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, Ephesine. From the latter was derived the Spanish, or






THE Liturgies of the mediaeval Western Church appears

to be derived from two models, the Roman and the

Mozarabic Liturgy,” and also the Gallican, which conveyed the Ephesine Use to the original British Church.” Of the Daily Offices, in their earliest forms, the leading characteristics appear to have been the same in the East and in the West : and hence, in the reconstruction of the Western Ritual, which is supposed to have taken place about the fifth century, Eastern improvements and details were received with great facility. The ordinary service of the British Church in this early period most probably

* Neale, Essays on Liturgiology and Rome, , § Ix. Lit. of Gaul, § XI. Church History, pp. 125 sqq. Lit. of Britain and Ireland. See * See Palmer, Antiquities of the also the Preface, by Bishop Forbes, English Ritual, ‘Dissertation on to the Arbuthnott Missal, Burnt

Primitive Liturgies,’ $ VI. Lit. of island, 1864.
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Mission of
fo the

consisted of psalms, hymns, and canticles, sung partly at
night, partly in the early morning, and again in the
evening; and the change which was introduced in the
seventh century was probably no greater than the other
churches of the West had already experienced. At the
close of the sixth century, however, the condition of the
ancient Church of this country” was most deplorable:
the larger portion of the island, afterwards called Eng-
land, was occupied by tribes of heathen, and the Christians
were seeking shelter for their lives and their worship in
the wild districts of Wales, Cumberland, and Cornwall,
while some had retired to the Scottish Hebrides, and to
At this time (597) Augustine, the missionary from
Pope Gregory the Great, arrived, doubtless bringing with
him the Ritual which was at that time used at Rome.
But, in passing through Gaul, where indeed he stayed
some months, he became acquainted with the ‘Gallican
Use.’ Accordingly, when he was allowed to found a
church in Kent, he hesitated as to the form of service he
should appoint under the ecclesiastical circumstances of
the country. His own converts might be willing to
receive the Roman Use ; but within the limits of his
archbishopric, as granted by Gregory,” there were, in the
western parts of the island, the ancient British churches
in communion with their primate at Caerleon, and, on
the northern, numerous Irish missionaries had churches
of their converts. What therefore was to be the English

* See Freeman, Principles of Di- been founded by S. Comgall, circ. vine Service, I. pp. 234 sqq. 550.

* See Stillingfleet, Antiquities of * Beda, Hist. Eccl. I. 27: ‘Britthe British Churches; Soames, Ang- taniarum omnes episcopos tuæ fraSux. Church, “Introduction;' Carte, ternitati committimus, ut, indocti Hist, of England, I. 183. doceantur, infirmi persuasione ro

* The great monastery of Bangor, borentur, perversi auctoritate cora seaport in the County Down, had rigantur.”

Use, since the ritual customs* of the Gallican Church tJges.

differed from the Roman ? Upon this question he sought Gregory's decision, who allowed him to choose either the Roman or the Gallican form, or to select what he thought most suitable from the various forms used in the Catholic Church.° The result was that Augustine followed the principle upon which the Rituals of the European churches had been remodelled; and introduced into England a form of Liturgy founded on the Roman model, with ordinary Daily Offices derived from the southern French churches,* thus giving to the English Church its own national Use. Certain it is that the entire Roman Ritual was never used, although attempts

were made to force it upon

i Cf. S. Augustin. Epist. LIv. ad januarium, § 2 : * Alii jejunant sabbato, alii non ; alii quotidie communicant corpori et sanguini Domini, alii certis diebus accipiunt; alibi nullus dies prætermittitur quo non offeratur, alibi sabbato tantum et dominico, alibi tantum dominico— totum hoc genus rerum liberas habet observationes.'

3 Beda, Hist. I. 27 : * II. Interrogatio Augustini. Cum una sit fides, cur sunt ecclesiarum diversæ consuetudines, et altera consuetudo missarum in sancta Romana ecclesia, atque altera in Galliarum tenetur ? I Respondit Gregorius papa. Novit fraternitas tua Romanæ ecclesiæ consuetudinem, in qua se meminit nutritam. Sed mihi placet, sive in Romana, sive in Galiarum, seu in qualibet ecclesia aliquid invenisti quod plus omnipotenti Deo possit placere, sollicite eligas, et in Anglorum ecclesia, quæ adhuc ad fidem nova est, institutione præcipua, quæ de multis ecclesiis colligere potuisti, infundas. Non enim pro locis res, sed pro bonis rebus loca amanda sunt. Ex singulis ergo quibusque ecclesiis, quae pia,

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the Anglo-Saxon Church;*

quæ religiosa, quæ recta sunt elige,
et hæc quasi in fasciculum collecta
apud Anglorum mentes in consuetu-
dinem depone.'
8 Supposed to have been compiled
from Eastern sources by Cassian :
see Freeman, Primciples of Divime
Service, I. pp. 249 sqq.
* The disputed points were, the
time of keeping Easter, the form of
the tonsure, and antiphonal chanting.
Synod of Whitby (664); Bed. Hist.
Eccl. iii. 25 : Synod of Eastanfeld
(7oi), where Archbishop Wilfrid of
York declares * se primum fuisse,
ui verum Pascha in Nordanumbria
cotis ejectis docuerit, qui cantus
ecclesiasticosantiphonatim instituerit,
qui sanctissimi Benedicti regulam a
monachis observari jusserit : ' Wil-
kins, Comc. I. 65 : Council of Cloves-
hoo (747) ; * Tertio decimo definitur
decreto, ut uno eodemque modo do-
minicæ dispensationis in carne sacro-
sanctæ festivitates, in omnibus ad eas
rite competentibus rebus, id est, in
baptismi officio, in missarum cele-
bratione, in cantilenæ modo, cele-
brentur juxta exemplar videlicet quod
scriptum de Romana habemiis ec-
clesia. Itemque ut per gyrum totius


