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The Calendar.

Wames of Saints inserted.

Calendar was directed in the Queen's letter; yet we find that it was revised in other respects. Tables of the Moveable Feasts, and for determining Easter, were added : and the names of saints, which had been omitted from the first reformed Prayer Book, were inserted as they stand in our present Calendar." It was a small selection from the list of names, one for almost every day in the year, which had been published in the preceding year with the Latin Prayer Book, and was now placed in the Énglish Calendar, partly no doubt that the marks of time employed in courts of law might be understood, and that the old dates of parochial festivities and fairs might be retained; but partly with the higher object of perpetuating the memory of ancient Christian worthies, some of them connected, or supposed to be connected, with the English Church, and thereby of evincing how that Church was still in spirit undissevered from the national church of earlier years, and from the brotherhood of Catholic Christianity.”

Perhaps less care was taken in re-
vising the lists of daily Lessons from
the discretion which was allowed of
reading other chapters than those
appointed. The clergy were enjoined
to use this discretion, in the Admo-
nition prefixed to the Second Book
of Homilies (1564). And Abbot,
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury
(1611), writes that in his time it was
‘not only permitted to the minister,
but commended in him, if wisely
and quietly he do read canonical
Scripture where the apocryphal upon
good judgment seemeth not so fit;
or any chapter of the canonical may
be conceived not to have in it so
much edification before the simple
as some other part of the same

canonical may be thought to have.”
Cardwell, Doc. Ann. I. p. 294, note.
* With the Festivals of our Lord,
the Purification and Annunciation
of the Virgin Mary, John the Bap-
tist, the Apostles and Evangelists,
St. Michael, All Saints, and Inno-
cents, the Calendar (1559) contained
only the names of St. George and St.
Lawrence, and some editions also
St. Clement.
2 A full explanation of the Ca-
lendar will be found in Sir H.
Nicholas, Chronology of History;
and a short account of the Saints
and Holydays retained in our present
Calendar, in Bishop Mant's edition
of the Prayer Book with Motes.


THE ‘Order of the Communion’ (March 1548) was sent to Frankfort, as soon as it was published. There Miles Coverdale translated it into German, and also into Latin ; the Latin copy being sent to Calvin, with some idea that he would approve and cause it to be printed." This, however, does not seem to have been done. Another translation was made, and was immediately printed in London. The title is, Ordo distributionis sacrament; altaris sub utrague specie, et formula confessionis faciendao in regno Anglia. The initials of the translator are ‘A. A. S. D. Th.,’ which are those of Alexander Ales, or Alane,” a Scotch divine and physician of known reformed opinions in the time of Henry VIII.,” and who afterwards translated the entire Prayer Book of 1549.

This work has been generally considered as undertaken in order to meet Bucer's wants, when he was required to give his judgment of the English reformed Book of Service,”—a statement which seems to have arisen from the fact that the translation is printed in Bucer's Scripta Anglicana, before his Censura.

Mr. Clay, in his valuable preface to the Elizabethan Liturgical Services (p. xxv.), argues that Bucer could not have used this translation, because his treatise is dated “Nonis Januarii, 1551,” the same year in which it was published : and, moreover, Ales himself gives other reasons for his work, that he desired to make known the progress of the reformed doctrines and practices, ‘paene

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might make himself acquainted with
the English Liturgy. So also Strype,
Life of Cranmer, II. I6. |

Latin Versions. The Orderos Communion translated by Coverdale;

and by Alexander Ales.

The First Rook of A dward VI. translated &y Ales.

This transdation used by Bucer.

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patriae ipsius, among the foreigners with whom he had lived, vel
ad exemplum, vel consolationem, vel etiam dolorem aliquorum;’
and it was published at that particular time when a convention
to debate upon ecclesiastical matters was expected to be held
under the auspices of the Emperor Charles V. But Bucer must
have had access to a much more complete version than that of
Sir John Cheke, which was laid before Martyr. And his informa-
tion respecting the contents of the Prayer Book can hardly have
been derived merely from an oral translation, from which, at his
first coming into England, he had formed a notion of the Church
to which he was joining himself.” A translation had been made
at Cambridge by Dryander,3 before June 1549 :* and this version
or compendium, made by the Greek Professor at his own Uni-
versity, was most probably known to Bucer. Ales published his
version, Jan. 5, 1551, which is also the date of the Censura, follow-
ing the usual custom in Germany of reckoning the year to begin on
the first of January.” Yet it is at least possible that Bucer may
have seen Ales's version before its publication. The title which
he gives to the Prayer Book, calling it “Liber Sacrorum, seu Ordi-
natio Ecclesiae atque Ministerii Ecclesiastici in Regno Angliae,’
seems to be taken from Ales; for the real title of the English Book
was, ‘The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the
Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies in the Church of
England,’ while Ales's title was Ordinatio Ecclesia, seu Minis-
ferii Ecclesiastici, in florentissimo Regno Angliae, conscripta
sermone patrio, et in Latinam linguam bona side conversa, et ad
consolationem Ecclesiarum Christi, ubicumque locorum ac gentium,
his tristissimis temporibus, edita ab Alexandro Alesio, Scoto,
Sacrae Theologia Doctore. Lipsiae, M.D.L.I.
As to the work itself, it cannot be said to come up to those
expressions of good faith and of simple honesty as a translation
which Ales put forth in his title-page and preface. Some por-
tions, which had been altered in translating from the Missal, are

1 Prooemium Alesii: Buceri Script.

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* See above, p. 43.

