te, Domine, levavi animam meam : Deus meus, in te confido, non erubescam : neque irrideant me inimici mei, etenim universi qui te ~expectant non confundentur.'

4 For oblatiomem (Sarum and Hereford) the York Use has sacrificium, and the Roman immaculatam hostiam.

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