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Influonce of

Visitation of

congregation: he approves of the ceremonies of the ring and
marriage-gifts, and the manner of first laying them upon the
book, and then receiving them from the Minister to give to the
Bride. In the office of the Visitation of the Sick he objects to the
anointing ; and, in the Burial Service, to the form of commending
the soul to God, or in any terms praying for the dead. He wishes
the Commination Service to be used more frequently than on
the first day of Lent, or even than four times in the year; the
denunciations he thinks should be arranged in the order of the
Decalogue. Bell-ringing he greatly dislikes, and would have it
entirely forbidden, except only before service. If any Festivals
were retained, besides those of our Lord, and a very few others,
he thinks that they should be observed only in the afternoon. He
speaks of many people walking about and talking in the churches,
and therefore wishes them to be shut when no Service was pro-
ceeding. As additions to the Prayer Book, he wishes a Confession
of Faith to be composed, shortly and clearly declaring the points
that were controverted in that age ; and also a larger Catechism.”
The examination in the Ordination Service he wishes to be ex-
tended to disputed points of theology, and he desires that Ministers
should be kept to their duty by annual inspections and Synods.”
Bucer delivered this work to the Bishop of Ely, January 5, 1551.
In it he had fully and plainly recorded his opinion of the Prayer-
Book; but although the points censured were for the most part
altered in the revised book, yet these alterations do not seem to
have resulted from Bucer's opinion, but rather to have been settled
before the two foreign Professors were even asked to give their
judgments.” Bucer died on the last day of February in this year.
5. Peter Martyr arrived in England in November 1547, and
was appointed King's Professor of Divinity at Oxford. We might

the Sick. &urial.




a Cf. Soames, Hist. Ref. Ed. V/.

1 ‘Item quibus visitatio Mariae matris Domini, natalis Johannis, et divi Petri atque Pauli, Martyrum, Angelorumque peragitur memoria.” Bucer, Censura, p. 494.

* “In quo singulae Catechismi
partes, Symbolum quod vocant Apos-
tolorum, decem praecepta, Oratio
Dominica, institutio Baptismatis,
Coenae, ministerii ecclesiastici, disci-
plinae poenitentialis, sic explicentur,
ut populus in horum explanatione
locos omnes religionis . . . . valeat
perdiscere.' Ibid. p. 501.

p. 596; Collier, Eccl. Hist. v. pp.
387 sqq.
4 ‘Quod me mones de puritate
rituum, scito hic neminem extraneum
de his rebus rogari,’ writes Bucer
to a friend in Cambridge, Jan. 12,
1550, which is referred to by Beza
when defending Bucer from the
charge of having been the author of
our Baptismal Service. Laurence,
Bampt. Lect. p. 246. See also the
expressions in the latter part of Mar-
tyr's Letter to Bucer, quoted below.

therefore expect him to have been employed about the First Book of Edward VI. But his name is not amongst the compilers; nor does he appear to have been consulted, until the revisal of the book was in hand. We have his own account of his criticism, in a letter to Bucer (Jan. Io, 1551). It seems that he was not acquainted with the contents of the Prayer Book, and that no complete Latin version was within his reach. A version, probably of the ordinary Services, by Cheke, was put into his hands, and upon it he offered his annotations to the archbishop. Afterwards, on reading Bucer's larger treatise, he was surprised to find what the book contained, and added his approval of his friend's observations. He notices one point which he marvels that Bucer had overlooked, that if a sick person was to receive the Communion on the same day that it was publicly administered in the church, a portion of the consecrated elements was to be reserved and carried to the sick person. The conclusion of his letter shows that he perfectly understood that his opinion was not to guide the amendments which would be introduced into the Prayer Book, though he rejoices in having the opportunity of ‘admonishing the bishops.”