* Francis Enzinas, or Dryander, or Duchesne, was born at Burgos about 1515. He became a scholar of Melancthon, and translated the New Testament into Spanish in 1542, for which he was imprisoned. He made his escape, and fled to Geneva. He came to England in

1548, and was placed at Cambridge
as Greek Professor. Orig. Letters,
CLXX, p. 348, note.
* “Ejus libri compendium Latime
scriptum mitto ad dominum Va-
dianum ea lege ut tibi communicet.’
Dryander, Letter to Bullinger (June
5, 1549), Orig. Lett. CLXXI.
* Hardwick, Aeformation, p. 223;
Nicholas, Chronology, p. 47.

given in their old Latin words (e.g. among the Collects, that for St. Stephen's Day, Second Sunday in Lent, &c.), some clauses are interpolated (e.g. in the Collect for the Purification, the words, ‘justusque Simeon mortem non widit priusquam Christum Domimum videre mereretur’); some phrases are curiously changed (e.g. in the Collect for St. Thomas's Day, “suffer to be doubtful’ is rendered dubitantem confirmasti, and in the Collect for St. Philip and St. James, the words, “as thou hast taught St. Philip and other the Apostles, are rendered id quod sancti Apostoli tui Philippus et Jacobus crediderunt et docuerunt); and some parts must be called compositions of the translator (e.g. Collect for St. Luke's Day). Similar variations are found in other parts of the book.

The opening of the Litany is thus given:
Cantores. l Chorus.
2. Pater de caelis Deus.
2. Fili redemptor mundi Deus.
2. Spiritus sancte Deus, ab utroque procedens.
Sancta Trinitas, unus Deus.

Miserere nobis.

The petition, “to give to all nations, is rendered Ut omnibus Christianis pacem, &c.

In the Communion Office, the second Collect for the King is almost entirely a composition: Omnipotens atterne Deus, in cujus manu corda sunt Fegum, qui es humilium consolator, et sidelium fortitudo, ac protector in te sperantium, da Regi nostro Edvardo seato wt super omnia, et in omnibus te honoret et amet, et studeat servare populo suae Majestati commisso pacem, cum omni pietate et honestate, per Christum Dominum nostrum. Then in the rubric, “the priest, or he that is appointed, shall read the Epistle, is Sacerdos aut subdiacomus, and ‘the priest, or one appointed to read the Gospel,’ is Sacerdos aut diaconus. “The most comfortable Sacrament of the body and blood of Christ,' is Sacramentum plenum consolationis, Hoc est, corpus et sanguinem Christi. The whole sentence beginning, “And if any man have done wrong to any other, &c., is omitted ; it was inserted in 1549, and Ales in this part retained his translation of the Office of 1548. The rubric directing communicants to “tarry still in the quire . . . the men on the one side, and the women on the other side, is rendered, Tunc communicaturi pervenient in Chorum, vel locum vicinum, viri a dertris, mulieres a sinistris separatim et disjunctim genus!ectant. The rubric directing the preparation of the elements is, Tunc sacerdos tot hostias calici aut corporali imponet, i.e. ‘so much

Latin Versions. Variations . of Ales's Wer. sion from the Prayer Book (1549).

Latin Versicns.

The Universities petttion %:

* Matin Service.

bread . . . laying the bread upon the corporas, or else in the paten, or in some other comely thing prepared for that purpose.” The Absolution widely differs from the English, which is our present form: Dominus noster Jesus Christus, qui suam potestatem dedit Acclesiae, ut absolvat £aenitentes a peccatio isosorum, et reconciliet calesti Patri eos, qui suam fiduciam collocant in Christum, misereatur vestri, &c.; this Ales took from Hermann’s ‘Simplex ac pia Deliberatio.” The form of words at the delivery of the elements is rendered, Corpus Domini nostri jesu Christi, quod traditum est pro te, conservet corpus tuum, et perducat animam tuam ad vitam aeferream. Sanguis . . . qui pro te effusus est, conservet animam tream ad vitam atternam. The second clause of the concluding blessing is omitted, Ales retaining the short form of his previous version of the Office of 1548. In the Office of Baptism all mention is omitted of the anointing after putting on the chrisom.

These notices of the carelessness of Ales in his version of the Prayer Book of 1549 are more than historical curiosities. The English Book was much altered, as we have seen, in 1552, and was again revised at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign. Then it was determined that the revised book should appear also in Latin. This was done in compliance with a petition of the Universities, that the Act of Uniformity, which allowed Public Service only according to the English Book, should not be strictly applied to the chapels of colleges. Permission was granted by a royal letter” that the Service might be said in such chapels in Latin, provision being also made for an English Service and Communion, at least on festivals. And all ministers were exhorted to use this Latin form privately on those days on which they did not say the public prayers in English in their churches.

The authorship of this Latin version has been given to Walter Haddon.” He was probably editor, or one of the editors;3 but the real basis of the work was the old translation of the Prayer Book of 1549 by Ales. And so little care seems to have been taken to bring the Latin into agreement with the revised English Book, that it has been suspected that this apparent carelessness was intentional, and that, by means of this Latin version, the Universities and public schools, and the clergy in their private devotions, would become reconciled to the observances of the First Book of Edward VI.4

the Prayer
Book (1549).

1 Cardwell, Doc. Ann. L. * See Clay, Eliz. Liturgical Ser.
* Heylin, Hist. Ref 2 Eliz. § 19. vices, Pref. pp. xxi. sqq.
* Collier. Æccl. Hist. VI. 299.

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