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sanctam Trinitatem invocamdo, ita dicens: N. Et ego baptizo te in
nomine Patris: Et mergat eum semel versa facie ad aguilonem, et
capite versus orientem: et Filii: Et iterum mergat semel versa facie
ad meridiem : et Spiritus Sancti : Amen. Et mergat tertio recta
facie versus aquam.1
This old form, to which the people were accustomed,
was retained in the first Prayer Book (1549), with the
permission that, “if the child be weak, it shall suffice to
pour water upon it.’ The action was brought to its
present simplicity in 1552:*—
Then the Priest shall take the child in his hands, and ask the
name, and naming the child, shall diff it in the water, so it be dis-

creetly and warily done, saying, &c. And if the child be weak, it shall suffice to four water upon it, saying, &c.

From this period also the giving of the Christian name at the time of Baptism was more clearly marked. Previously the child had been called by its future name many times during the earlier part of the Service; but these were now omitted, and the name was pronounced for the first time together with the act of Baptism. The alteration of the rubric in 1661 marks this still more clearly; and also shows that Baptism by immersion was no longer the rule: *—‘If they shall certify him that the child may well endure it, he shall dip it in the water discreetly, &c.’

Public Ba of ts.

Simplifted in 1552.

1 Manual. Sar. Ritus Baptizandi: Maskell, p. 23. This Ritual allowed a child in danger of death to be brought to church, and simply baptized without any ceremony: ‘AWotandum est etiam quod si infans sit in Aericulo mortis, tunc primo introducatur ad fontem, et postea baptizetur incipiendo ad hunc locum : Quid petis? Et si post baptismum vixerit, Aabeattotum residuum servitium supra dictum.” Ibid. p. 29.

* The form in Hermann's Consultation (fol. 178) was: “This prayer

ended, let the Pastor require the infants
to be given him, let him ask the names
that they shall have, and let him bap-
tize them, saying, I baptize thee N.
in the name of the Father, the Son,
and the Holy Ghost.’
* The undue stress laid upon im-
mersion by the Anabaptists might
well make it necessary that the
Church's rule should declare with-
out any doubt that the validity of the
Sacrament was not confined to that
one mode of its administration.

The Chris. tian name given at Baptism.

public Baptism of Infants.

after Bap-
The sign of
the Cross.

The Thanksgiving after Aaptism for Æegeneration:

After the action of Baptism, in 1549, two ancient ceremonies were retained,—the putting on the chrisom, and the anointing." The ceremony of making the sign of the Cross upon the child had occurred at an earlier part of the Service.” In 1552 this single ceremony was retained; * and its place was naturally altered so as to occupy that of the anointing after Baptism. The words used, which express that the Sacrament has been completed, and the newly-baptized thereby received into the congregation, belong entirely to our English Prayer


The Address to the congregation, with the Lord's Prayer, and the Thanksgiving that follows, were placed

here in 1552.

It is an important addition, expressing

so unequivocally the regeneration * of each baptized

1 ‘Then the Godfathers and God.
mothers shall take and lay their hands
upon the child, and the Minister shall
put upon him his white vesture, com-
monly called the chrisom ; and say,
Take this white vesture for a token
of the innocency which by God's
grace in this holy sacrament of
Baptism is given unto thee; and for
a sign whereby thou art admonished,
so long as thou livest, to give thyself
to innocency of living, that, after
this transitory life, thou mayest be
partaker of the life everlasting.
Amen. 7% en the Priest shall anoint
the infant upon the head, saying,
Almighty God, the Father of our
Lord Jesus Christ, who hath re-
generated thee by water and the
Holy Ghost, and hath given unto
thee remission of all thy sins: He
vouchsafe to anoint thee with the
unction of His Holy Spirit, and
bring thee to the inheritance of ever-
lasting life. Amen.” On the antiquity
of these ceremonies, see Guericke,
pp. 233 sqq.; Hook's Church Dict,
* Hermann's Consultation (fol.