6. Bullinger kept up a continual correspondence with all who were engaged in the work of reformation. He dedicated treatises to Henry VIII. and Edward VI., and also to English noblemen, whose names and titles were carefully sent to him by his countrymen, several of whom were in England for purposes of education.2 His opinion was often sought upon points of doctrine and order; but it does not appear that he had any influence in the formation or revisal of our Service-Book. On the homiletic teaching of the English Church his influence must be allowed. One of his great works was a body of divinity in fifty sermons, of which each parcel was sent into England as soon as published. This work was translated for the special benefit of the clergy in Queen Elizabeth's reign.” *

1 ‘Conclusum jam est in hoc eorum colloquio, quemadmodum mihi retulit reverendissimus, ut multa immutentur. Sed quaenam illa sint, quae consenserint emendanda, neque ipse mihi exposuit, neque ego de illo quaerere ausus sum. Verum hoc non me partum recreat, quod mihi D. Checus indicavit: si noluerint ipsi, ait, efficere ut quae mutanda sint mutentur, rex per seipsum id faciet; et cum ad parliamentum ventum suerit,

ipse suae majestatis authoritatem in-
terponet.' Peter Martyr, Letter to
Bucer; Strype, Cranmer, App. LXI.
See Hardwick, Reformation, p. 222.
* John ab U/mis to Bullinger,
Orig. Lett. cxcII. (Park. Soc.)
* It was printed in 1577, 1584, and
1587; the latter edition being pub-
lished with the royal authority, hav-
ing had the sanction of Convocation
in 1586, when Whitgift introduced
some “Orders for the better increase

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Influence of

Calvin. .

DUs Polla-

7. Upon such a subject as the reformation of the Service Book of a national Church, it cannot be doubted that Calvin would put forth all the influence which he had. Accordingly we find him

endeavouring to guide those whom he conceived to be the leaders of the cause in this country. He wrote a long letter to the Pro

tector Somerset (Oct. 22, 1548), introducing every subject which
possibly might be debated; treating of forms of prayer, which he
approves; of the Sacraments; of ceremonies; and of discipline.”
At the same time he wrote to Bucer, who had been invited by
Cranmer to come to England, not to fail, through his well-known
moderation, in urging a thorough removal of superstitious rites.”
To the same effect he wrote to Cranmer himself.” No part, how-
ever, of our formularies can be traced to his influence. He had
prepared a directory for divine service in French while he was at
Strasburg. This he afterwards published in Latin with emenda-
tions, as the form of the Church at Geneva, in 1545. It is quite
certain that our Book of Common Prayer (1549) had not the most
distant resemblance to this production.*
8. During the revisal of the Prayer-Book, the forms of Service
were published which were used by the congregations of foreign
refugees in England. One of these was, in its original shape, the
above-named French work of Calvin. He had been succeeded in

| the pastorship of the Church of Strangers at Strasburg by Pullain,

who was obliged to flee from that city with his congregation, by reason of the publication of the Interim" (1548), an imperial manifesto adverse to the Reformers. These people were chiefly weavers of worsted; and on their arrival in England the Duke of Somerset gave them a home in the abbey buildings at Glastonbury, and provided them with the means of carrying on their manufacture." In February 1551, Pullain published their Order of Service in Latin,7 with a dedication to King Edward, to defend his Church from the slanders of the Romanists, who, as usual, had accused them of licentiousness. This book has been supposed to have furnished hints to the revisers of the Book of Common Prayer in some additions which were made in I 552 to the ancient Services. The introductory Sentences, with the Exhortation, Confession, and Absolution, which were then placed at the beginning of the Morning and Evening Prayer, and the Ten Commandments with the Responses, especially the last, subjoined to them, which were at the same time introduced at the beginning of the Communion Service, are supposed to be due in some degree to this publication of Pollanus. Possibly another source may be found for a part of these additions. It was only an idea, however, or an occasional allusion, which was borrowed: and in the above-mentioned particulars, where alone any resemblance can be traced, the similarity belongs to the work of Pollanus, not to Calvin's translation of the same original.” The following is the passage referred to, being the commencement of the Sunday Service:

The Strasburg Liturgy.

of learning in the inferior ministers,’ 4 Laurence, Bampt. Zect. p. 208.
and among them, that each minister " See Soames, Hist. Ref. Zd. VI.
should read over one of Bullinger's pp. 492 sqq.; Hardwick, Reforma-
sermons every week, and take notes tion, pp. 68 sq.
of its principal matters; the notes to * Strype, Cranmer, II. 23.
be shown to a licensed preacher 7 “I.iturgia Sacra, seu Ritus Mi-
every quarter. See Cardwell, Syno- misterii in ecclesia peregrinorum pro-

dalia, ii. 562. fugorum propter Evangelium Christi
* Calvin. Op. tom. VIII. Epistolæ Argentinae. Adjecta est ad finem
et Responsa, p. 39. brevis Apologia pro hac Liturgia, per
* Ibid. p. 49. Valerandum Pollanum Flamdrum.