Origin of

. Uses.

and although the influence of Augustine's successors'
was doubtless felt in this direction in guiding those
changes in rites, and ceremonies, and prayers, which
every bishop was empowered to ordain within his own
The exercise of this power caused, in process of time,
a considerable variety in the manner of performing Divine
service; and the custom of a diocese in its ceremonial,
arrangement of certain portions of its service, introduc-
tion or omission of collects, became a distinct Use, and
was known by the name of that diocese. Thus gradually
the Uses or customs of York, Sarum, Hereford, Exeter,
Lincoln, Bangor, Aberdeen, and doubtless others of
which the records have perished, were recognised as
defined and established varieties of the Ritual of the

English Church.”

anni natalitia sanctorum uno eodem-
que die, juxta martyrologium ejus-
dem Romanæ ecclesiae, cum sua sibi
convenienti psalmodia seu cantilena
venerentur: ' Mansi, Conc. XII. 399.
Maskell (Ancient Liturgy, Preface,
p. liv.) argues that this sanction
given to the Roman usages must be
understood with a limitation, “so far
as the various dioceses would receive
them ;’ and indeed the object seems
rather to be directed to a uniformity
of time, and the Roman or Gregorian
chant. See Milman, Hist. of Latin
Christianity, bk. IV. ch. iii.; Ro-
bertson, Ch. Hist. II. p. 68.
I See Hardwick, Middle Age, pp.
6 sqq.; Soames, Ang.-Sax. Church,
pp. 60 sqq. The predominance of
the Benedictine Order in England
also tended to the adoption of the
Roman Sacramentary : Arbuthnott
Missal, Pref. p. lvii.
* The Use of a cathedral was
not necessarily followed by all the
churches in the diocese. The mo-
nasteries either followed the Use of

their Order, or introduced distinct varieties. Bernard had special usages at Clairvaux in Hymns, Suffrages, Processions, recitation of the Creed, Alleluya, and Gloria, ‘contra omnem ecclesiae morem:’ Abaelardi Opera, Epist. V. p. 249. Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter (1339), drew up a body of Statutes for his newly-founded collegiate church of St. Mary at Ottery: in the 7th he orders the Divine office on certain occasions to be performed ‘secundum ordinale et consuetudinarium quae eis fecimus et extraximus ex Exoniae et Sarum usibus.” Oliver, Monast. Exon. p. 268. An order relating to Barking monastery in Essex about 1390 is preserved in Dugdale, Monast. Anglic. I. 437, note k . . . . ‘quod conventus praedictus tres modos diversos habeat sui servitii dicendi: primo, horas suas dicat secundum regulam Sancti Benedicti; Psalterium suum secundum cursum Curie Romanae; missam vero secundum usum ecclesiae Sancti Pauli Lon. doniarum.” This Cursus A&omanæ

The most remarkable of these was the Use of Sarum. Uses It was a reformation of the Ritual, based upon the É.

earlier English and Norman customs, especially of

Rouen, and arranged about

Salisbury and Chancellor of England. He rebuilt his cathedral, collected together clergy distinguished for learning and skill in chanting, and took much pains to regulate the ecclesiastical offices; so that his church became a model for others, and his ‘custom-book” was wholly or partially followed in various parts” of the

Curie was a shortened service: Azevedo, De Div. Off. Exercit. Ix. p. 33: “Officium Curiae contractum erat, et mutationibus obnoxium, ob varias et continuas occupationes Summi Pontificis, et Cardinalium, aliorumque Prælatorum, qui ei in sacello diu noctuque interesse solebant.” It may be mentioned in connexion with this short ‘Cursus R. Curiae,’ that thereformed Roman Breviary (1536), containing more Scripture than ‘the Roman,’ is withal much shorter, and is entitled “Breviarium Romanae Curiae.” The Use of St. Paul's in London continued until 1414, in which year, ‘ Oct. 15, Richard Clif. ford, then Bishop of London, by the consent of the dean and chapter, ordained that from the first day of December following, beginning then at Vespers, the solemn celebration of Divine service therein, which before that time had been according to a peculiar form anciently used, and called Usus Sancti Pauli, should thenceforth be conformable to that of the church of Salisbury, for all Canonical Hours, both night and day.' Dugdale, Hist. of St. Paul's, p. 24. See Maskell, Ancient Liturgy, Preface, chap. IV., and examples of differences of Use, ib. p. xv. E. g. Fourth Sunday in Advent: comparing the Missals of York and Sarum, the

Io85 by Osmund, Bishop of

Psalm, the Offortory, and the Postcommunion are different ; the Hereford differed from the Sarum only in the Postcommunion, which was the same as in the York. The Epistles and Gospels appointed for Wednesdays and Fridays are very often different. 1 Brompton's Chron. (in Twysden's Scriptores x.) col. 977 : ‘Hic composuit librum ordinalem ecclesiastici officii quem Consuetudinarium vocant, quofere tota nunc [circ. 1200] Anglia, Wallia, et Hibernia utitur.” * Among the many foreigners who were appointed to bishoprics and abbacies was Thurstan, Abbot of Glastonbury (1083). He attempted to compel his monks to use a style of chanting invented by William of Fescamp. The chroniclers (Simeon of Durham, Scriptores X. col. 212 ; John Brompton, ib. 978; AngloSaxon Chronicle, ad an. IoS3) give a piteous description of the tumult and bloodshed that ensued; for armed soldiers drove the monks from the chapter, and slew many of them in the church. It is supposed that this outrage drew the attention of Osmund to the varieties of Use, and led him to revise the ritual upon the occasion of opening his new cathedral. Palmer, Orig. Zit.

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