174), like the Sarum Ordo ad faciend. Catechum., and the Prayer Book of 1549 (above, p. 374), uses this ceremony in connexion with the exorcism: “After this making the figure of the cross with his thumb upon his forehead, and upon his breast, let him say: Take the figure of the holy Cross in thy forehead, that thou never be ashamed of God and Christ thy Saviour, or of His Gospel; take it also on thy breast, that the power of Christ crucified may be ever thy succour and sure protection in all things.” * The sign of the Cross was used by the early Christians on every occasion (Tertull. de Corona, c. 3): whence it is reasonable to conclude, even without direct evidence, that they used it on the solemn occasion of Baptism, as we know that it was used, not as a new ceremony, in the fourth century: August. de Catech. Rud. c. 20: “Passionis et crucis signo in fronte hodie signandus es.’ See Bingham, XI, 9, §§ 4–6. * Regeneration is the ecclesiastical term applied to the grace

infant. The Lord's Prayer also begins the action of Thanksgiving, and thus occupies the same position in the Baptismal Service that it was made to occupy in the administration of the Lord's Supper, at the same revision of the Prayer Book in 1552. And this use of the Prayer of the Faithful is peculiarly suitable, as beginning the ecclesiastical life of the infant with the expression of what is to be henceforth his privilege, in calling upon God as Our Father. The Thanksgiving for the benefits of Baptism, which have now been received in regeneration, adoption, and incorporation into Christ's Church, is also a prayer for the grace of perseverance, and growth of the spiritual life." The Exhortation to the Godfathers and Godmothers was composed in 1549. Besides making mention of the Lord's Prayer and Creed, which had been enjoined in the old charge to the sponsors,” the Ten Commandments are added, and sermons are pointed out as the means of obtaining sound instruction. It also shortly reminds them that the duties of a Christian life ought to be found in daily exercise among all who are baptized.

received in Baptism. It is taken
from Tit. iii. 5, 61& Aovrpoi) traXiy-
oyeversas. In the language of
Christian antiquity, the Latin word
regeneratio, and the Greek, words
dvayévvmals, divakaivioués, dvákrious,
dvavéooris, ueta}oxii, wetatrosnois,
traxwroksa, taxi yyeveafa, constantly
signify the participation, and the
effects, of the sacrament of Baptism.
The term used to express a return-
ing to God, after a state of sin, is
aeróvota, paenitentia, conversio. Both
the schoolmen, and the most emi-
nent divines of the Reformation, use
these words in their ancient sense.
Aegeneratio and conversio are some-
times used as convertible terms by
Calvin, as they were afterwards at
the Synod of Dort (1618); but even
at that period the words retained
their distinction of meaning in exact
writing. In the sermons and books
written about the beginning of the
Rebellion, Regeneration came into
common use for Repentance and Con-

version ; and from the Puritans this
improper use of the word passed to
other writers, so much so that, at
the revision in 1661, some found
fault with the Prayer Book for re-
taining the word Regeneration in its
original sense, which it had kept for
sixteen centuries, in opposition to
their novel signification. Nicholls.
See above, pp. 123 sq.; Comber's
chapter upon ‘The Close and Con-
sequents after Baptism,’ Companion
to the Temple, III. iii. § 1 ; Browne,
Axft. of the Articles, pp. 615 sqq.;
Blunt, Lect. on the Early Fathers,
pp. $3. sqq.; Wall, Infant Baptism,
I. D. 28 I.
Comp, the expressions used in
the Collect for Christmas Day.
* “Godfathers and Godmothers of
this child, we charge you that ye
charge the father and the mother to
keep it from fire and water and other
perils to the age of vii year: and
that ye learn or see it be learned
the Paternoster, Ave Maria, and

Baptism of

beginning zozz/; the Lord’s Prayer.

The Azz dress to the SAonsors.

In the Prayer Book of 1549 a rubric followed this Exhortation:-

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The Minister shall command that the chrisoms be brought to the church, and delivered to the Priests after the accustomed manner, at the purification of the mother of every child; and that the children be brought to the Bishoff to be confirmed of him, so soon as they can say, in their vulgar tongue, the Articles of the Faith, the Lord’s Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, and be further instructed in the Catechism, set forth for that purpose, accordingly as it is there expressed. And so let the congregation depart in the name of the Lord.