* Ibid. p. 61. Lond, 23 Februar. Ann. 1551.’

“Die dominico mane hora octava, cum jam adest populus, Pastore accedente Choraules incipit clara voce, Leve le cavevr, ac populus accinit cum modestia et gravitate summa, ut ne quid voluptati aurium, sed serviant omnia reverentiae Dei, et aedificationi tam canentium, quam audientium, si qui fortasse adsint non CanenteS. Cum absolverint primam tabulam, tum pastor mensae astans versus ad populum sic incipit: Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini, qui fecit coelum et terram. Amen. Deinde clara et distincta voce populum admonet de confessione peccatorum, hisque verbis praeit: l Fratres, cogitet nunc vestrum unusquisque se coram Deo sisti, ut pcccata et delicta sua omnia simplici animo confiteatur et agnoscat, atque apud vosmetipsos me praeeuntem sequinini his verbis. Domine Deus, Pater aeterne et omnipotens, agnoscimus et fatemur ingenue apud sanctissimam Majestatem tuam, peccatores esse nos miseros, adeoque a prima origine, qua concepti et nati sumus, tam ad omne malum esse pronos, quam ab omni bono alienos ; quo vitio tuas leges sanctissimas assidue transgredimur, eoque nobis exitium justissimo tuo judicio conquirimus. Attamen, Domine Deus, poenitet sic offendisse bonitatem tuam, proindeque nos et facta nostra omnia nimium scelerata damnamus,

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orantes ut tu pro tua clementia huic nostræ calamitati succurras. Miserere igitur nostri omnium, O Deus et Pater clementissime ac misericors, per nomen filii tui Jesu Christi Domini nostri te obtestamur ; ac deletis vitiis, ablutisque sordibus cunctis, largire atque adauge indies Spiritus tui sancti vim et dona in nobis, quo vere et serio nostram miseriam intelligentes, nostramque injustitiam agnoscentes, veram poenitentiam agamus : qua mortui peccato deinceps abundemus fructibus justitiae ac innocentiae quibus tibi placeamus per Jesum Christum filium tuum unicum redemptorem ac mediatorem nostrum. Amen.

Hic pastor ex scriptura sacra sententiam aliquam remissionis peccatorum populo recitat, in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Ac toto hoc tempore populus magna cum reverentia vel astat, vel procumbit in genua, utut animus cujusque tulerit. Demum pronuntiato Evangelio hoc remissionis peccatorum a pastore, rursum populus præeunte Choraule totum decalogum absolvit, tum pastor ad orandum hortatus Ecclesiam his verbis ipse præit.

Dominus adsit nobis, ut Deum oremus unanimes:

Domine Deus, Pater misericors, qui hoc decalogo per servum tuum Mosen nos Legis tuæ justitiam docuisti; dignare cordibus nostris eam ita tuo spiritu inscribere, ut nequicquam deinceps in vita magis optemus, aut velimus, quam tibi obedientia consummatissima placere in omnibus, per Jesum Christum filium tuum.

'l Amen.

Hic Ecclesia eandem orationem verbis prope iisdem Choraule præeunte succinit. Interea pastor suggestum conscendit ad concionandum. . .'

It will be seen from this extract that this service of Pollanus may have furnished the hint, that the decalogue should be repeated in the public Service. But in the English book the Commandments were to be plainly recited in the hearing of the people, instead of being sung by them in metre ; and they were appointed to be said not in the Morning Prayer, but at the commencement of the Communion, or principal Service. The words, * dignare cordibus mostris eam ita tuo spiritu imscribere,' contain the subject of the petition which was placed as the concluding response after the Commandments, * write a// these thy /aws in our hearts.' Comparing this cxtract with the commencement of our Daily Prayer, we must observe that there is not one strictly parallel sentence, and Pollanus gives no form of Absolution at all. Allthat can be alleged

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