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” Wames of Saints inserted.
Calendar was directed in the Queen's letter; yet we find that it was revised in other respects. Tables of the Moveable Feasts, and for determining Easter, were added : and the names of saints, which had been omitted from the first reformed Prayer Book, were inserted as they stand in our present Calendar." It was a small selection from the list of names, one for almost every day in the year, which had been published in the preceding year with the Latin Prayer Book, and was now placed in the Énglish Calendar, partly no doubt that the marks of time employed in courts of law might be understood, and that the old dates of parochial festivities and fairs might be retained; but partly with the higher object of perpetuating the memory of ancient Christian worthies, some of them connected, or supposed to be connected, with the English Church, and thereby of evincing how that Church was still in spirit undissevered from the national church of earlier years, and from the brotherhood of Catholic Christianity.”
Perhaps less care was taken in re-
canonical may be thought to have.”
THE ‘Order of the Communion’ (March 1548) was sent to Frankfort, as soon as it was published. There Miles Coverdale translated it into German, and also into Latin ; the Latin copy being sent to Calvin, with some idea that he would approve and cause it to be printed." This, however, does not seem to have been done. Another translation was made, and was immediately printed in London. The title is, Ordo distributionis sacrament; altaris sub utrague specie, et formula confessionis faciendao in regno Anglia. The initials of the translator are ‘A. A. S. D. Th.,’ which are those of Alexander Ales, or Alane,” a Scotch divine and physician of known reformed opinions in the time of Henry VIII.,” and who afterwards translated the entire Prayer Book of 1549.
This work has been generally considered as undertaken in order to meet Bucer's wants, when he was required to give his judgment of the English reformed Book of Service,”—a statement which seems to have arisen from the fact that the translation is printed in Bucer's Scripta Anglicana, before his Censura.
Mr. Clay, in his valuable preface to the Elizabethan Liturgical Services (p. xxv.), argues that Bucer could not have used this translation, because his treatise is dated “Nonis Januarii, 1551,” the same year in which it was published : and, moreover, Ales himself gives other reasons for his work, that he desired to make known the progress of the reformed doctrines and practices, ‘paene
might make himself acquainted with
Latin Versions. The Orderos Communion translated by Coverdale;
and by Alexander Ales.
The First Rook of A dward VI. translated &y Ales.
This transdation used by Bucer.
patriae ipsius, among the foreigners with whom he had lived, ‘ vel
1 Prooemium Alesii: Buceri Script.
* See above, p. 43.
* Francis Enzinas, or Dryander, or Duchesne, was born at Burgos about 1515. He became a scholar of Melancthon, and translated the New Testament into Spanish in 1542, for which he was imprisoned. He made his escape, and fled to Geneva. He came to England in
1548, and was placed at Cambridge
given in their old Latin words (e.g. among the Collects, that for St. Stephen's Day, Second Sunday in Lent, &c.), some clauses are interpolated (e.g. in the Collect for the Purification, the words, ‘justusque Simeon mortem non widit priusquam Christum Domimum videre mereretur’); some phrases are curiously changed (e.g. in the Collect for St. Thomas's Day, “suffer to be doubtful’ is rendered dubitantem confirmasti, and in the Collect for St. Philip and St. James, the words, “as thou hast taught St. Philip and other the Apostles, are rendered id quod sancti Apostoli tui Philippus et Jacobus crediderunt et docuerunt); and some parts must be called compositions of the translator (e.g. Collect for St. Luke's Day). Similar variations are found in other parts of the book.
The opening of the Litany is thus given:
The petition, “to give to all nations, is rendered Ut omnibus Christianis pacem, &c.
In the Communion Office, the second Collect for the King is almost entirely a composition: Omnipotens atterne Deus, in cujus manu corda sunt Fegum, qui es humilium consolator, et sidelium fortitudo, ac protector in te sperantium, da Regi nostro Edvardo seato wt super omnia, et in omnibus te honoret et amet, et studeat servare populo suae Majestati commisso pacem, cum omni pietate et honestate, per Christum Dominum nostrum. Then in the rubric, “the priest, or he that is appointed, shall read the Epistle, is Sacerdos aut subdiacomus, and ‘the priest, or one appointed to read the Gospel,’ is Sacerdos aut diaconus. “The most comfortable Sacrament of the body and blood of Christ,' is Sacramentum plenum consolationis, Hoc est, corpus et sanguinem Christi. The whole sentence beginning, “And if any man have done wrong to any other, &c., is omitted ; it was inserted in 1549, and Ales in this part retained his translation of the Office of 1548. The rubric directing communicants to “tarry still in the quire . . . the men on the one side, and the women on the other side, is rendered, Tunc communicaturi pervenient in Chorum, vel locum vicinum, viri a dertris, mulieres a sinistris separatim et disjunctim genus!ectant. The rubric directing the preparation of the elements is, Tunc sacerdos tot hostias calici aut corporali imponet, i.e. ‘so much
Latin Versions. Variations . of Ales's Wer. sion from the Prayer Book (1549).
The Universities petttion %:
* Matin Service.
bread . . . laying the bread upon the corporas, or else in the paten, or in some other comely thing prepared for that purpose.” The Absolution widely differs from the English, which is our present form: Dominus noster Jesus Christus, qui suam potestatem dedit Acclesiae, ut absolvat £aenitentes a peccatio isosorum, et reconciliet calesti Patri eos, qui suam fiduciam collocant in Christum, misereatur vestri, &c.; this Ales took from Hermann’s ‘Simplex ac pia Deliberatio.” The form of words at the delivery of the elements is rendered, Corpus Domini nostri jesu Christi, quod traditum est pro te, conservet corpus tuum, et perducat animam tuam ad vitam aeferream. Sanguis . . . qui pro te effusus est, conservet animam tream ad vitam atternam. The second clause of the concluding blessing is omitted, Ales retaining the short form of his previous version of the Office of 1548. In the Office of Baptism all mention is omitted of the anointing after putting on the chrisom.
These notices of the carelessness of Ales in his version of the Prayer Book of 1549 are more than historical curiosities. The English Book was much altered, as we have seen, in 1552, and was again revised at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign. Then it was determined that the revised book should appear also in Latin. This was done in compliance with a petition of the Universities, that the Act of Uniformity, which allowed Public Service only according to the English Book, should not be strictly applied to the chapels of colleges. Permission was granted by a royal letter” that the Service might be said in such chapels in Latin, provision being also made for an English Service and Communion, at least on festivals. And all ministers were exhorted to use this Latin form privately on those days on which they did not say the public prayers in English in their churches.
The authorship of this Latin version has been given to Walter Haddon.” He was probably editor, or one of the editors;3 but the real basis of the work was the old translation of the Prayer Book of 1549 by Ales. And so little care seems to have been taken to bring the Latin into agreement with the revised English Book, that it has been suspected that this apparent carelessness was intentional, and that, by means of this Latin version, the Universities and public schools, and the clergy in their private devotions, would become reconciled to the observances of the First Book of Edward VI.4
1 Cardwell, Doc. Ann. L. * See Clay, Eliz. Liturgical Ser.