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WO77CES OF CAERTAIW FOREIGNERS WHO HAVE BEEN
3% 1. ContinuAL controversies within the English Church have
turned upon the comparative merits and authority of the First
consulted about the revisal; and it is true that the opinions of |.
Some strangers were asked : but even in the case of such men as Bucer and Martyr, who from their position would naturally be consulted, and on points where alterations agreed with their expressed opinions, it is not certain that those alterations were made in consequence of their influence. Of all the foreigners who were engaged in the work of reformation, Melancthon and Luther had the greatest influence both in the general reformation of the
* Maskell, Ancient Liturgy, Pref. * Cardwell, Synodalia, vol. 1, p xcvi. Pref. p. x.
English Church, and in the composition of the English Book of
1 “Ego jam alteris literis in Angliam vocor.” Melancth. Æðist. No. 1172. Opp. II. 708; ed. Bretschneider. See Hardwick, Reformation, p. 196.
* Laurence, Bampton Lectures, p. 2OO.
8 “Regiis literis vocor in Angliam, quae scriptae sunt mense Maio.” Melancth. Æpist. No. 5447; Opp. VIII.
lexi episcopum dedisse mandatum, ut forma doctrinae et rituum proponenda ecclesiis conscribatur, quidem ad exemplum Norimbergensis formae.’ Melancthon, Epist. No. 2706; Opp. v. 112. ‘Scrips; vobis antea Episcopum secuturum esse formam Norimbergensem, erataue ante meum adventum institutus liber ad exemplum Norimbergense scribendus. Retinuit pleraque Osiandri Bucerus; quosdam articulos auxit, ut est copiosus. Mihi, cum omnia relegissem, attribuit articulos tepl rpióv Štrootáoreov, de creatione, de peccato originis, de justitia fidei et operum, de ecclesia, de poenitentia. In his consumpsi tempus hactenus, et legi de •caeremoniis Baptismi et Coenae Domini quae ipse composuit.’ Epist. No. 2707, ibid.
for the public services and administration of the sacraments, with forms of prayer and a litany; and also expositions of several points of faith and duty.” The Litany presents many striking affinities with the amended English Litany of 1544. The exhortations in the Communion Service (1548 and 1549), and portions of the Baptismal Services, are mainly due to this book, through which the influence of Luther may be traced in our Prayer-Book, where additions or considerable changes were made in translating the old Latin Services.” 4. Martin Bucer arrived in England, at Cranmer's invitation, in April 1549, and was appointed King's Professor of Divinity at Cambridge. His opinion of the First Prayer Book, which was then in course of publication, he gives in a letter written to the friends whom he had left at Strasburg, on the day after he reached Lambeth : “The cause of religion, as far as appertains to the establishment of doctrines and the definition of rites, is nearly what could be wished. . . . . We hear that some concessions have been made both to a respect for antiquity, and to the infirmity of the present age. . . . .° Of the use of vestments, candles, commemoration of the dead, and chrism, he says, “They affirm that there is no superstition in these things, and that they are only to be retained for a time. . . . This circumstance greatly refreshed us, that all the services in the churches are read and sung in the vernacular tongue, that the doctrine of Justification is purely and soundly taught, and the Eucharist administered according to Christ’s ordinance.” . . . .” In the following year he was required to state his opinion touching any parts of the Prayer #: Book which seemed to him to need alteration: and he then again - expressed his general satisfaction with it. He prepared, however, a laborious criticism of the whole book, extending to twenty-eight chapters.” Bucer's He objects to the use of the choir for Divine Service, as being o's an antichristian separation of the clergy from the laity, and also #. too. inconvenient for hearing. - Communion He speaks in terms of general approbation of the Communion Office. Service,” and the order that intending communicants should
1 This work was first published
ments, of ceremonies, and the whole in German in 1543, ‘Simplex judi
cure of souls, and other ecclesiastical
cium de Reformatione Ecclesiarum
ministries, may be begun among men
The “Coptsultation' of Aermann, art húishop of Cologne.
of English Reformation,
and ceremoretes retained tn 1549,
signify their names to the Curate, and the new directions about the form and substance of the Bread, which he wishes to be made still thicker, so as to resemble real bread. He objects to the use of any part of the Office without proceeding to an actual communion, to the receiving of oblations from persons absent, to the practice of non-communicants remaining in church, and to certain gestures, such as kneeling, crossing, knocking upon the breast, which were practised by many people, and allowed, though not directed by a rubric. He objects to the use of peculiar vestments * at this Service, because they had been abused to superstition, and would lead to disputes; also to the delivery of the Bread into the mouth instead of the hand of the communicant, and to the direction to place upon the holy table so much bread and wine as may be sufficient for the communicants, as implying a superstitious notion of the effect of consecration : he
allows, however, that at a very
1 ‘Equidem cum primum in hoc regnum venissem, quae publice dogmata quique ritus in ecclesia essent recepti, videremdue eo, num, meum possem ministerium his solido consensu adjungere, librum istum Sacrorum per interpretem, quantum potui, cognovi diligenter; quo facto egi gratias Deo, qui dedisset vos has caeremonias eo puritatis reformare; nec enim quicquam in illis deprehendi, quod non sit ex verbo Dei desumptum, aut saltem ei non adversetur commode acceptum. Nam non desunt paucula quaedam, quae si quis non candide interpretetur, videri queant non satis cum verbo Dei congruere.” Buceri Prologus in Censuram.
2 * Censura Martini Buceri super libro Sacrorum, felt ordinationis eccle
early period care was taken to
siae atque ministerii, ecclesiastici in
* “De hac quantas possum ago gratias Deo, qui dedit eam tam puram, tamgue religiose ad verbum Dei exactam, maxime illo jam tempore quo hoc factum est, constitui. Perpaucis enim verbis et signis exceptis nihil omnino in ea conspicio, quod non ex divinis depromptum Scripturis sit; simodo omnia populis Christi digna religione exhiberentur atdue explicarentur.” Ibid. p. 465.
* “Non quod credam in ipsis quicquam esse impii per se, ut piihomines illis non possint pie uti.” Ibid. p. 458.
avoid profanation of the remains of the consecrated elements.