The mention of the chrisoms was omitted in 1552, and the rubric itself was changed in 1661 for a specific form of words, in which the Minister is to give the direction about Confirmation. It was then necessary to bring this ordinance to the memories of the people; and more than probable that many Ministers ended the Service without noticing the rubric, or making any mention of Confirmation. At the same time the declaration of the undoubted salvation of baptized infants" was transposed

confirma tion,

Credo, after the law of all holy
church; and in all goodly haste to
be confirmed of my lord of the dio-
cese or of his deputy; and that the
mother bring again the chrisom at
her purification: and wash your
hand or ye depart the church.”
Manual. Sar. Benedictio Fontis ;
Maskell, p. 14. The rubric was
more specific : “et quod confirmetur
;|guam cito episcopus advenerit circa
Żartes per septem milliaria.’ Ibid.
. 25.
p I #hi. assertion carefully avoids
all mention of children unbaptized.
It is borrowed from The Institution

of a Christian Man (1537), p. 93:

“Item, that the promise of grace and everlasting life (which promise is adjoined unto this sacrament of Baptism) pertaineth not only unto such as have the use of reason, but also to infants, innocents, and young children; and that they ought therefore, and must needs be baptized; and that by the sacrament of Baptism they do also obtain remission of their sins, the grace and favour of God, and be made thereby the very sons of God. Insomuch as infants and children, dying in their infancy, shall undoubtedly be saved thereby,

from the Preface to the Confirmation Service to the end of the Baptismal Office; and reference was made to the 30th Canon (1604) for the object with which the sign of the Cross” had been retained.

SECT. II.-The Ministration of Private Baptism of
Children in Houses.

The following are the Rubrics of the mediaeval Office, relating to the Private Administration of Baptism by laymen :

AVolandum est quod quilibet sacerdos parochialis debet parochiami's suis formam bafftizand; in agua pura, naturali, et recenti, et non in alio liquore, frequenter in diebus dominici's easonere, ut si necessitas emergat sciant parvulos in forma ecclesiae baptizare, proserendo formam verborum baptism; in lingua materna, distincte et afferse et solume unica voce, nullo modo iterando verba illa rite semel prolata,

and else not.’ These last words were omitted in The necessary Doctrine, &c. (1543), p. 254, ed. Burton; and in 1549 the assertion was added, that it is certain by God's Word; showing that our Reformers are intending only to speak of that which is revealed—the covenanted mercy of Almighty God. See Laurence, Bampt. Zect. pp. 184 sq. 1 The following is Dr. Burgess's explanation of the use of this sign, accepted by King James I. and affirmed by the Archbishop of Canterbury to be the intention of the Church. “I know it is not made any part of the sacrament of Baptism, which is acknowledged by the canon to be complete without it, and not perfected or bettered by it. I understand it not as any sacramental, or operative, or efficacious sign bringing any virtue to Baptism, or the baptized. Where the Book says:—“And do sign him with the sigr of the cross, in token, &c.” I understand the Book not to mean,

that the sign of the cross has any virtue in it to effect or further this duty; but only to intimate and express by that ceremony, by which the ancients did avow their profession of Christ crucified, what the congregation hopeth and expecteth hereafter from the infant, namely, that he shall not be ashamed to prosess the faith of Christ crucified, into which he was even now baptized. And therefore also, when the 30th canon saith the infant is “by that sign dedicated unto the service of Christ,” I understand that dedication to import, not a real consecration of the child, which was done in Baptism itself; but only a ceremonial declaration of that dedication.’ Bennet, Paraphrase, &c. on the Common Prayer, pp. 206 sq. The American Prayer Book allows the sign of the Cross to be omitted, if those who present the insant shall desire it, al/hough the Church Anows no worthy cause of scruple concerning the same.

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Private Baptism of Infants.

and the sign

of the Cross.

Mediaeza İ

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